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Full text of "The General biographical dictionary: containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts to the present time. New ed., rev. and enl. by Alexander Chalmers"

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JLJESSAIX (Louis CHARLES ANTHONY), a brave French 
general in the revolutionary war, was born August 17, 
1768, at Ayat, in the department of Puy-de-Dome. He 
was educated at the military school of Effiat, and when 
the revolution broke out, refused all advice to emigrate, 
although his principles were inclined to royalty. He re- 
mained at his studies, a stranger to the excesses of the 
factions, and a stranger even to the names by which they 
were designated. Absorbed in his profession, his thoughts 
were occupied solely by military manoeuvres, traits of he- 
roism, and fields of battle. He first entered the foot re- 
giment of Britany, as sub-lieutenant, in 1784 ; but in 
1792, he appeared so intelligent and active, that he be- 
came successively aide-de-camp to generals Broglio and 
Custine. The services \vhich were derived from his pre- 
sence of mind and his counsels, on occasion of the reverses 
experienced at the lines of Weissembourg, induced the 
national commissaries to raise him to the rank of general 
of brigade. In spite of his merit, however, the committee 
of public safety twice made an order for him to be de- 
prived of his command, with which the general in chief 
constantly refused to comply. He was wholly ignorant of 
this fact till a third order arrived to the same effect, at the 
moment when he had gained the admiration of his com- 
rades at the blockade of Landau ; and the whole army op- 
posed the unjust decree, which induced the commissary to 
disregard it. Dessaix commanded the left wing of the 

o . o 

army in the memorable retreat of general Moreau, and had 

2 D E S S A I X. 

his full share in the dangers and laurels of that campaign. 
He returned to defend Kehl for four months against the 
whole force of the archduke ; and under him the army ef- 
fected the passage of the Rhine, in circumstances which 
rendered it as daring an achievement as was ever at- 

After the treaty of Campo Formio, he followed Buona- 
parte into Egypt, and was by him presented with a short 
sword, superbly wrought, on which were inscribed the 
wofds " The taking of Malta ; the battle of Chebreis, the 
battle of the Pyramids." He was charged to reduce 
Upper Egypt, whither the Mamelukes had retired ; here 
he gained several victories; and he acquired a distinction 
more honourable than the triumph of arms, for the inha- 
bitants gave him the title of " The Just Sultan." Re- 
turning from Egypt in consequence of the treaty of El 
Arisch, he was detained by lord Keith, but was at length 
set at liberty. He then repaired to his native country, 
from which he again, with the utmost expedition, joined 
Buonaparte, and arrived just in time to be present at the 
battle of Marengo, the fate of which he turned, and in 
which he fell, June 14, 1800, esteemed by the French 
soldiers, honoured by the Austrians, and loved by all who 
knew him. 

His body was carried to Milan, embalmed there, and 
placed in the hospital of Mount St. Bernard, where a mo- 
nument has been erected to his memory. Dessaix united 
to bravery the most unimpeachable probity, and in all re- 
spects seems to have deserved of his country the additional 
tribute of a superb monument since erected at Paris. On 
this is commemorated the share he had in the battles of 
Landau, Kehl, Weissembourg, Malta, Chebreis, the Py- 
ramids, Sediman, Sammanhout, Kene, Thebes, and Ma- 
rengo. 1 

DESSENIUS (BERNARD), an eminent physician, born 
at Amsterdam in 1510, was sent first to Lou vain, where 
he soon distinguished himself by his acquirements in clas- 
sical literature. Declaring at length for the practice of 
medicine, he went to Bologna, in Italy, and in 1538 he 
took his degree of doctor in that faculty. A vacancy hap- 
pening soon after at Groningen, he accepted the office of 

1 Diet. Hist. Hist, of the French Revolution, quoted in the Month. Rev. 
vol. XLV. N. S. 


professor of the practice of medicine, which he taught with 
reputation for nine years. From thence, invited by Ech- 
tius, professor in medicine there, he went to Cologne, 
where he was admitted member of the college of physi- 
cians, and received a considerable pension from the go- 
vernment. This he retained to the time of his death, in 
1574. He was author of several useful works. His " De 
Compositione Medicamentorum," 1555, fol. contains many 
valuable observations and improvements on the formulae 
used in his time. " De Peste, commentarius, preservatio, 
et curatio," Col. 1564, 4to. He speaks of a leathern, 
jacket, which had passed into the hands of twenty-five 
persons, who had received the infection from it, and been 
destroyed, before the cause was discovered. He wrote 
also in defence of the ancient medicine, and against the 
practice introduced by Paracelsus. 1 

dramatic writer, was born at Tours, in 1680, of a reputable 
family, which he left early in life, apparently from being 
thwarted in his youthful pursuits. This, however, has been 
contradicted ; and it is said that after having passed through 
the rudiments of a literary education at Tours, he went, 
with the full concurrence of his father, to Paris, in order to 
complete his studies ; that being lodged with a bookseller in 
the capital, he fell in love at sixteen with a young person, 
the relation of his landlord, the consequences of which amour 
were such, that young Destouches, afraid to face them, en- 
listed as a common soldier in a regiment under orders for 
Spain ; that he was present at the siege of Barcelona, where 
he narrowly escaped the fate of almost the whole company 
to which he belonged, who were buried under a mine sprung 
by the besieged. What became of him afterwards, to the 
time of his being noticed by the marquis de Puysieulx, is 
not certainly known, but the common opinion was, that he 
had appeared as a player on the stage ; and having for a 
long time dragged his wretchedness from town to town, 
was at length nic'.nager of a company of comedians at So- 
leure, when the marquis de Puysieulx, ambassador from 
France to Switzerland, obtained some knowledge of him 
by means of an harangue which the young actor made him 
at the head of his comrades. The marquis, habituated by 
his diplomatic function to discern and appreciate characters, 

1 Moreri. Foppen Bibl. Belf. Rees's Cyclopaedia. Haller Bibl, Me<I. Pract. 

B 2 


judged that one who could speak so well, was destined by 
nature to something better than the representation of 
French comedies in the centre of Switzerland. He re- 
quested a conference with Destouches, sounded him on 
various topics, and attached him to his person. It was in 
Switzerland that his talent for theatrical productions first 
displayed itself; and his " Curieux Impertinent" was ex- 
hibited there with applause. His dramatic productions 
made him known to the regent, who sent him to London 
in 1717, to assist, in his political capacity, at the nego- 
tiations then on foot, and while resident here, he had a 
singular negociation to manage for cardinal Dubois, to 
whom, indeed, he was indebted for his post. That mi- 
nister directed him to engage king George I. to ask for 
him the archbishopric of Cambray, from the regent duke 
of Orleans. The king, who was treating with the regent 
on affairs of great consequence, and whom it was the in- 
terest of the latter to oblige, could not help viewing this 
request in a ridiculous light. " How !" said he to Des- 
touches, " would you have a protestant prince interfere 
in making a French archbishop ? The regent will only 
laugh at it, and certainly will pay no regard to such an ap- 
plication." " Pardon me, sire," replied Destouches,^" he 
will laugh, indeed, but he will do what you desire." He 
then presented to the king a very pressing letter, ready 
for signature. " With all my heart, then," said the king, 
and signed the letter; and Dubois became archbishop of 
Cambray. He spent seven years in London, married there, 
and returned to his country ; where the dramatist and 
negociator were well received. The regent had a just 
sense of his services, and promised him great things ; but 
dying soon after, left Destouches the meagre comfort of 
reflecting how well he should have been provided for if 
the regent had lived. Having lost his patron, he retired 
to Fortoiseau, near Melun, as the properest situation to 
make him forget the caprices of fortune. He purchased 
the place ; and cultivating agriculture, philosophy, and 
the muses, abode there as long as he lived. Cardinal 
Fleury would fain have sent him ambassador to Petersburg; 
but Destouches chose rather to attend his lands and his 
woods, to correct with his pen the manners of his own 
countrymen ; and to write, which he did with considerable 
effect, against the infidels of France. He died in 1754, 

' O 

leaving a daughter and a son j the latter, by order of 


Lewis XV. published at the Louvre an edition of his father's 
works, in 4 vols. 4to. had not the gaiety of 
Regnard, nor the strong warm colouring of Moliere ; but 
he is always polite, tender, and natural, and has been 
thought worthy of ranking next to these authors. He de- 
serves more praise by surpassing them in the morality and 
decorum of his pieces, and he had also the art of attaining 
the pathetic without losing the vis comica, which is the 
essential character of this species of composition. In the 
various connections of domestic life, he maintained a truly 
respectable character, and in early life he gave evidence 
of his filial duty, by sending 40,000 livres out of his savings 
to his father, who was burthened with a large family. 1 

DEVARIUS (MATTHEW), a learned Greek scholar of 
the sixteenth century, was born in the island of Corfou, of 
a catholic family. At the age of eight he was taken to 
Rome by John Lascaris, and placed with other eastern 
youths in the Greek college, which had been just es- 
tablished. Having made great progress in this language, 
cardinal Rodolphi gave him the care of his library, which 
office he held for fifteen years, and in that time he com- 
piled an index to Eustathius's commentary on Homer, for 
which pope Paul III. gave him a pension ; and Paul IV. 
who continued this pension, made him corrector of the 
Greek MSS. in the Vatican. On the death of cardinal 
Rodolphi, Marc -Antony Colonna, who was afterwards 
cardinal, became scholar to Devarius for three years in 
the Greek language. He was afterwards patronized by 
the cardinal Farnese ; and died in his service, about the 
end of the sixteenth century, in the seventieth year of his 
age. By order of pope Pius V. he translated the cate- 
chism of the council of Trent into Greek ; but the work 
for which he is best known is entitled " De Particulis 
Graecae linguae liber particularis," of which there have 
been many editions, the first published by his nephew, 
Peter Devarius, at Rome, in 1558, 4to, and reprinted at 
London, 1657, 12mo ; Amsterdam, 1700 and 1718, &c. &c. 3 
DEVAUX (JoiiN), an eminent surgeon of Paris, in 
which city he was born January 27, 1649, was the son of 
John Devaux, a man of eminence in the same profession. 
He became provost and warden of the surgeons' company, 

1 Eloge by d'Alembert. Diet. Hist. 

- Moreri. Morhof Polyhist, Fabric. Sibl. Grsec. Saxii Onomast, 

D E V A U X. 

and was universally esteemed for his skill and his writings. 
He died May 2, 1729, at Paris. His works are, " Le 
Medecin de soi meme," 12mo. ; " L'art de faire des rap- 
ports en Chirurgie," 12mo; "Index funereus Chirurgo- 
rum Parisiensium, ab anno 1315 ad annum 1714," 12mo, 
with several others ; and translations of many excellent 
works on physic and surgery, particularly Allen's " Syn- 
opsis Medicinae practices," Harris's " De morbis infantum," 
Cockburne ** De Gonorrhasa;" Freind's " Emmenologia," 
&c. &C. 1 

DEVENTER (HENRY), a celebrated man-midwife, was 
born at Deventer, in the province of Over-Yssel, in Hol- 
land, towards the end of the seventeenth century. Though 
skilled in every branch of medicine, and honoured with 
the dignity of doctor in that faculty, he was principally 
employed in surgery, and in the latter part of his lite he 
almost entirely confined himself to the practice of mid- 
wifery, in which art he made considerable improvements. 
He acquired also no small share of fame by his various me- 
chanical inventions for assisting in preventing and curing 
deformities of the body in young subjects. In that ca- 
pacity he was repeatedly sent for to Denmark, whence he 
drew a considerable revenue. His knowledge of me- 
chanics did not, however, prevent his observing that much 
mischief was done by the too frequent use of instruments 
in midwifery ; and he introduced such improvements in 
the art, as gave him a decided preference over Mauriceau, 
his almost immediate precursor. Satisfied with the prin- 
ciples on which his practice was founded, he published in 
1701, " Operationes Chirurgicse novum lumen exhibentes 
obstetricantibus," Leyden, 4to, which had been published 
in 169h, in his native language. This was followed by a 
second part, in 1724, 4to, " Ulterius examen partuum 
difficilium, Lapis Lydius obstetricum, et de necessaria ca- 
daverum incisione." The two parts were published to- 
gether, much improved, in 1733, but the work had already 
been translated and published in most of the countries in 
Europe. How long the author continued to live after the 
publication of this improved edition is not known. 

He had often, he says, been required to let the world 
know, by advertisement, what kind of defects in the form 
of the body he was able to cure or relieve, but had not 

i Moreri, 


thought it expedient to do so ; these he has enumerated 
and described at the end of the work. They are twenty- 
two in number; among them are the following : when the 
head, from a contraction of the tendons, fell on one of the 
shoulders, he enabled the party to hold his head erect. 
On the other hand, when a child came into the world club- 
footed, so that it could only touch the ground with its 
ancles, he completely, he says, cured the defect, and he 
was so sure of his principles, that he required no part of 
his stipulated pay until the cure was effected. Some time 
after his death, viz. in 1739, a posthumous work was pub- 
lished on the rickets, in his native language. Haller speaks 
favourably of it, and has given a brief analysis of its con- 
tents, by which it appears to contain some useful practical 
observations. * 

DEVEREUX (WALTER), the first earl of Essex of this 
name and family, a general equally distinguished for 'his 
courage and conduct, and a nobleman not more illustrious 
by his titles than by his birth, was descended from a most 
ancient and noble farrr!",, being the son of sir Richard De- 
vereux, knight, by Do 'thy, daughter of George earl of 
Huntingdon, and gra.idson of Walter viscount of Hereford, 
so created by king E- .vard the Sixth. He was b'.;m about 
1540, at his grandfatner's castle in Carmarthenshire, and 
during his education applied himself to his studies with 
great diligence and success. He succeeded to the titles of 
viscount Hereford and lord Ferrers of Chartley, in the 
nineteenth year of his age, and being early distinguished 
for his modesty, learning, and loyalty, stood in higii favour 
with his sovereign, queen Elizabeth. In 1569, upon the 
breaking out of the rebellion in the north, under the earls 
of Northumberland and Westmoreland, he raised a con- 
siderable body of forces, which joining those belonging to 
the lord admiral and the earl of Lincoln, he was declared 
marshal of the army, and obliged the rebels to disperse. 
This so highly recommended him to the queen, that in 
1572 she honoured him with the garter, and on the 4th of 
May, the same year, created him earl of Essex, as being 
descended by his great grandmother from the noble 
family of Bourchier, long before honoured with the same 
title. In the month of January following, he was one of 
the peers that sat in judgment upon the duke of Norfolk. 

1 Diet. Hist. Rees's Cyclopedia. Haller Bibl. Chir. 


At this time he was such a favourite with the queen, that 
some, who were for confining her good graces to them- 
selves, endeavoured to remove him. by encouraging an in- 
clination he shewed to adventure both his person and for- 
tune for her majesty's service in Ireland. Accordingly, on 
the 16th of August, 1573, he embarked at Liverpool, accom- 
panied by lord Darcy, lord Rich, and many other persons of 
distinction, together with a multitude of volunteers, who 
were incited by the hopes of preferment, and his lordship's 
known reputation. His reception in Ireland was not very 
auspicious ; landing at Knockfergus on the J 6th of Sep- 
tember, he found the chiefs of the rebels inclined appa- 
rently to submit ; but having gained time, they broke out 
again into open rebellion. Lord Rich was called away by 
his own affairs, and by degrees, most of those who went 
abroad with the earl, came home again upon a variety of 
pretences. In this situation Essex desired the queen to 
carry on the service in her own name, and by her own 
command, though he should be at one half of the expence. 
Afterwards he applied to the earls of Sussex and Leicester, 
and the lord Burleigh, to induce the queen to pay one 
hundred horse and six hundred foot ; which, however, did 
not take effect ; but the queen, perceiving the slight 
put upon him, and that the lord deputy had delayed send- 
ing him his commission, was inclined to recal him out of 
Ulster, if Leicester and others, who had promoted his re- 
moval, had not dissuaded her. The lord deputy, at last, 
in 1574, sent him his patent, but with positive orders to 
pursue the earl of Desmond oneway, while himself pressed 
him another. The earl of Essex reluctantly obeyed, and 
either forced or persuaded the earl of Desmond to submis- 
sion ; and it is highly probable, would have performed 
more essential service, if he had not been thwarted. The 
same misfortune attended his subsequent attempts ; and, 
excepting the zeal of his attendants, the affection of the 
English soldiers, and the esteem of the native Irish, he 
gained nothing by all his pains. Worn out at length 
with these fruitless fatigues, he, the next year, desired 
leave to conclude upon honourable terms an accommoda- 
tion with Turlough Oneile, which was refused him. He 
then surrendered the government of Ulster into the lord 
deputy's hands, believing the forces allowed him alto- 
gether insufficient for its defence ; but the lord deputy 
obliged him to resume it, and to majrch against Turlough, 


Oneile, which he accordingly did ; and his enterprize 
"being in a fair way of succeeding, he was surprized to re- 
ceive instructions, which peremptorily required him to 
make peace. This likewise he concluded, without loss of 
honour, and then turned his arms against the Scots from 
the western islands, who had invaded and taken possession, 
of his country. These he quickly drove out, and, by the 
help of Norris, followed them into one of their islands ; 
and was preparing to dispossess them of other posts, when 
he was required to give up his command, and afterwards 
to serve at the head of a small body of three hundred men, 
with no other title than their captain. All this he owed to 
Leicester; but, notwithstanding his chagrin, be continued 
to perform his duty, without any shew of resentment, out 
of respect to the queen's service. In the spring of the 
succeeding year he came over to England, and did not he- 
sitate to express his indignation against the all-powerful 
favourite, for the usage he had met xvith. But as it was 
the custom of that great man to debase his enemies by 
exalting them, so he procured an order for the earl of Es- 
sex's return into Ireland, with the sounding title of earl -mar- 
shal of that kingdom, and with promises that he should be left 
more at liberty than in times past; but, upon his arrival 
at Ireland, he found his situation so Uttle altered for the 
better, that he pined away with grief and sorrow, which at 
length proved fatal to him, and brought him to his 
end. There is nothing more certain, either from the 
public histories, or private memoirs and letters, of that age, 
than the excellent character of this noble earl, as a 
brave soldier, a loyal subject, and a disinterested patriot ; 
and in private life he was of a chearful temper, kind, af- 
fectionate, and beneficent to all who were about him. He 
was taken ill of a flux on the 21st of August, and in great 
pain and misery languished to the 22d of September, 
1576, when he departed this life at Dublin, being scarcely 
thirty-five years old. There was a very strong report at 
the time, of his being poisoned ; but for this there seems 
little foundation, yet it must have been suspected, as an 
inquiry was immediately made by authority, and sir Henry 
Sidney, then lord deputy of Ireland, wrote very fully upon 
this subject to the privy-council in England, and to one 
of the members of that council in particular. The corpse 
of the earl was speedily brought over to England, carried 
to the place of his nativity, Carmarthen, and buried there 

10 D E V E R E U X. 

with great solemnity, and with most extraordinary i< 
monies of the unfeigned sorrow of all the country round 
about. A funeral sermon was preached on this occasion, 
Nov. 26, 1576, and printed at London 1577, 4to. He 
married Lettice, daughter to sir Frances Knolles, knight 
of the garter, who survived him many years, and whose 
speedy marriage after his death to the earl of Leicester, 
upon whom common fame threw the charge of hastening 
his death, perhaps might encourage that report. By this 
lady he had two sons, Robert and Walter, and two daugh- 
ters, Penelope, first married to Robert lord Rich, and 
then to Charles Blount, earl of Devonshire ; and Dorothy, 
who becoming the widow of sir Thomas Perrot, knight, 
espoused for her second husband Henry Percy earl of 

One important objection only has been brought forward 
against the character of the first earl of Essex, which is 
mentioned by Dr. Leland, in his History of Ireland. The 
story, as literally translated by Mr. O'Connor, from the 
Irish manuscript annals of queen Elizabeth's reign, is as fol- 
lows : " Anno 1574. A solemn peace and concord was 
made between the earl of Essex and Felim O'Nial. How- 
ever, at a feast wherein the earl entertained that chieftain, 
and at the end of their good cheer, O'Nial with his wife 
\vere seized, their friends who attended were put to the 
sword before their faces. Felim, together with his wife 
and brother, were conveyed to Dublin, where they were 
cut up in quarters. This execution gave universal discon- 
tent and horrour." Considering the general character of 
the earl of Essex, we cannot avoid greatly doubting of the 
authenticity of this fact; and indeed, if it was founded 
on truth, it must appear very extraordinary that it should 
not have occurred in any other narrative of the times. 

Mr. Park has allotted this nobleman a place in his ad- 
ditions to the " Royal and Noble Authors," as having writ- 
ten " The Complaint of a Sinner, made and sung by the 
earle of Essex upon his beath-bed in Ireland," printed in 
the " Paradise of dainty Devises," 1576. There is a copy 
of this in the Harleian MSS. 293, with an account of the 
earl's sickness and death, which latter is ascribed to a 
dysentery, without any hint of poison. Besides this, the 
earl wrote a letter to the council, another to the queen, 
and a third to lord Burleigh, all which afford favourable 
proofs of his talents and excellent character. The former 


is inserted in the Biographia Britannica, and the two latter 
in Murden's State Papers. 1 

DEVEREUX (ROBERT), earl of Essex, memorable for 
having been a great favourite, and an unhappy victim to 
the arts of his enemies and his own ambition, m the reign 
of queen Elizabeth, was son of the preceding, and born 
Nov. 10, 1567, at Netherwood, his father's seat in Here- 
fordshire. His father dying when he was only in his 10th 
year, recommended him to the protection of William Cecil 
lord Burleigh, whom he appointed his guardian. Two 
years after, he was sent to the university of Cambridge by 
this lord, who placed him in Trinity college, under the 
care of Dr. Whitgift, then master of it, and afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury. But Mr. Cole, for many reasons, 
is inclined to think that he was placed at Queen's, under 
Dr. Chaderton. He was, however, educated with much 
strictness, and applied himself to learning with great dili- 
gence ; though it is said that, in his tender years, there 
did not appear aoy pregnant signs of that extraordinary 
genius which shone forth in him afterwards. In 1583, he 
took the decree of M. A. and kept his public act, and soon 
after left Cambridge, and retired to his own house at 
Lampsie in South Wales, where he spent some time, and 
became so enamoured of his rural retreut, that he was with 
difficulty prevailed on to quit it. His first appearance at 
court, at least as a candidate for royal favour, was in his 
seventeenth year; and he brought thither a fine person, an 
agreeable behaviour, and an affability which procured him 
many friends. By degrees he so far overcame the reluct- 
ance he first shewed against the earl of Leicester, his fa- 
ther's enemy, and now very strangely his father-in-law, 
that in 1585 he accompanied him to Holland, where we 
find him next year in the field, with the title of general of 
the horse. In this quality he gave the highest proofs of 
personal courage in the battle of Zutphen, fought in 1586; 
and, on his return to England, was made, the year after, 
master of the horse in the room of lord Leicester promoted. 
In 1588, he continued to rise, and indeed almost reached 
the summit of his fortune ; for, when her majesty thought 
fit to assemble an army at Tilbury, for the defence of the 
kingdom against the Spanish invasion, she gave the com- 

1 Biog. Brit Fuller's Worthies. Lloyd's State Worthies. Park's Or- 
ford, vol. II. 


mand of it, under herself, to the earl of Leicester, and 
created the earl of Essex general of the horse. From this 
time he was considered as the favourite declared ; and if 
there was any mark yet wanting to rix the people's opinion 
in that respect, it was shewn by the queen's conferring on 
him the honour of the garter. 

So quick an elevation, and to so great an height, unfortu- 
nately excited an impetuosity of spirit that was natural to the 
earl of Essex, who, among other instances of uncontrouled 
temper, often behaved petulantly to the queen herself t 
who did not admit, while she sometimes provoked, free- 
doms of that kind from her subjects. His eagerness about 
this time to dispute her favour with sir Charles Blunt, af- 
terwards lord Montjoy and earl of Devonshire, ended in a 
duel, in which sir Charles wounded him in the knee. The 
queen, so far from being displeased with it, is said to have 
sworn a good round oath, that it was fit somebody should 
take him down, otherwise there would be no ruling him, 
yet she assisted in reconciling the rivals; who, to their 
honour, continued good friends as long as they lived. la 
1589, sir John Norris and sir Francis Drake having under- 
taken an expedition for restoring don Antonio to the crown 
of Portugal, the earl of Essex, willing to share the glory, 
followed the fleet and army to Spain ; which displeasing 
the queen very bighty, as it was done without her consent 
or knowledge, she sent him the following letter : " Essex, 
your sudden and undutifnl departure from our presence 
and your place of attendance, you may easily conceive 
how offensive it is and ought to be unto us. Our great fa- 
vours, bestowed upon you without deserts, have drawn you. 
thus to neglect and forget your duty ; for other construc- 
tion we cannot make of these your strange actions. Not 
meaning, therefore, to tolerate this your disordered part, 
we gave directions to some of our privy-council, to let you 
know our express pleasure for your immediate repair 
hither, which you have not performed as your duty doth 
bind you, increasing thereby greatly your former offence 
and undutiful behaviour in departing in such sort without 
our privity, having so special office of attendance and 
charge near our person. We do therefore charge and 
command you forthwith, upon the receipt of these our 
letters, all excuses and delays set apart, to make your pre- 
sent and immediate repair nnto us, to understand our far- 
ther pleasure. Whereof see you fail not, as you will be 

D E V E R E U X. 13 

loth to incur our indignation, and will answer for the con- 
trary at your uttermost peril. The 15th of April, 1589." 

At his return, however, he soon recovered her majesty's 
good graces, but again irritated her by a private match 
\ttth Frances, only daughter of sir Francis Walsingham, 
and widow of sir Philip Sidney. This her majesty appre- 
hended to be derogatory to the honour of the house of 
Essex ; and, though for the present, little notice was taken 
of it, yet it is thought that it was not soon forgot. In 1591, 
he went abroad, at the head of some forces, to assist 
Henry IV. of France : which expedition was afterwards 
repeated, but with little or no success. In 1592-3, we 
find him present in the parliament at Westminster, about 
which time the queen made him one of her privy-council. 
He met, however, in this and the succeeding years, with 
various causes of chagrin, partly from the loftiness of his 
own temper, but chiefly from the artifices of those who 
envied his great credit with the queen, and were desirous 
to reduce his power within bounds. Thus a dangerous 
and treasonable book, written abroad by Parsons, a Jesuit, 
and published under the name of Doleman, with a view of 
creating dissension in England about the succession to the 
crown, was dedicated to him, on purpose to make him 
odious ; and it had its effect. But what chiefly soured his 
spirit, was his perceiving plainly, that though he could in 
most suits prevail for himself, yet he was able to do little 
or nothing for his friends. This appeared remarkably in 
the case of sir Francis Bacon, which the earl bore with 
much impatience ; and, resolving that his friend should 
not be neglected, gave him of his own a small estate in 
land. There are indeed few circumstances in the life of 
this noble person, that do greater honour to his memory, 
than his patronage of men of parts and learning. It was 
this regard for genius which induced him to bury the im- 
mortal Spenser at his own expence ; and in the latter part 
of his life, engaged him to take the learned sir Henry 
Wotton, and the ingenious Mr. Cuffe, into his service : as 
in his earlier days he had admitted the incomparable bro- 
thers, Anthony and Francis Bacon, to share his fortunes 
and his cares. 

But whatever disadvantages the earl might labour under 
from* intrigues at court, the queen had commonly recourse 
to his assistance in all dangers and difficulties, and placed 
him at the head of her fleets and armies, preferably to any 


other person. His enemies, on the other hand, were con- 
triving and exerting all they could against him, by insinu- 
ating to the queen, that, considering his popularity, it 
would not be at all expedient for her service to receive 
such as he recommended to civil employments; and they 
carried this so far, as even to make his approbation a suffi- 
cient objection to men whom they had encouraged and 
recommended themselves. In 1598, a warm dispute arose 
in the council, between the old and wise lord -treasurer 
Burleigh and the earl of Essex, about continuing the war 
with Spain. The earl was for it, the treasurer against it; 
who at length grew into a great heat, and told the earl that 
he seemed intent upon nothing but blood and slaughter. 
The earl explained himself, and said, that the blood and 
slaughter of the queen's enemies might be very lawfully 
his intention ; that he was not against a solid, but a spe- 
cious and precarious peace ; that the Spaniards were a 
subtle and ambitious people, who had contrived to do Eng- 
land more mischief in the time of peace, than of war, &c. 
The treasurer at last drew out a Prayer-book, in which he 
shewed Essex this expression : " Men of blood shall not 
live out half their days." As the earl knew that methods 
would be used to prejudice him with the people of Eng- 
land, especially the trading part, who would easily be per- 
suaded to think themselves oppressed by taxes levied for 
the support of the war, he resolved to vindicate his pro- 
ceedings, and for that purpose drew up in writing his own 
arguments, which he addressed to his dear friend Anthony 
Bacon. This apology stole into the world not long after it 
was written ; and the queen, it is said, was exceedingly 
offended at it. The title of it runs thus : " To Mr. An- 
thony Bacon, an Apologie of the Earle of Essexe, against 
those which falselie and maliciouslie take him to be the 
only hindrance of the peace and quiet of his countrie." 
This was reprinted in 1729, under the title of "The Earl 
of Essex's vindication of the war with Spain," in Svo. 

About this time died the treasurer Burleigh, which was 
a great misfortune to the earl of Essex ; for that lord hav- 
ing shewn a tenderness for the earl's person, and a concern 
for his fortunes, had many a time stood between him and 
his enemies. But now, this guardian being gone, they 
acted without any restraint, crossed whatever he proposed, 
stopped the rise of every man he loved, and treated all his 
projects with an air of contempt. He succeeded lord 


Burleigh as chancellor of the university of Cambridge ; 
and, going down, was there entertained with great mag- 
nificence*. This is reckoned one of the last instances of 
this great man's felicity, who was now advanced too high 
to sit at ease ; and those who longed for his honours and 
employments, very closely applied themselves to bring 
about his fall. The first great shock he received came 
from the queen herself, and arose from a warm dispute 
with her majesty about the choice of some fit and able per- 
son to superintend the affairs of Ireland. Camden tells 
us, that there were only present on this remarkable occa- 
sion, the lord admiral, sir Robert Cecil, secretary; and 
"Windebanke, clerk of the seal. The queen considered 
sir William Knolls, uncle to Essex, as the most proper 
person for that charge : Essex contended, that sir George 
Carew was a much fitter man for it. When the queen 
could not be persuaded to approve his choice, he so far 
forgot himself and his duty, as to turn his back upon her in 
a contemptuous manner ; which insolence her majesty not 
being able to bear, gave him a box on the ear, and, some- 
what in her father's language, bid him " go and be hanged.'* 
He immediately clapped his hand on his sword, and the 
lord admiral stepping in between, he swore a great oath, 
declaring that he neither could nor would put up an affront 
of that nature ; that he would not have taken it at the 
hands of Henry VIII. and in a great passion immediately 
withdrew from court. The lord keeper advised him to 
apply himself to the queen for pardon. He sent the lord 
keeper his answer in a long and passionate letter, which 
his friends afterwards unadvisedly communicated; in 
which he appealed from the queen to God Almighty, in 
expressions to this purpose : " That there was no tempest 
so boisterous as the resentment of an angry prince ; that 

* When Essex was no more than cellor, supported by that of archbishop 

twenty-one years of age, he was com- Whitgift, carried the election against 

petitor with the lord chancellor Hatton him. He was again disappointed iu 

for -he chancellorship of the university a similar attempt, which he made at 

of Oxford, which had become vacant the latter end of the year 1591, upon 

by the Heath of the earl of Leicester, the death of sir Christopher Hatton. 

pn thtr 4th of September, 1588. Into On this occasion, a majority of the 

this university our young earl had electors would have declared in his 

leen incorporated master of arts in the favour, had they not been influenced by 

preceding April. He did not succeed the authority of the queen, who recom- 

in the contest ; for being generally mended by letters Thomas Sackville, 

considered as a patron of the puritan lord Buckhurst, and he was accordingly 

parly, as his deceased father-in-law chosen, 
had been, the interest of the lord chan- 


the queen was of a flinty temper ; that he well enough knew 
what was due from him as a subject, an earl, and grand 
marshal of England, but did not understand the office of a 
drudge or a porter ; that to own himself a criminal was to 
injure truth, and the author of it, God Almighty : that his 
body suffered in every part of it by that blow given by his 
prince ; and that it would be a crime in him to serve a 
queen who had given him so great an affront." He was 
afterwards reconciled and restored in appearance to the 
queen's favour, yet there is good reason to doubt whether 
he ever recovered it in reality : and his friends have ge- 
nerally dated his ruin from this singular dispute *. 

The ear) met with nothing in Ireland but disappoint- 
ments, in the midst of which, an army was suddenly raised 
in England, under the command of the earl of Nottingham ; 
nobody well knowing why, but in reality from the sugges- 
tions of the earl's enemies to the queen, that he rather me- 
ditated an invasion on his native country, than the reduc- 
tion of the Irish rebels. This and other considerations 
made him resolve to quit his post, and come over to Eng- 

* The total reduction of Ireland be- 
ing brought upou the tapis soon after, 
the earl was pitched upon as the only 
man from whom it could be expected ; 
an artful contrivance of his enemies, 
who hoped by this means to ruin himj 
nor were their expectations disappoint- 
ed, lie declined this fatal preferment 
as long as he could ; but, perceiving 
that he should have 'no quiet at home, 
be accepted it, and his commission for 
loid lieutenant passed the great seal in 
March 15P8. His enemies now began 
to insinuate, that he had sought this 
command for the sake of greater things 
which he then was meditating; but 
there is a letter of his to the queen, 
preserved in the Harleian collection, 
which shews, that he was so far from 
entering upon it with alacrity, that he 
looked upon it rather as a banishment, 
and a place assigned him for a retreat 
from his sovereign's displeasure, than a 
potent government bestowed upon him 
by her favour: " To the queen. From 
a mind delighting in sorrow, from spi- 
rits wasted with passion, from a heart 
torn in pieces with care, grief, and 
travel, from a man that hateth him- 
self, and all things else that keep him 
alive, what service can your majesty 
expect, since any service past deserves 

no more than banishment and pro- 
scription to the cursedest of all is-lnnds? 
It is your rebels' pride and succession 
must give me leave to ransom myself 
out of this hateful prison, out of my 
loathed body ; which, if it happened 
so, your majesty shall have no cause 
to mislike the fashion of my death, 
since the course of my life could never 
please you. 

'' Happy he could finish forth his fate, 
In some unhaunted desert most obscure 

From all society, from love and hate 
Of worldly folk ; then should he sleep 

Then wake again, and yield God 

ever praise. 
Content with hips, and hawes, and 

bramble-berry ; 
In contemplation passing out his 


And change of holy thoughts to make 
him merry. 

Who when he dies, his tomb may be 

a bush, 
Where harmless robin dwells wilh 

gentle thrush. 

Your majesty's exiled servant, 


land ; which he accordingly did, and presented himself 
before the queen. He met with a tolerable reception ; 
but was soon after confined, examined, and dismissed from 
all his offices, except that of master of the horse. In the 
summer of" 1600, he recovered his liberty; and in the 
autumn following, he received Mr. Cuffe, who had been 
his secretary in Ireland (See CUFFE), into his councils. 
Cuffe, who was a man of his own disposition, laboured to 
persuade him, that submission would never do him any 
good ; that the queen was in the hands of a faction, who 
were his enemies ; and that the only way to restore his 
fortune was to obtain an audience, by whatever means he 
could, in order to represent his case. The earl did not 
consent at first to this dangerous advice; but afterwards, 
giving a loose to his passion, began to declare himself 
openly, and among other fatal expressions let fall this, 
that " the queen grew old and cankered ; and that her 
mind was become as crooked as her carcase." His ene- 
mies, who had exact intelligence of all that he proposed, 
and had provided effectually against the execution of his 
designs, hurried him upon his fate by a message, sent on 
the evening of Feb. 7, requiring him to attend the council, 
which he declined. This appears to have unmanned him, 
and in his distraction of mind, he gave out, that they sought 
his life ; kept a watch in Essex-house all night; and sum- 
moned his friends for his defence the next morning. Many 
disputes ensued, and some blood was spilt ; but the earl 
at last surrendered, and was carried that night to the arch- 
bishop's palace at Lambeth, and the next day to the 
Tower. On the 19th, he was arraigned before his peers, 
and after a long trial was sentenced to lose his head : upon 
which melancholy occasion he said nothing more than this, 
viz. " If her majesty had pleased, this body of mine might 
have done her better service ; however, I shall be glad if it 
may prove serviceable to her any way." He was executed 
upon the 25th, in his thirty-fourth year, leaving behind 
him one only son and two daughters. As to his person, he 
is reported to have been tall, but not very well made; his 
countenance reserved ; his air rather martial than courtly ; 
very careless in dress, and a little addicted to trifling di- 
versions, He was learned, and a lover of learned men, 
whom he always encouraged and rewarded. He was sin- 
cere in his friendships, but not so careful as he ought to 
have been in making a right choice ; sound in h\s morals, 

18 D E V E R E U X. 

except in point of gallantry, and thoroughly well affected 
to the protestant religion. Historians inform us, that as 
to his execution, the queen remained irresolute to the very 
.last, and sent sir Edward Carey to countermand it ; but, 
as Camden says, considering afterwards his obstinacy in 
refusing to ask her pardon, she countermanded those or- 
ders, and directed that he should die. There is an odd 
story current in the world about a ring, which the che- 
valier Louis Aubrey de Mourier, many years the French 
minister in Holland, and a man of great parts and unsus- 
pected credit, delivers as an undoubted truth ; and that 
upon the authority of an English minister, who might be 
well presumed to know what he said. As the incident is 
remarkable, and has made much noise, we will report it 
in the words of that historian : " It will not, I believe, be 
thought either impertinent or disagreeable to add here, 
what prince Maurice had from the mouth of Mr. Carleton, 
ambassador of England in Holland, who died secretary of 
state ; so well known under the name of lord Dorchester, 
ad who was a man of great merit. He said, that queen 
Elizabeth gave the earl of Essex a ring, in the height of 
her passion for him, ordering him to keep it ; and that 
whatever he should commit, she would pardon him when 
he should return that pledge. Since that time the earl's 
enemies having prevailed with the queen, who, besides, 
was exasperated against him for the contempt he had 
shewed her beauty, now through age upon the decay, she 
caused him to be impeached. When he was condemned, 
she expected to receive from him the ring, and would have 
granted him his pardon according to her promise. The 
earl, finding himself in the last extremity, applied to ad- 
miral Howard's lady, who was his relation ; and desired 
her, by a person she could trust, to deliver the ring into 
the queen's own hands. But her husband, who was one of 
the earl's greatest enemies, and to whom she told this im- 
prudently, would not suffer her to acquit herself of the 
commission ; so that the queen consented to the earl's 
death, being full of indignation against so proud and 
haughty a spirit, who chose rather to die than implore her 
mercy. Some time after, the admiral's lady fell sick ; 
and, being given over by her physicians, she sent word to 
the queen that she had something of great consequence to 
tell her before she died. The queen came to her bed- 
Bide i and having ordered all her attendants to withdraw, 


the admiral's lady returned her, but too late, that ring 
from the earl of Essex, desiring to be excused for not 
having returned it sooner, since her husband had pre- 
vented her. The queen retired immediately, overwhelmed 
with the utmost grief; she sighed continually for a fort- 
night, without taking any nourishment, lying in bed en- 
tirely dressed, and getting up an hundred times a night. 
At last she died with hunger and with grief, because she 
had consented to the death of a lover who had applied to 
her for mercy." Histoire de Hollancle, p. 215, 216. 

This account has commonly been treated as a fable ; 
but late discoveries seem to have confirmed it. See the 
proofs of this remarkable fact, collected in Birch's Nego- 
ciations, &c. p. 206, and Hume's History, at the end of 
Elizabeth's reign. 

Lord Orford has entered into a long disquisition on the 
proofs of queen Elizabeth's love for the earl of Essex, and 
certainly proves that she had a more than ordinary attach- 
ment to him, although in some of the circumstances it ap 
pears to savour more of the fondness of a capricious mo- 
ther, than of a mistress. His lordship has done wiser in 
having placed the earl of Essex among the noble authors of 
England. The various pieces enumerated by lord Orford 
justly entitle him to that distinction; and he has a farther 
claim to it from the numerous letters of his which occur in 
the different collections of state papers, and especially in 
Birch's "Memoirs of the Reign of queen Elizabeth." " But 
of all his compositions," says Mr. Walpole, " the most ex- 
cellent, arid in many respects equal to the performances 
of the greatest geniuses, is a long letter to the queen 
from Ireland, stating the situation of that country in a 
most masterly manner, both as a general and statesman, 
and concluding with strains of the tenderest eloquence, on 
finding himself so unhappily exposed to the artifice of his 
enemies during his absence. It cannot fail to excite ad- 
miration, that a man ravished from all improvement and 
reflection at the age of seventeen, to be nursed, perverted, 
fondled, dazzled in a court, should, notwithstanding, have 
snatched such opportunities of cultivating his mind and 
understanding :'' In another letter from Ireland, he say 
movingly, " 1 provided for this service a breast-plate, but 
not a cuirass ; that is, I am armed on the breast, but not 
On the back." 

It has been surmised that the earl of Essex used the pen, 

e 2 


first, of Francis Bacon, and afterwards of Cuffe. Speak- 
ing of Bacon, Dr. Birch observes, that it is certain that 
Essex did not want any such assistance, and could not 
have had it upon many and most important occasions, 
which required him to write' some of the most finished of 
his epistolary performances, the style of which is not only 
very different from, but likewise much more natural, easy, 
and perspicuous than that of his friend, who acknowledges 
it to be " far better than his own." With regard to Cuffe, 
Mr. Walpole remarks, that he might have some hand in 
collecting the materials relative to business, but that there 
runs through all the earl's letters a peculiarity of style, so 
adapted to his situation and feelings, as could not have 
been felt for him or dictated by any body else. 

It was as a prose-writer that the earl of Essex excelled, 
and not as a poet. He is said to have translated one of Ovid's 
Epistles; and a few of his sonnets are preserved in the 
Ashmolean museum. They display, however, no marks 
of poetic genius. " But if Essex," says Mr. Warton, " was 
no poet, few noblemen of his age were more courted by 
poets. From Spenser to the lowest rhymer he was the sub- 
ject of numerous sonnets, or popular ballads. I will not 
except Sydney. I could produce evidence to prove, that 
he scarcely ever went out of England, or even left London, 
on the most frivolous enterprize, without a pastoral in his 
praise, or a panegyric in metre, which were sold and sung 
in the streets. Having interested himself in the fashionable 
poetry of the times, he was placed high in the ideal Ar- 
cadia now just established ; and, among other instances 
which might be brought, on his return from Portugal in 
1589 he was complimented with a poem called "An Egloge 
gratulatorie entituled to the right honorable and renowned 
shepherd of Albion's Arcadia, Robert earl of Essex, and 
for his returne lately into England." This is a light in 
which lord Essex is seldom viewed. I know not if the 
queen's fatal partiality, or his own inherent attractions, 
his love of literature, his heroism, integrity, and genero- 
sity, qualities which abundantly overbalance his presump- 
tion, his vanity, and impetuosity, had the greater share 
in dictating these praises. If adulation were any where 
justifiable, it must be when paid to the man who endea- 
voured to save Spenser from starving in the streets of 
Dublin, and who buried him in Westminster-abbey with 


becoming solemnity. Spenser was persecuted by Burleigh 
because he was patronised by Essex." 

No small degree of popularity has always adhered to the 
character and memory of the earl of Essex. A strong 
proof of this is his having been the subject of four different 
tragedies. We refer to the " Unhappy favourite," by 
John Banks ; the " Fall of the Earl of Essex," by James 
Ralph ; the " Earl of Essex," by Henry Jones ; and the 
" Earl of Essex," by Henry Brooke. ' 

DEVEREUX (ROBERT), son to the former, and third 
earl of Essex, was born in 1592, at Essex-house, in the 
Strand ; and at the time of his father's unhappy death, 
was under the care of his grandmother, by whom he was sent 
to Eton school, where he was first educated. In the month 
of January 1602, he was entered a gentleman-commoner 
of Merton- college, Oxford, where he had an apartment 
in the warden's lodgings, then Mr. Savile, afterwards the 
celebrated sir Henry Savile, his father's dear friend, and 
who, for his sake, was exceedingly careful in seeing that 
he was learnedly and religiously educated. The year fol- 
lowing, he was restored to his hereditary honours ; and in 
1605, when king James visited the university of Oxford, 
our young earl of Essex was created M. A. on the 30th of 
August, for the first tirne, which very probably he had 
forgotten, or he would not have received the same honour 
above thirty years afterwards. He was already in posses- 
sion of his father's high spirit, of which he gave a suffi- 
cient indication in a quarrel which he had with prince 
Henry. Some dispute arose between them at a game at 
tennis ; the prince called his companion the son of a trai- 
tor; who retaliated by giving him a severe blow with his 
racket ; and the king was obliged to interfere to restore 
peace. At the age of fourteen, he was betrothed to lady 
Frances Howard, who was still younger than himself; but 
he immediately set out on his travels, and during his ab- 
sence the affections of his young wife were estranged from 
him, and fixed upon the king's favourite, Carr, afterwards 
earl of Somerset. The consequence was a suit instituted 
against the husband for impotency, in which, to the dis- 
grace of the age, the king interfered, and which ended in 

1 Biog 1 . Brit. Birch's Memoirs of queen Elizabeth. Hume's and other 
histories of England. Mark's edition of the Royal and Noble Authors. Seward's 
Anecdotes and Biographiana. Ellis's Specimens, &c. 


a divorce. The earl of Essex, feeling himself disgraced 
by the sentence, retired to his country seat, and spent 
some years in rural sports and amusements. In 120, being 
wearied of a state of inaction, he joined the earl of Ox- 
ford in a military expedition to the Palatinate, where they 
served with companies of their own raising, under sir Ho- 
ratio Vere, and in the following year they served in Hol- 
land, under prince Maurice, In the course of the winter 
they returned to England, and lord Essex appeared in the 
ranks of the opposition in parliament. On this account he 
was not favourably received at court, which was the mean 
of attaching him the more closely to foreign service. He 
commanded a regiment raised in England for the United 
States in 1624, and though nothing very important was 
atchieved by the English auxiliaries, yet he acquired ex- 
perience, and distinguished himself among the nobility of 
the time. On the accession of Charles I. he was employed 
as vice-admiral in an expedition against Spain, which proved 
unsuccessful. In 1626, he made another campaign in the 
Low Countries, and shortly after he formed another un- 
happy match, by marrying the daughter of sir William 
Paulet, from whom, owing to her misconduct, he was di- 
vorced within two years. He now resolved to give him- 
self up entirely to public life ; he courted popularity, and 
made friends among the officers of the army and the pu- 
ritan ministers. He was, however, employed by the king 
in various important services; but when the king and court 
left the metropolis, lord Essex pleaded in excuse his obli- 
gation to attend in his place as a peer of the realm, and was 
accordingly deprived of all his employments ; a step which 
alone seemed wanting to fix him in opposition to the king; 
and in July 1642 he accepted the post of general of the 
parliamentary army. He opposed the king in person at 
Edge-hill, where the victory was so indecisive, that each 
party claimed it as his own. After this he was successful 
in some few instances, but in other important trusts he did 
little to recommend him to the persons in whose interests 
he was employed. He was, however, treated with ex- 
ternal respect, until the self-denying ordinance threw him 
entirely out of the command : he resigned his commission, 
but not without visible marks of discontent. Unwilling to 
lose him altogether, the parliament voted that he should 
be raised to a dukedom, and be allowed 10,000/. per an- 
num, to support his new dignity j but these were 


vented by a sudden death, which, as in the case of his 
grandfather, was by some attributed to unfair means. He 
died September 14, 1646. Parliament directed a pub- 
lic funeral for him, which was performed with great 
solemnity in the following month, at Westminster abbey. 
In his conduct, the particulars of which may be seen in 
the history of the times, a want of steadiness is to be dis- 
covered, which candour would refer to the extraordinary 
circumstances in which public men were then placed. 
Personal affronts at court, whether provoked or not, led 
him to go a certain length with those who, he did not per- 
ceive, wanted to go much farther, and although he ap- 
peared in arms against his sovereign, no party was pleased 
with his efforts to preserve a balance ; yet, with all his 
er/ors, Hume and other historians, not friendly to the re- 
publican cause, have considered his death as a public 
misfortune. Hume says, that fully sensible of the excesses 
to which affairs had been carried, and of the worse conse- 
quences which were still to be apprehended, he had re- 
solved to conciliate a peace, and to remedy as far as pos- 
sible all those ills to which, from mistake rather than any 
bad intention, he had himself so much contributed. The 
presbyterian, or the moderate party among the commons, 
found themselves considerably weakened by his death; and 
the small remains of authority which still adhered to the 
house of peers, were in a manner wholly extinguished. l 

adventurer, of whose private life little is known, and 
whose public history is not of the most reputable kind, re- 
quires, however, some notice, as the author of various 
publications, and an agent in some political transactions 
which once were deemed of importance. He styled himself 
advocate in the parliament of Bourdeaux. The first notice 
of him occurs about 1763, when he had a concern in the 
quarrel between the count de Guerchy, ambassador extra- 
ordinary from the court of France, and the chevalier 
D'Eon, (see D'EoN). About this time D'Eon published a 
letter to the count de Guerchy, by which we learn that 
De Vergy solicited his (D'Eon's) acquaintance, which he 
declined unless he* brought letters of recommendation, 
and that De Vergy, piqued at the refusal, boasted of being 
perfectly well known to the count de Guerchy, which 

1 Biog. Brit. Clarendon's History. Hume, &c. 

24 D E V E R G Y. 

proved to be a falsehood. This produced a quarrel be- 
tween D'Eon and De Vergy, and a pamphlet in answer 
to D'Eon's letter, and another answer under the title of 
" Centre Note." After the more celebrated quarrel be- 
tween de Guerchy and D'Eon, De Vergy published a 
parcel of letters from himself to the due de Cboiseul, in 
which he positively asserts that the count de Guerchy pre- 
vailed with him to come over to England to assassinate 
D'Eon. He even went farther, and before the grand 
jury of Middlesex, made oath to the same effect. Upon 
this deposition, the grand jury found a bill of intended 
murder against the count de Guerchy; which bill, how- 
ever, never came to the petty jury. The king granted 
a noli prosequi in favour of De Guerchy, and the at- 
torney-general was ordered to prosecute De Vergy, with 
the result of which order we are unacquainted ; but it 
is certain that De Vergy, in his last will, confesses his 
concern in a plot against D'Eon, and intimates that he 
withdrew his assistance upon finding that it was in- 
tended to affect the chevalier's life. After the above 
transaction, we find him in 1767, publishing " Lettre 
centre la Raison," or, " A Letter against Reason, ad- 
dressed to the chevalier D'Eon," in which he repeats some 
of the hacknied doctrines of the French philosophical 
school, and professes himself a free-thinker. This was 
followed by a succession of novels, entitled " The Mistakes 
of the Heart;" " The Lovers ;" " Nature ;" " Henriet- 
ta;" "The Scotchman;" and "The Palinode," written 
in remarkably good English, and with much knowledge of 
human nature; but scarcely one of them is free from the 
grossest indelicacies. He wrote also, in 1770, " A De- 
fence of the duke of Cumberland," a wretched catchpenny. 
De Vergy died Oct. J, 1774, aged only forty-two, and 
remained unburied until March, his executor waiting for 
directions from his family. He had desired in his will that 
his relations would remove his body to Bourdeaux, but it 
was at last interred in St. Pancras church-yard. 1 

DEUSINGIUS (ANTHONY), a learned physician, and 
voluminous writer on medicine and natural philosophy, was 
born at Meurs, in the duchy of Juliers, October 16th, 
4612. After studying the classics and the Arabic and 

' Ly%ons's Environs, vol. III. Gent. Ma^. XLIV. where is part of his will. 
Chesterfield's Letters, vol. II. j>. -iSo, 4tt> edit. 

D E U S I N G I U S. 25 

Persian languages, lie went to Leyden, where he com- 
pleted his education by taking the degree of M. D. in 
1634; and three years after was appointed professor in 
mathematics at Meurs. In 1639, he was called to succeed 
Jsaac Pontanus in ttie chair of natural philosophy and ma- 
thematics; and in 1642 to that of medicine, at Hardenvick, 
to which was added the office of physician to the city. 
From Harderwick he went to Groningen, where he was not 
only professor of medicine, but rector of the university, 
and ancient of the church. Amid the business which such 
accumulated duties heaped upon him, he found leisure to 
write a greater number of treatises on the different parts of 
medicine and philosophy than have fallen from the pen. 
of almost any other man. Haller and Manget have given 
a list of fifty-four, but a small number of these are on prac- 
tical subjects, many of them being metaphysical and 
controversial. Those relating to his controversy with Sil- 
vius, are written with great acrimony; though the sub- 
jects, which are mostly physiological, do not seem calcu- 
lated to excite so much rancour as we see infused into 
them. Among these are, " Joannes Cloppenburgius, 
Heautontimorumenos, seu retorsio injuriarum de libello 
falsidico, cui titulus, Res judicata, cumulatarum," 1643, 
4to. The subject of dispute is the nature of the soul, and 
on the intelligences that direct the course of the stars. 


" Canticum Avicennas de Medicina, ex Arab. Lat. reddit.'* 
1649, 4to. " Dissertationes duae, prior de motu cordis 
et sanguinis, altera de lacte ac nutrimento foetus in utero," 
1651, 4to.- In this he defends the circulation of the blood, 
as described by our countryman Harvey. " Synopsis Me- 
dicine universali?," 1649, &c. Deusingius died in the 
winter of 1666, of a pleuritic affection, occasioned by 
taking a long journey, in very severe weather, to visit the 
count of Nassau, to whom he was physician. * 

DEWAILLY (CHARLES), an eminent French architect, 
was born at Paris, Nov. 9, 1729. He was educated by one 
of his uncles, and from his earliest infancy discovered an. 
unconquerable partiality for the study and practice of ar- 
chitecture, in which he afterwards became a great pro- 
ficient. His chief master was Lejay, who at this period 
had just established a new school of the profession, and 

1 Moreri. Haller and Manget. Rees's Cyclopaedia. Foppen Bibl. Belg. 
Nieeron, vol. XXil. 

16 D E W A I L L Y. 

recovered it from the contempt in which it had been held 
from the age of Lewis XIV. In 1752 Dewailly obtained 
the chief architectural prize, and the privilege of studying 
at Rome for three years, at the expence of the nation. 
Upon this success, his biographer notices an action truly 
generous and laudable in the mind of an emulous young 
man. The student to whom the second prize was decreed, 
and whose name was Moreau, appeared extremely sorrow- 
ful. Dewailly interrogated him upon the subject of his 
chagrin ; and learning that it proceeded from his having 
lost the opportunity of prosecuting his profession in Italy, 
he flew to the president of the architectural committee, and 
earnestly solicited permission that his unfortunate rival 
might be allowed to travel to Rome as well as himself. On 
an objection being adduced from the established rules 
" Well, well," replied he, " I yet know a mode of recon- 
ciling every thing. 1 am myself allotted three years ; of 
these I can dispose as I like I give eighteen months of 

I O O 

them to Moreau.*' This generous sacrifice was accepted ; 
and Dewailly was amply rewarded by the public esteem 
which accompanied the transaction. In most of the mo- 
dern buildings of taste and magnificence in his own country, 
Dewailly was a party employed, and many of his designs 
are engraven in the Encyclopedic and in Laborde's De- 
scription of France. He was a member of the academy of 
painting, as well as that of architecture ; in the latter of 
which he was at once admitted into the higher class, with- 
out having, as is customary, passed through the inferior. 
Of the national institute he was a member from its es- 
tablishment. He died in 1799, having been spared the 
affliction of beholding one of his most exquisite pieces of 
workmanship, the magnificent hall of the Odeon, destroyed 
by fire, a catastrophe which occurred but a short time after 
his demise. * 

D'EWES (Sir SYMONDS), an English historian and an- 
tiquary, was the son of Paul D'Eues, esq. and born in 
1602, at Coxden in Dorsetshire, the seat of Richard Sy- 
xnonds, esq. his mother's father. He was descended from 
an ancient family in the Low Countries, from whence his 
ancestors removed hither, and gained a considerable settle- 
ment in the county of Suffolk. In 16 IS, he was entered a 
fellow- commoner of St. John's college in Cambridge ; and 

1 Memoirs of the National Institute. 

D'E W E S. 27 

about two years after, began to collect materials for form- 
ing a correct and complete history of Great Britain. He 
was no less studious in preserving the history of his own 
times ; setting down carefully the best accounts he was 
able to obtain of every memorable transaction, at the time 
it happened. This disposition in a young man of parts 
recommended him to the acquaintance of persons of the 
first rank in the republic of letters, such as Cotton, Seldeiij 
Spelman, &c. In 1626, he married Anne, daughter to sir 
William Clopton of Essex, an exquisite beauty, not four- 
teen years old, with whom he was so sincerely captivated, 
that his passion for her seems to have increased almost to 
a degree of extravagance, even after she was his wife. He 
pursued his studies, however, as usual, with great vigour 
and diligence, and when little more than thirty years of 
age, finished that large and accurate work for which he is 
chiefly memorable. This work he kept by him during his 
life-time ; it being written, as he tells us, for his own pri- 
vate use. It was published afterwards with this title : 
" The Journals of all the Parliaments during the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, both of the House of Lords and House 
of Commons, collected by sir Symonds D'Ewes, of Stow- 
hall in the county of Suffolk, knt. and bart. revised and 
published by Paul Bowes, of the Middle Temple, esq. 
1682," folio. In 16:53, he resided at Islington in Middle- 
sex. In 1639, he served the office of high sheriff of the 
county of Suffolk, having been knighted some time be- 
fore ; and in the long parliament, which was summoned 
to meet Nov. 3, 164-0, he was elected burgess for Sudbury 
in that county. July 15, 1641, he was created a baronet; 
yet upon the breaking out of the civil war, he adhered to 
the parliament, and took the solemn league and covenant 
in 1643. He sat in this parliament till Dec. 1648, when 
he was turned out among those who were thought to have 
some regard left for the person of the king, and the old 
constitution in church and state. He died April 18, 1650, 
and was succeeded in his titles and large estate by his son 
Willoughby D'Ewes; to whom the above Journals were 
dedicated, when published, by his cousin Paul Bowes, 
esq. who was himself a gentleman of worth and learning. 

Though these labours of sir Symonds contributed not a 
little to illustrate the general history of Great Britain, as 
well as to explain the important transactions of one of the 
most glorious reigns in it, yet two or three circumstances 

28 D ' E W E S. 

of his life have occasioned him to have been set by writers 
in perhaps a more disadvantageous light than he deserved ; 
not to mention that general one, common to many others, 
of adhering to the parliament during the rebellion. Hav- 
ing occasion to write to archbishop Usher in 1639, he un- 
fortunately let fall a hint to the prejudice of Camden's 
*' Britannia ;" for, speaking of the time and pains he had 
spent in collecting materials for an accurate history of 
Great Britain, and of his being principally moved to this 
task, by observing the many mistakes of the common 
writers, he adds, " And indeed what can be expected from 
them, considering that, even in the so much admired 
' Britannia' of Camden himself, there is not a page, at 
least hardly a page, without errors r" This letter of his 
afterwards coming to light, among other epistles to that 
learned prelate, drew upon him the heaviest censures. 
Smith, the writer of the Latin life of Camden, assures us, 
that his " Britannia" was universally approved by all 
proper judges, one only, sir Symonds D'Ewes, excepted ; 
who, " moved," says he, " by I know not what spirit of 
envy, gave out that there was scarce a page," &c. Nicol- 
son, in his account of Camden's work, says, that " some 
early attempts were made by an envious person, one Brook 
or Brookmouth, to blast the deservedly great reputation of 
this work : but they perished and came to nothing; as did 
likewise the terrible threats given out by sir Symonds 
D'Ewes, that he would discover errors in every page." 
Bishop Gibson has stated the charge against this gentle- 
man more mildly, in his Life of Camden, prefixed to the 
English translation of his Britannia. " In the year 1607," 
says the bishop, "he put the last hand to his Britannia, 
which gained him the titles of the Varro, Strabo, and Pau- 
sanias of Britain, in the writings and letters of other 
learned men. Nor did it ever after meet with any enemies 
that I know of, only sir Symonds D'Ewes encouraged us 
to hope for animadversions upon the work, after he had 
observed to a very great man, that there was not a page in 
it without a fault. But it was only threatening ; and nei- 
ther the world was the better, nor was Mr. Camden's re- 
putation e'er the worse for it." Sir Symonds was certainly 
not defensible for throwing out at random, as it should 
seem, such a censure against a work universally well re- 
ceived, without ever attempting to support it ; yet some 
have excused him by saying that this censure was contained 

D'E W E S. 29 

in a private letter ; and that sir Symonds had a high sense 
of Camden's merit, whom he mentions very respectfully in 
the preface to his Journals, &c. 

Another thing which hurt his character with some par- 
ticular writers, was a very foolish speech he made in the 
long parliament, Jan. 2, 1640, in support of the antiquity 
of the university of Cambridge. This was afterwards pub- 
lished under the title of " A Speech delivered in parlia- 
ment by Symonds D'Ewes, touching the antiquity of Cam- 
bridge, 1642," 4to, and exposed him to very severe usage 
from Wood, Hearne, &c. as it still must to the contempt of 
every accurate antiquary. Other writers, however, and 
such as cannot be at all suspected of partiality to him, have 
spoken much to his honour. Echard, in his History of 
England, savs, " We shall next mention sir Symonds 
D'Ewes, a gentleman educated at the university of Cam- 
bridge, celebrated for a most curious antiquary, highly es- 
teemed by the great Selden, and particularly remarkable 
for his Journals of all the parliaments in queen Elizabeth's 
reign, and for his admirable MS library he left behind him, 
now in the hands of one of the greatest geniuses of the 
age:" meaning the late earl of Oxford. Some curious 
extracts from the MS journal of his own life (preserved 
among the Harieian MSS.) are printed in the " Bibliotheca 
Topographica Britannica, 1783." In this he has given a 
minute account of his courtship and marriage. The only 
love-letter he had occasion to send, and which was accom- 
panied with a present of a diamond carcanet, was as fol- 
lows : 

" Fairest, 

" Blest is the heart and hand that sincerely sends these 
meaner lines, if another heart and eye gratiouslie daigne 
to pittie the wound of the first, and the numnes of the lat- 
ter : and thus may this other poore inclosed carcanett, if 
not adorn the purer neck, yet be hidden in the private 
cabinet of her, whose humble sweetness and sweet humi- 
lity deserve the justest honour, the greatest thankfulness. 
Nature made stones, but opinion jewels; this, without 
your milder acceptance and opinion, will prove neither 
stone nor jewel. Do but enhappie him that sent it in the 
ordinary use of it, who though unworthie in himself, yet 
resolves to continue your humblest servant, 


30 D ' E W E S. 

That sir Symonds D'Ewes's judgment and taste with 
regard to wit were as contemptible as can well be imagined, 
will be evident from the following passage, taken from his 
account of Carr earl of Somerset, and his wife. " This 
discontent gave many satyrical wits occasion to vent them- 
selves into stingie libels, in which they spared neither the 
persons, families, nor most secret avowtries of that unfor- 
tunate paire. There came alsoe two anagrams to my 
handes, not unworthie to be owned by the rarest witts of 
this age, though the first be resolved into somewhat too 
broad an expression for soe nobly an extracted ladie : 
Frances Howard, Thomas Overburie, 

Car finds a whore. 66 a busi murther." 

In his estimation of the merit of historical composition, 
sir Symonds displayed a far superior discernment. He 
was a passionate admirer of Thuanus's History, anxiously 
applied to the younger Thuanus, to obtain copies of such 
parts of it as had not hitherto been published, and was suc- 
cessful in procuring a picture of that great author, and an- 
other of the famous admiral Coligni. Several of his MS 
collections and correspondence are preserved in the British 
Museum. I 

DEWiT, or DE WIT (JAMES), a painter of history and 
portrait, was born at Amsterdam in 1695, and acquired 
the principles of his art from Albert Spiers, a portrait 
painter. He afterwards became a disciple of Jaques Van 
Halen, an historical painter of considerable reputation j 
under whose instructions he made great improvement, 
particularly by copying some capital paintings of Rubens 
and Vandyke. In 1713, he obtained the first prize in the 
academy, for designing after a living model, and the first 
prize for painting history ; and he became more known by 
sketching several of the ceilings in the Jesuits' church at 
Antwerp, originally painted by Rubens and Vandyke, 
which had been much injured by lightning. He declined 
the painting of portraits, though much solicited to engage 
in this branch of his art, and chiefly restricted himself to 
the painting of ceilings and grand apartments, in which he 
excelled by an elegance of taste, and tolerable correctness 
of design. His most noted work was for the burgo masters 
of Amsterdam, in their great council-chamber j in which 

I Biog. Brit. &c. 

D E W I T. 31 

he chose for his subject Moses appointing the 70 elders, 
and which he executed in a manner highly honourable to 
him as an artist. Without ever having seen Rome, he 
acquired the style of the Italian masters, by studying after 
the finest designs of the best artists of that country, which 
he collected with great judgment and expence. The co- 
louring of Dewit is extremely good, and his compositions 
are grand and pleasing ; his pencil is free, and his touch 
abounds with spirit and brilliancy ; and a better taste of 
design would have rendered him truly eminent. But his 
singular excellence consisted in his imitations of bas-relief 
in stone, wood, or plaster, which he painted both in oil 
and in fresco, so as to give them the appearance of real 
carvings. His sketches, though slight, are much admired 
for their freedom and spirit, and are purchased by persons 
of the best taste. This artist, who died at Amsterdam in 
1754, etched, from his own designs, a set of six small 
plates, representing " groupes of boys," which are exe- 
cuted in a very spirited style; and the " Virgin and Child." 1 
DE WITT (JOHN), the famous pensionary of Holland, 
was the second son of Jacob De Witt, burgomaster of 
Dort, and deputy to the states of Holland ; and born in 
1625. He was educated at Dort, and made so great a 
progress in his studies, that at twenty-three he published 
" Elementa Curvarum Linearum ;" one of the ablest books 
in mathematics that had appeared in those days. After 
he had taken the degree of LL. D. he travelled for some 
years; and, on his return in 1650, became a pensionary 
of Dort, and distinguished himself early in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. He opposed with all his power the 
war between the English and Dutch, representing in strong 
colours the necessary ill consequences of it to the republic : 
and, when the events justified his predictions, gained so 
great credit, that he was unanimously chosen pensionary 
of Holland ; first to officiate provisionally, and afterwards 
absolutely into the office. On this occasion, some of his 
friends, reminding him of the fate of his predecessor Barne- 
velt, he replied, that " human life was liable to trouble 
and danger; and that he thought it honourable to serve 
his country, which he was resolved to do, whatever returns 
he might meet with." The continuance of the war was so 
visibly destructive to the commerce and interest of the 

1 Pilkington. Strutt's Diet, in Wit. 

32 D E W I T T. 

republic, that the pensionary with his friends used all their 
skill to produce a negociation. Ambassadors were sent to 
Cromwell, who by this time had called a new parliament. To 
this assembly the Dutch ministers were directed to apply, 
but quickly found them very different people from those 
with whom they had been accustomed to deal ; for they 
entertained the ambassadors with long prayers, and dis- 
covered a total ignorance f tne business, tellinjj Crom- 

O 7 O 

well, that, if he would assume the supreme authority, they 
might soon come to a right understanding. This was pre- 
cisely what he wanted ; and though he rejected their ad- 
vice in words, declaring himself an humble creature of the 
parliament, yet he soon after found means to get rid of 
them, and took upon him the government under the title 
of protector. He then made a peace with the Dutch ; the 
most remarkable condition of which was, the adding a se- 
cret article for the exclusion of the house of Orange, to 
which the States consented by a solemn act. But the 
article of the exclusion raised a great clamour in Holland : 
it was insinuated to be suggested to Cromwell by De Witt ; 
and the pensionary and his friends found it difficult to carry 
points absolutely necessary for the service of the people. 
The clergy too began to meddle with affairs of state in 
their pulpits ; and, instead of instructing the people how 
to serve God, were for directing their superiors how to 
govern their subjects. But his firmness got the better of 
these difficulties ; and so far overcame all prejudices, that 
when the time of his high office was expired, he was una- 
nimously continued in it, by a resolution of the States, 
Sept. 15, 1663. 

He seemed now to have vanquished even Envy herself. 
In all difficult cases, his ministry was employed : and when 
the prince of East-Friesland quarrelled with his subjects, 
he was put at the head of the deputation to terminate the 
disputes. When war with England, alter the king's resto- 
ration, became necessary, he was one of the deputies that 
prevailed on the states of Guelder and Overyssel to furnish 
their quota : he was appointed one of the commissioners 
for the direction of the navy, and made such vigorous dis- 
positions, that he had a fleet in much better condition, 
and more ready for sea, than the admirals themselves ima- 
gined possible ; though naval affairs were quite new to 
him. When it was thought expedient, after Opdam's 
defeat and death, that some of their own deputies should 

D E W I T T. 3* 

command the fleet, he was one of those three that were 
put in commission. When he came on board, the fleet 
was shut up in the Texel, and, in order to secure the out- 
ward-bound East India fleet, it was necessary for it to put 
to sea ; which, as the wind then stood, the sailors declared 
impossible. It was the received doctrine, that there were 
but 10 points of the compass from which the wind could 
carry ships out, and that 22 were against them. The 
pensionary was alone of another opinion ; and, as he was 
a great mathematician, soon discovered the falsity of this 
notion : he discovered, that there were in reality no less 
than 28 points for them, and but four against them. He 
engaged to carry one of their greatest ships through the 
Spaniard's-gat with the wind at S. S. W. which he per- 
formed Aug. 16, 1665; the greatest part of the fleet fol- 
lowed him without the least accident, and the passage has 
since been called Witt's-diep. They met with a dreadful 
storm on the coast of Norway, which lasted two days : De 
Witt remained upon deck all the time, never changed his 
cloaths, nor took any refreshment, but in common with 
the men ; and, when he saw a want of hands, obliged his 
officers to work by his own example. He wrote a plain 
and accurate relation of all that happened during the ex- 
pedition, and at his return verified every article of this 
account so fully to the States, that they gave him solemn 
thanks for his good services, and offered him a consider- 
able present, which, however, he declined to accept. 

When the famous battle in 1666 was fought between the 
English and Dutch for three days, he was sent by the 
States to take a full account of the affair ; and he drew up 
one from the best authorities he could obtain, which is 
justly esteemed a master-piece in its kind, and a proof of 
his being as capable of recording great actions as of 
achieving them. In 1667, finding a favourable conjunc- 
ture for executing the great design of the warm repub- 
licans, he established the perpetual edict, by which the 
office of stacltholder was for ever abolished, and the liberty 
of Holland, as it was supposed, fixed on an eternal basis. 
In 1672, when the prince of Orange was elected captain 
and admiral-general, he abjured the stadtholdership. A 
tumult happened at Dort, and the people declared they 
would have the prince for stadtholder; to which place he 
came in person on their invitation, and accepted the office. 
Most of the other towns and provinces followed the ex~ 


54 D K W 1 T T. 

ample ; and seditions arose from these pretences, that the 
De Witts plundered the state, and were enemies to the 
house of Orange. The pensionary begged his dismission 
from the post; which was granted, wiih thanks tor his 
faithful services. He did not affect business, when he saw 
it was no longer in his power to benefit the public ; and 
he deplored in secret the misfortunes of his country, which, 
from the highest prosperity, fell, as it were, all at once to 
the very brink of ruin. The invasion of the French, their 
rapid progress, their own intestine divisions, spread every 
where terror and confusion ; and the prince of Orange's 
party heightened these confusions, in order to ruin the De 
Witts. The mob were encouraged to pull down a house, 
in which the pensionary was supposed to lie sick ; an at- 
tempt was made to assassinate the two brothers on the same 
day, in different places ; the count de Monthas, who had 
married their sister, was ordered to be arrested in his camp 
as a traitor, though he had behaved with the greatest 
bravery. Cornelius De Witt, on the accusation of Tick- 
laer, a barber, of a design of poisoning the prince, was 
imprisoned and condemned to exile, though his judges 
could not declare him guilty. The same ignominious 
wretch persuaded the people, that he would be rescued 
out of prison ; upon which they instantly armed, and sur- 
rounded the place, where it unfortunately happened the 
pensionary was with his brother. They broke open the 
doors, insisted on their walking down, and barbarously 
murdered them. They carried their dead bodies to the 
gallows, where they hung the pensionary a foot higher 
than his brother ; afterwards mangling their bodies, cut 
their cloaths in a thousand pieces, and sent them about 
the country, as trophies of conquest ; and some of them, 
it is said, cut out large pieces of their flesh, which they 
broiled and ate. 

Thus fell this zealous patron of the glory and liberty 
of his native country, in his 47th year ; the greatest genius 
of his time, and the ablest politician in war as well as peace. 
He was a frank sincere man, without fraud or artifice, 
unless his silence might be thought so. Sir W r illiam 
Temple, who was well acquainted with his character, 
speaks of him, on various occasions, with the utmost es- 
teem, and with the highest testimonies of praise and ad- 
miration. He observes, that when he was at the head of 
the government, h differed nothing in his manner of living 

D E WITT. 35 

from an ordinary citizen. When he made visits, he 
was attended only by a single footman ; and on common 
occasions he was frequently seen in the streets without any 
servant at all. His office, for the first ten years, brought 
him in little more than 300/. and in the latter part of his 
life not above 700/. per annum. He refused a gift of 
10,000/. from the States, because he thought it a bad pre- 
cedent in the government. His fortune was much inferior 
to what, in our times, we see commonly raised by an under- 
clerk in a high office. With great reason, therefore, sit 
William Temple, speaking of his death, observes, that he 
" deserved another fate, and a better return from his 
country, after eighteen years spent in their ministry, 
without any care of his entertainments or ease, and little 
or his fortune. A man of unwearied industry, inflexible 
constancy, sound, clear, and deep understanding, and un- 
tainted integrity ; so that, whenever he was blinded, it 
was by the passion he had for that which he esteemed the 
good and interest of his state. This testimony is justly 
due to him from all that were well acquainted with him ; 
and is the more willingly paid, since there can be as little 
interest to flatter, as honour to reproach the dead." Hume, 
with equal truth, describes him as " a minister equally emi- 
nent Cor greatness of mind, for capacity, and for integrity. 
Though moderate in his private deportment, he knew how 
to adopt in his public councils that magnanimity winch 
suits the minister of a great state. It was ever his maxim, 
that no independent government should yield to another 
any evident point of reason or equity ; and that all such 
concessions, so far from preventing war, served no other 
purpose than to provoke fresh claims and insults." 

Besides the works already mentioned, he wrote a book 
containing those maxims of government, upon which he 
acted ; which will be a never-fading monument to his im- 
mortal memory. It shews the true and genuine principles 
of policy, on which alone it is possible to erect an adminis- 
tration proiitable at home, and which must command re- 
spect abroad. On the one hand are pointed out the mis- 
chiefs of tyranny, arbitrary power, authority derived from 
faction, monopolies, and every other species of corruption. 
On the other hand is explained the true method of ac- 
quiring and securing power, riches, peace, and of ma- 
naging and extending trade ; of supporting liberty Avithout 
running into licentiousness, and of administering the com* 

t> 2 

36 D E W I T T. 

momvealth in such a manner, as that the possessors of 
power -shall not be either envied or feared. A translation 
of it from the original Dutch, entitled " The true interest 
and political maxims of the republic of Holland," has been 
printed in London; to the last edition of which, in 1740, 
are prefixed historical memoirs of the illustrious brothers 
Cornelius and John De Witt, by the late John Campbell, 
esq. from whom the original compilers of this work re- 
ceived the above particulars. 1 

French naturalist and biographer, was born at Paris in the 
beginning of the last century. He was the son of a book- 
seller of Paris, and was educated in his native city, but a 
considerable time after this he spent in foreign countries, 
particularly in Italy, where he formed a taste for the fine 
arts. He became acquainted with men of science in va- 
rious parts of Europe, and was elected in 1750 member 
of the royal society in London, and of the academy of 
sciences at Montpelier. He wrote some considerable ar- 
ticles, particularly those of gardening and hydrography, 
in the French Encyclopaedia; and in 1747 he published, 
in quarto, " La Theorie et la Pratique du Jardinage ;" 
and in 1757, " Conchyliologie, ou Traite sur la nature des 
Coquillages," 2 vols. 4to, reprinted 1757, and accounted 
his most valuable work. His arrangement is made from 
the external form of shells, according to which he classes 
them as univalve, bivalve, and multivalve ; he then divides 
them again into shells of the sea, of fresh water, and of 
the lands. He also gave an account of the several ge- 
nera of animals that inhabit shells. He published also 
" L'Orycthologie ; ou Traite des pierres, des mineraux, 
des metaux et autres Fossiles," 1755, 4to. But the work 
by which he is best known and most valued by us, is what 
we have frequent occasion to quote, his " Abreg6 de la 
Vie de quelques Peintres celebres," 3 vols. 4to, and 4 vols. 
Svo, a work of great labour and taste, although not abso- 
lutely free from errors. He practised engraving sometimes 
himself. He died at Paris in 1766 ; and his son continued 
the biography began by the father by the addition of two 
volumes, containing the lives of architects and sculptors. * 

1 First edit, of this Diet, supplementary volume. Universal Hist. His- 
tory of the United Provinces, &c. 
a Diet. Hist, 

D I A G O R A S. 37 


DIAGORA8, a native of the island of Melos, surnamed 
the ATHEIST, lived in the ninety-first olympiad, or 412 
B. C. and was a follower of Democrittis. Having been 
sold as a captive in his youth, he \vas redeemed by De- 
mocritus for 10,000 drachmas, and instead of being made 
his servant, was trained up in the study of philosophy, for 
which he had probably showed a capacity. At the same 
time he cultivated polite learning, and distinguished him- 
s6ii in the art of lyric poetry, which was so successfully 
practised about that period by Pindar, Bacchylis, and 
others. His name has been transmitted to posterity as an. 
avowed advocate for the rejection of all religious belief; 
and although Clemens Alexandrinus and others have 
taken pains to exculpate him, by pleading that his only 
intention was to ridicule heathen superstitions, the general 
voice of antiquity has so strongly asserted his atheistical 
principles, that we cannot refuse credit to the report with- 
out allowing too much indulgence to historical scepticism. 
It is easy to conceive, that one who had studied philosophy 
in the school of Democritus, who admitted no other prin- 
ciples in nature than atoms and a vacuum, would reject 
the whole doctrine of Deity as inconsistent with the system 
which he had embraced. And it is expressly asserted by 
ancient writers, that when, in a particular instance, he saw 
a perjured person escape punishment *, he publicly de- 
clared his disbelief of divine providence, and from that 
time not oqly spoke with ridicule of the gods, and of all 
religious ceremonies, but even attempted to lay open the 
sacred mysteries, and to dissuade the people from sub- 
mitting to the rites of initiation. These public insults 
offered to religion brought upon him the general hatred of 
the Athenians ; who, upon his refusing to obey a summons 
to appear in the courts of judicature, issued forth a decree, 
which was inscribed upon a brazen column, offering the 
reward of a talent to any one who should kill him, or two 
talents to any one who should bring him alive before the 

* The story is thus told : Diagoras work as his own. Diagoras, consiclcr- 

delighted in making verses, and had ing that he who had injured him had 

composed a poem, which a certain poet not only escaped unpunished for his 

had stolen from him. He sued the theft and perjury, but also acquired 

thief; who swore he was not guilty of glory thereby, concluded that there 

the crime, and soon after he gained a was no providence, nor any gods, and 

great reputation by publishing that wrote some books to prove it. 

38 D I A G O R A S. 

judges. This happened in the ninety-first olympiad. From 
that time, Diagoras became a fugitive in Attica, and at 
last fled to Corinth, where he died. It is said, that being 
on board a ship during a storm, the terrified sailors began 
to accuse themselves for having received into their ship a 
man so infamous for his impiety ; upon which Diagoras 
pointed out to them other vessels, which were near them 
on the sea in equal danger, and asked them, whether they 
thought that each of these ships also carried a Diagoras ? 
and that afterwards, when a friend, in order to convince 
him that the gods are not indifferent to human affairs, de- 
sired him to observe how many consecrated tablets were 
hung up in the temples in grateful acknowledgment of the 
escapes from the dangers of the sea, he said, in reply, 
" True ; but here are no tablets of those who have suf- 
fered shipwreck, and perished in the sea." But there is 
reason to suspect that these tales are mere inventions ; for 
similar stories have been told of Diogenes the Cynic, and 
others. l 

DIAZ (BARTHOLOMEW), a distinguished Portuguese na- 
vigator, is celebrated as the discoverer of the Cape of 
Good Hope. He was employed by king John II. of Por- 
tugal, on a voyage of discovery on the coast of Africa, and 
in 1486 he had traced nearly a thousand miles of m-w 
country, and after encountering violent tempests, and 
losing the company of the victualling vessel which attended 
him, he came in sight of the cape that terminates Africa ; 
but the state of his ship, and the untoward disposition of 
his crew, obliged him to return without going round it. 
He named it, on account of the troubles which he had 
undergone in the voyage, " Cabo Tormentoso," or the 
" Stormy Cape." He returned to Lisbon in December 
1487, and from his report the sovereign foresaw that the 
course to the Indies was now certainly pointed out, and 
he denominated the newly-discovered point " Cabo del 
Bueno Esperanza," or the " Cape of Good Hope." ' 

DIAZ, or DIAZIUS (JOHN), one of the early martyrs 
to the protestant religion, was born at Cnenza, in Spain, 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and studied 
theology at Paris, where, from reading the books of Luther 
and his disciples, he soon embraced his doctrines. This 
circumstance rendering it necessary to quit Paris, he went 

1 Gen. Diet. Moreri. Brueker. * Robertson's Hist, of America. 

DIAZ. 39 

to Calvin at Geneva, with whom, and with Budeus and 
Crispinus, he studied for some time. He then went to 
Strasburgh, and became known to Bucer, who, perceiving 
his promising talents, obtained leave of the council of that 
town to take him with him to the conference at Ratisbon. 
Diaz was no sooner arrived there, than he found out Mal- 
venda, whom he had known at Paris, who employed the 
strongest arguments he could muster to induce him to re- 
turn into the bosom of the church ; but Diaz persevered 
in his opinions. Soon after, having got\e to Nenbnrg, to 
attend the correcting of a book of Bucer's which was then 
at press, he was surprised to see arrive at that place one of 
his brothers named Alfonsus, an advocate at the court of 
Rome, who, having heard of his apostacy, as he termed 
it, immediately set out in hopes to reclaim him, but was 
not more successful than Malvenda. Instead, however, of 
lamenting what he might term the obduracy of his brother, 
he laid a plan against his life ; to execute which base pur- 
pose, he feigned to return home, and went as far as 
Augsburg; but the day following he returned, accom.- 
pauied by a guide, and at break of day was again at Neu- 
burg. His first business was to seek his brother ; accord- 
ingly he went straight to his lodgings with his companion, 
who was disguised as a courier, and waited at the foot of 
the staircase, while the accomplice went up to the apart- 
ment of Diaz, for whom he pretended he had letters to 
deliver from his brother. Dia/ being roused from sleep, 
the pretended messenger delivered lam the letters, and 
while he read them, made a fatal stroke at his head with 
an axe which he had concealed under his cloak, and fled 
with his instigator Alfonsus. The report of this murder, 
which happened March 27, 1546, excited great indigna- 
tion at Augsburg and elsewhere ; the assassins were vi- 
gorously pursued, were taken, and imprisoned atlnspruck; 
but the emperor Charles V, put a stop to the proceedings 
under pretext that he would take cognizance himself of the 
affair at the approaching diet. This did not, however, 
appease the conscience of Alfonsus, the fratricide, who 
put an end to the torments of reflection by hanging him- 
self. A particular history of the whole transaction was 
published in Latin under the name of Claude Senarclaeus, 
8vo, which is very scarce. Jt was addressed to Bucer, 
under the title " Historia vera de morte J. Diazii." Diaz 
was the author of a " Summary of the Christian Religion," 


of which a French translation was published at Lyons, 
1562, 8vo. l 

DICEARCHUS, a disciple of Aristotle, was born at 
Messina in Sicily. He was a philosopher, historian, and 
mathematician, and composed a great many books on va- 
rious subjects, and in all sciences, which were much 
esteemed. Cicero speaks frequently in the highest terms 
both of the man and his works. Geography was one of 
his principal studies; and we have a tieatise, or rather a 
fragment of a treatise, of his still extant upon that sub- 
ject. It was first published by Henry Stephens in 1589, 
with a Latin version and notes; and afterwards by Hud- 
son at Oxford in 1703, among the " Veteris geographiae 
scriptures Graecos minores, &c." Pliny tells us that " Di- 
cearchus, a man of extraordinary learning, had received a 
commission from some princes to take the height of the 
mountains, and found Pelion, the highest of them, to be 
1250 paces perpendicular, from whence he concluded it 
to bear no proportion which could affect the rotundity of 
the globe." He published some good discourses upon po- 
litics and government ; and the work he composed con- 
cerning the republic of Lacedaemon was thought so ex- 
cellent, that it was read every year before the youth in 
the assembly of the ephori. As a philosopher, his tenets 
have little to recommend them* He held that there is no 
such thing as mind, or soul, either in man or beast ; that 
the principle by which animals perceive and act, is equally 
diffused throngh the body, is inseparable from it, and ex- 
pires with it ; that the human race always existed ; that it 
is impossible to foretel future events ; and that the know- 
ledge of them would be an infelicity. 2 

DICK (Sm ALEXANDER), bart. of Prestonfield, an emi- 
nent physician, the third son of sir William Cunningham, 
of Caprington, by dame Janet Dick, the only child and 
heiress of sir James Dick, of Prestonfield, near Edinburgh, 
was born Oct. 23, 1703. While his two elder brothers 
succeeded to ample fortunes, the one as heir to his father, 
and the other to his mother, the provision made for a 
younger son was not sufficient to enable him to live in a 
manner agreeable to his wishes without the aid of his own 
exertions. After, therefore, receiving a classical educa- 
tion at Edinburgh, he studied medicine at Leyden under 

1 Moreri. Freheri Theatrum. - Verheiden Effigies, See. Saxii Onomast. 
* Gen, Diet, Moreri, Saxii Onomast. Brucker. 

DICK. 41 

the celebrated Boerhaave, and obtained the degree of 
M. D. from that univer c ; Aug. 31, 1725. On this oc- 
casion he published an i", > -,gural dissertation, " De Epi- 
lepsia," which did him mucti credit. Not long after this 
he returned to Scotland, and had the honour of receiving 
a second diploma for the degree of M. D. conferred upon 
him by the university of St. Andrew's, Jan. 23, 1727, and 
Nov. 7 of the same year, was admitted a fellow of the royal 
college of physicians of Edinburgh. But after Dr. Cun- 
ningham (for at that time he bore the name of his father) 
had received these distinguishing marks of attention at 
home, he was still anxious to obtain farther knowledge of 
his profession by the prosecution of hi-, studies abroad. 
With this intention he made the tour of Europe ; and al- 
though medicine was uniformly his first and principal ob- 
ject, yet other arts and sciences were not neglected. 

On his return to Britain, Mr. Hooke, a gentleman with 
whom he had formed an intimate friendship, and who pos- 
sessed a large fortune in Pembrokeshire, persuaded him 
to settle as a physician in that country, where for several 
years he practised with great reputation and success. But 
his immediate elder brother, sir William Dick, dying with- 
out issue, he succeeded to the family estate and title, as- 
suming from that time the name and arms of Dick ; and 
very soon after fixed his residence at the family-seat of 
Preston-field. Although he now resolved to relinquish 
medicine as a lucrative profession, yet, from inclination, 
he still continued to cultivate it as an useful science. With 
this view he supported a friendly and intimate correspond- 
ence with the physicians of Edinburgh, and paid parti- 
cular attention to the business of the ro\ al college, among 
the list of whose members his name had been enrolled at a 
very early period of his life. In 1756 he was unanimously 
chosen president of the college, and was afterwards elected 
to that office for seven years successively. He not only 
contributed liberally towards the building of a hall for their 
accommodation, but strenuously exerted himself in pro^ 
moting every undertaking in which he thought the honour 
or interest of the college was concerned. He was also 
long distinguished as a zealous and active member of the 
philosophical society of Edinburgh, and when the present 
royal society of Edinburgh received its charter, the name 
of sir Alexander Dick stood enrolled as one of the first in 
the list. For many years he discharged the duties of a 

*2 DICK. 

faithful tfnd vigilant manager of die royal iniirinnrj* of 
Kdinburgh ; and took on all occasions an active share in 
promoting every public and useful undertaking. When 
the seeds of the true rhubarb were first introduced into 
Britain by the late Dr. Mounsey of Petersburg!), he not 
only bestowed great attention on the culture of the plant, 
but also on the drying of the root, and preparing it for the 
market. His success in these particulars was so great, 
that the society in London for the encouragement of arts 
and commerce, presented him, in 1774, with a gold medal, 
which is inscribed " To sir Alexander Dick, bart. for the 
best specimen of British rhubarb." While steady in the 
pursuit of every object which engaged his attention, his 
conduct in every transaction through life was marked with 
the strictest honour and integrity. This, disposition, and 
this conduct, not only led him to be constant and warm in 
his friendship to those with whom he lived in habits of 
intimacy, but also procured him the love and esteem of 
ail who really knew him. Notwithstanding the keenness 
and activity of his temper, yet its striking features were 
mildness and sweetness. He was naturally disposed to put 
the most favourable construction on the conduct and ac- 
tions of others, which was both productive of much hap- 
piness to himself, and of general benevolence to mankind. 
And that serenity and cheerfulness which accompanied his 
conduct through life, were the attendants even of his last 
moments ; for on Nov. 10, 1785, he died with a smile 
upon his countenance, lamented as a great loss to society. ' 
DICKINSON (EDMUND), a celebrated physician and 
chemist, was son of William Dickinson, rector of Apple- 
ton in Berkshire, and born therein 16'_M-. He acquired 
his classical learning at Eton, and from thence, in 1612, 
was sent to Merton-college in Oxford. Having regularly 
taken the degrees in arts, he entered on the study of me- 
dicine, and took both the degrees in that faculty. In l(i,55 
he published his " Delphi Phcenicizantes, *kc." a very 
learned piece, in which he attempts to prove that the 
Greeks borrowed the story of the Pythian Apollo, and all 
that rendered the oracle of Delphi famous, from the holy 
scriptures, and the book of Joshua in particular *. Tins 

* Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. II. Boswell's Life of 
Johnson, and Journey. 

* It must not b* concealed that real author of the above-tnentionH 
Anthony Wood has suggested, tbat the work was Henry Jacob, a prudigy <if 


work procured him much reputation both at home and 
abroad; and Sheldon (afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury) is said to have had so high a sense of its value, that 
he would have persuaded the author to have applied him- 
self to divinity, and to have taken orders ; but he was 
already fixed in his choice. To this treatise were added, 
1. " Diatriba de Nore in Italiam adventu ; ejusque nomi- 
nibus ethnicis." 2. " De origine Druidum." 3. Orati- 
uncula pro philosophia liberanda," which had been spoken, 
by him in the hall of Merton college, July 1653, and was 
the first tiling which made him known among the learned. 
4. " /acharias Bogan Edmundo Dickinson ;" a letter filled 
with citations from the most ancient authors in support of 
his opinions, and the highest commendations of his learn- 
ing, industry, and judgment. The " Delphi Phoenici- 
zantes," &c. came out first at Oxford in 1655, 12mo, and was 
reprinted at Francfort, 1669, 8vo, and at Rotterdam in 
1691, by Crenius, in the first volume of his " Fasciculus 
dissertation uo> Historico-critico-philologicarum," 1 2 mo. 
Afterwards Dr. Dickinson applied himself to chemistry 
with much assiduity; and, about 1662, received a visit 
from Theodore Mundanus, an illustrious adept of France, 
who encouraged him mightily to proceed in the study of 
alchemy, and succeeded in persuading him of the pos- 
sibility of the transmutation of metals, a credulity for which, 
he probably paid first in his purse, and afterwards in his 
reputation. At length he left his college, and took a 
house in the High-street, Oxford, for the sake of follow- 
ing the business of his profession more conveniently. In. 
li>69 he married for the first time; but his wife dying 
in child- bed, and leaving him a daughter, he some time 
after married a second, who also died in a short time. His 
wives were both gentlewomen of good families. 

On the death of Dr. Willis, which happened in 1684, 
Dickinson removed to London, and took his house in St. 
Martin's- lane ; where, soon after recovering Henry Ben- 
net, earl of Arlington, lord chamberlain to Charles II. 
when all hopes of recovery were past, that nobleman intro- 

learning, but a careless man, who suf- the character of Dr. Dickinson, and 

fered others to obtain that f.iine which evince him to be altogether destitute of 

belonged to him, by surrendering to integrity. He, however, had the r- 

their use his laborious productions, potation of being the author, and de- 

But though the evidence ad'luced by rived benefit from the opinion that was 

Wood i s roug ii ie not sufficient ta etitf r'aine.l in consequence of it, of 

determine a point which must impeach his learning. 


cluced him to the king, who made him one of his physicians 
in ordinary, and physician to his household. As that 
prince was a lover of chemistry, and a considerable pro- 
ficient, Dickinson grew into great favour at court; which 
favour lasted to the end of Charles's reign, and that of his 
successor James, who continued him in hoth his places. 
In 1636 he published in Latin his epistle to Theodore 
Mundanus, and also his answer, translated from the French 
into Latin : for, in 1679, this chemist had paid him a 
second visit, and renewed his acquaintance. The title of 
it in English is, " An Epistle of E. D. to T. M. an adept, 
concerning the quintessence of the philosophers, and the 
true system of physics, together with certain queries con- 
cerning the materials of alchemy. To which are annexed 
the answers of Mundanus," 8vo. After the abdication of 
his unfortunate master, he retired from practice, being old, 
and much afflicted with the stone, but continued his studies. 
He had long meditated a system of philosophy, not founded 
on hypothesis, or even experiment, but, chiefly deduced 
from principles collected from the Mosaic history. Part of 
this laborious work, when he had almost finished it, was 
burnt; but, not discouraged by this accident, he began it 
a second time, and did not discontinue it, till he had com- 
pleted the whole. It came out in 1702 under the title of 
" Physica vetus et vera ; sive tractatus de naturali veritate 
hexoemeri Mosaici, &c." In this he attempts, from the 
scriptural account of the creation, to explain the manner 
in which the world was formed. Assuming, as the ground 
of his theory, the atomic doctrine, and the existence 
of an immaterial cause of the concourse of indivisible 
atoms, he supposes the particles of matter agitated by a 
double motion ; one gentle and transverse, of the particles 
among themselves, whence elementary corpuscles are 
formed ; the other circular, by which the whole mass is 
revolved, and the regions of heaven and earth are pro- 
duced. By the motion of the elementary corpuscles of 
different magnitude and form, he supposes the different 
bodies of nature to have been produced, and attempts, 
upon this plan, to describe the process of creation through 
each of the six days. He explains at large the formation 
of human nature, shewing in what manner, by means of a 
plastic seminal virtue, man became an animated being. 
This theory, though founded upon conjecture, and loaded 
with unphilosophical fictions, the author not only pretends 


to derive from the Mosaic narrative, but maintains to have 
been consonant to the most ancient Hebrew traditions. 
The use which this theorist makes of the doctrine of atoms, 
shews him to have been wholly unacquainted with the true 
notion of the ancients on this subject; and indeed the 
whole work seems to have ben the offspring of a con- 
fused imagination, rather than of a sound judgment. Bur- 
net, who attempted the same design afterwards, disco- 
vered far more learning and ability. This work, however, 
was in such demand as to be printed again at Rotterdam 
in 1703, in 4to, and at Leoburg, 1705, 12mo. 

Besides the pieces above mentioned, he is supposed to 
have been the author of " Parabola philosophica, seu iter 
Philareti ad montem Mercurii." He left behind him also 
in MS. a Latin treatise on the Grecian games, which was 
annexed to an account of his life and writings, published 
at London in 1739, 8vo, by the Rev. W. N. Blomberg, 
rector of Fulham. He died of the stone, April 1707, being 
then in his eighty-third year, and was interred in the 
church of St. Martin in the Fields. l 

D1CKSON (DAVID), an eminent divine of the church of 
Scotland, the son of John Dickson, a merchant in Glas- 
gow, was born about 1583, and educated at the university 
of his native city. After taking the degree of M. A. he 
was admitted regent, or professor of philosophy, an office 
which, at that time, somewhat after the manner of the 
foreign universities, was held only for a term of years (in 
this case, of eight years) after which these regents re- 
ceived ordination. Accordingly, in 1618, Mr. Dickson 
was ordained minister of the town of Irvine, which prefer- 
ment he held about twenty-three years, and became a very 
popular preacher. Although always inclined to the pres- 
byterian form of church-government, he had shewn no 
great reluctance to the episcopal forms until the passing of, 
what are known, in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland, 
by the name of the Perth articles ; five articles, which en- 
joined kneeling at the sacrament; private adtninistratioa 
of it in extreme sickness ; private baptism, if necessary ; 
episcopal confirmation ; and the observation of Epiphany, 
Christmas, ,c. These, however harmless they may ap- 
pear to an English reader, were matters not only of ob- 
jection, but abhorrence to a great proportion of the Scotch 

1 Life, by Blomberj. Biog. Brit. Ath, Ox. TO!. II. and Wood's Life, 1772^ 
p. 172. 

46 D I C K S O N. 

clergy; and Mr. Dickson having expressed his dislike in 
strong terms, and probably in the pulpit, was suspended 
from his pastoral charge, and ordered to remove to Turriff, 
in the north of Scotland, within twenty days. After much 
interest, however, had been employed, for he had many 
friends among persons of rank, who respected his talents 
and piety, he was allowed in 1623 to return to Irvine. 
As during the progress of the rebellion in England, the 
power of the established church decayed also in Scotland, 
Dickson exerted himself with considerable effect in the 
restoration of the presbyterian form of church-government, 
and there being a reluctance to this change on the part 
of the learned divines of Aberdeen, he went thither in 
1637, and held solemn disputations with Doctors Forbes, 
Barron, Sibbald, &c. of that city, which were after- 
wards published. In 1641 he was removed from Irvine 
to be professor of divinity in the university of Glasgow; 
and in 1643 he assisted in drawing up some of those 
formularies which are contained in the " Confession of 
Faith," a book which is still subscribed by the clergy of 
Scotland. The " Directory for public worship," and 
" The sum of saving knowledge," were from his pen, as- 
sisted, in the former, by Henderson and Calderwood ; and 
in the latter, by Durham. Some years after, probably 
about 164S, he was invited to the elmir of professor of di- 
vinity at Edinburgh, which he held until the restoration, 
when he was ejected for refusing the oath of supremacy. 
He did not survive this long, dying in 1662. He was es- 
teemed one of the ablest and most useful men of his time, 
in the promotion of the church of Scotland as now esta- 
blished, and his writings have been accounted standard 
books with those who adhere to her principles as originally 
laid down. His principal works are, I. " A Commentary 
on the Hebrews," 8vo. 2. " On Matthew," 4to. 3. " On 
the Psalms," 1655, 3 vols. 12mo. 4. " On the Epistles, 1 ' 
Latin and English, folio and 4to. 5. " Therapeutica Sa- 
cra, or Cases of Conscience resolved," Latin 4to, English 
8vo. 6. "A treatise on the Promises," Dublin, 1630, 
1 2tno. Besides these he wrote some pieces of religious 
poetry for the common people, and left several MSS. As 
he had had a considerable hand in the " Confession of 
Faith," he lectured, when professor of divinity, on that 
book, the heads of which lectures were afterwards pub- 
lished, as he had delivered them, in Latin, under the title 

D I C K S O N. 47 

*' Prelectiones in Confessionem Fidei," folio ; but they 
have been since translated and often reprinted, under the 
title of " Truth's Victory over Error," one of the most 
useful, and now, we believe, the only one of his works 
which continues still popular in Scotland. Prefixed is a 
life of the author by Woodrovv, the ecclesiastical histo- 
rian, from which we have extracted the above particulars. 1 
DICTYS CttETENSIS, is the supposed name of a very 
ancient historian, who, serving under Idomeneus, a king of 
Crete, in the Trojan war, wrote the history of that expe- 
ilition in nine books ; and Tzetzes tells us, that Homer 
formed his Iliad upon his plan : but the Latin history of 
Dictys, which we have at present, is altogether spurious. 
There are two anonymous writers still extant, who pretend 
to have written of the Trojan war previously to Homer, 
one of whom goes under the name of Dictys Cretensis, the 
other that of Dares Phrygius, of which last we have already 
taken some notice. Before the history of Dictys there are 
two prefaces ; the first of which relates that Dictys wrote 
six volumes of the Trojan war in the Phoenician characters ; 
and in his old age, after he was returned to his own 
country, ordered them, a little before his death, to be 
buried with him in a leaden chest or repository, which was 
accordingly done ; that, however, after many ages, and 
under the reign of Nero, an earthquake happened at Cnos- 
us, a city of Crete, which uncovered Dictys's sepulchre, 
and exposed the chest ; that the shepherds took it up, and 
expecting a treasure, opened it; and that, finding this his- 
tory, they sent it to Nero, who ordered it to be translated, 
or rather transcharactered, from Phoenician into Greek. 
It has been inferred from this story that the history was 
forged by some of Nero's flatterers, as he always affected 
a fondness for any thing relating to Trojan antiquities. 
The other preface to Dictys is an epistle of L. Septimius, 
the Latin translator, in which he inscribes it to Arcadius 
Kuffinus, who was consul in the reign of Constantino ; 
and tells nearly the same story of the history we have 
already related. That the present Latin Dictys had a 
Greek original, now lost, appears from the numerous 
Grecisms with which it abounds ; and from the literal cor- 
respondence of many passages with the Greek fragments 
<it one Dictys cited by ancient authors. The Greek ovi- 

1 Life ul>i jupra. 

48 D I C T Y S. 

ginal was very probably, as we have just hinted, forged 
under the name of Dictys, a traditionary writer on the 
subject, in the reign of Nero. The best editions of Dictys 
and Dares Phrygius, are that of madame Dacier, Paris, 
1680, 4to, and that of Smids, 4to and 8vo, Anist. 1702, 2 
volumes. l 

DIDEROT (DENYS), of the academy of Berlin, an emi- 
nent French writer, was the son of a cutler, and was bora 
at Langres, in 1713. The Jesuits, with whom he went 
through a course of study, were desirous of having him in 
their order, and one of his uncles designing him for a ca- 
nonry which he had in his gift, made him take the ton- 
sure. But his father, seeing that he was not inclined to 
be either a Jesuit or a canon, sent him to Paris to prose- 
gute his studies. He then placed him with a lawyer, to 
whose instructions young Diderot paid little attention, but 
employed himself in general literature, which not coin- 
ciding with the views of his father, he stopped the remit- 
tance of his pecuniary allowance, and seemed for some 
time to have abandoned him. The talents of the young 
man, however, supplied him with a maintenance, and 
gradually made him known. He had employed his mind 
on physics, geometry, metaphysics, ethics, belles-lettres, 
from the time he began to read with reflection, and al- 
though a bold and elevated imagination seemed to give him 
a turn for poetry, he neglected it for the more serious 
sciences. He settled at an early period at Paris, where 
the natural eloquence which animated his conversation 
procured him friends and patrons. What first gave him 
reputation among a certain class of readers, unfortu- 
nately for France, too numerous in that country, was 
a little collection of " Pensees philosophiques," reprinted 
afterwards under the title of " Etrennes aux esprits-forts.'* 
This book appeared in 1746, l2mo. The adepts of the 
new philosophy compared it, for perspicuity, elegance, 
and force of diction, to the " Pensees de Pascal." But 
the aim of the two authors was widely different. Pascal 
employed his talents, and erudition, which was profound 
and various, in support of the truths of religion, which 
Diderot attacked by all the arts of an unprincipled sophist. 
The " Pens6es philosophiques," however, became a toilet- 
book. The author was thought to be always in the right, 

i Voss. Hist. Graec, fabric. Bibl, Grac. Saxii OnOmasU 


because he always dealt in assertions. Diderot was more 
usefully employed in 1746, in publishing a " Dictionnaire 
universelle de Medecine," with Messrs. Eidous and Tous- 
saint, in G vols. folio. Not that this compilation, says his 
biographer, is without its defects in many points of view, 
or that it contains no superficial and inaccurate articles; 
but it is not without examples of deep investigation ; and 
the work was well received. A more recent account, how- 
ever, informs us that this was merely a translation of Dr. 
James's Medical Dictionary, published in this country in 
1743; and that Diderot was next advised to translate 
Chambers' s Dictionary ; but instead of acting so inferior a 
part, he conceived the project of a more extensive under- 
taking, the "Dictionnaire Encyclopedique." So great a 
monument not being to be raised by a single architect, 
D'Alembert, the friend of Diderot, shared with him the 
honours and the dangers of the enterprise, in which they 
were promised the assistance of several literati, and a va- 
riety of artists. Diderot took upon himself alone the de- 
scription of arts and trades, one of the most important 
parts, and most acceptable to the public. To the par- 
ticulars of the several processes of the workmen, he some- 
times added reflections, speculations, and principles 
adapted to their elucidation. Independently of the part 
of arts and trades, this chief of the encyclopedists fur- 
nished in the different sciences a considerable number of 
articles that were wanting ; but even his countrymen are 
inclined to wish that in a work of such a vast extent, and 
of such general use, he had {earned to compress his mat- 
ter, and had been less verbose, less of the dissertator, and 
less inclined to digressions. He has also been censured for 
employing needlessly a scientific language, and for having 
recourse to metaphysical doctrines, frequently unintelli- 
gible, which occasioned him to be called the Lycophron. 
of philosophy ; for having introduced a number of de- 
finitions incapable of enlightening the ignorant, and which 
he seems to have invented for no other purpose than to 
have it thought that he had great ideas, while in fact, he 
had not the art of expressing perspicuously and simply 
the ideas of others. As to the body of the work, Diderot 
himself agreed that the edifice wanted an entire repara- 
tion ; and when two booksellers intended to give a new 
edition of the Encyclopedic, he thus addressed them on 
the subject of the faults with which it abounds: "The 


imperfection of this work originated in a great variety of 
causes. We had not time to be very scrupulous in the 
choice of the coadjutors. Among some excellent persons, 
there were others weak, indifferent, and altogether bad. 
Hence that motley appearance of the work, where we see 
the rude attempt of a school-boy by the side of a piece 
from the hand of a master ; and a piece of nonsense next 
neighbour to a sublime performance. Some working for 
no pay, soon lost their first fervour; others badly recom- 
pensed, served us accordingly. The Encyclopedic was a 
gulf into which all kinds of scribblers promiscuously threw 
their contributions : their pieces were ill-conceived, and 
worse digested ; good, bad, contemptible, true, false, un- 
certain, and always incoherent and unequal ; the references 
that belonged to the very parts assigned to a person, were 
never filled up by him. A refutation is often found where 
we should naturally expect a proof; and there was no exact 
correspondence between the letter-press and the plates. 
To remedy this defect, recourse was had to long explica- 
tions. But how many unintelligible machines, for want 
of letters to denote the parts !" To this sincere confes- 
sion Diderot added particular details on various parts; such 
as proved that there were in the Encyclopedic subjects 
to be not only re-touched, but to be composed afresh ; 
and this was what a new company of literati and artists un- 
dertook, but have not yet completed. The first edition, 
however, which had been delivering to the public from 
1751 to 1767, was soon sold off, because its defects were 
compensated in part by many well-executed articles, and 
because uncommon pains were taken to recommend it to 
the public. 

The great objects which Diderot and his coadjutors had 
in view when they entered upon this work, are now univer- 
sally known. It has been completely proved, that their 
intention was to sap the foundation of all religion ; not 
directly or avowedly, for \mre-faced atheism would not then 
have been suffered in France. They had engaged a very 
worthy, though not very acute clergyman, to furnish the 
theological articles, and while he was supporting, by the best 
arguments which he could devise, the religion of his country, 
Diderot and D'Alembert were overturning those arguments 
under titles which properly allowed of no such disquisitions. 
This necessarily produced digressions: for the greatest ge- 
nius on earth could not, when writing on the laws of motion, 


attack the mysteries of Christianity without wandering from 
his subject; but that the object of these digressions might 
not pass unnoticed by any class of readers, care was taken 
to refer to them from the articles where the question was 
discussed by the divine. That when employed in this 
way, Diderot seems to write obscurely, is indeed true ; 
but the obscurity is not his. His atheism was so plain, 
that for the most part, D'Alembert or some other leader, 
had to retouch his articles, and throw a mist over them, to 
render their intention less obvious. 

Diderot, who had been working at this dictionary for near 
twenty years, had not received a gratuity proportionate to 
his trouble and his zeal, and saw himself not long after 
the publication of the last volumes, reduced to the neces- 
sity of exposing his library to sale, which he pretended to 
be very copious and valuable. The empress of Russia 
ordered it to be bought for her at the price of fifty thousand 
livres, and left him the use of it. It is said, that when 
her ambassador wanted to see it, after a year or two's pay- 
ments, and the visitation could be no longer put off, Di- 
derot was obliged to run in a hurry through all the book- 
sellers shops in Germany, to fill his empty shelves with 
old volumes. He had the good fortune to save appear- 
ances ; but the trick was discovered, because he had been 
niggardly in his attention to the ambassador's secretary. 
This, however, did not hinder him from visiting the em- 
press, where he behaved in such a manner, that her ma- 
jesty thought it necessary to send him back, and he com- 
forted himself for this disgrace, with the idea that the 
Russians were not yet ripe for the sublimity of his philo- 

In the mean time, the " Encyclopedic," which had 
partly procured its editor these foreign honours and remu- 
nerations, gave great offence at home. Certain positions 
on government and on religion occasioned the impression 
to be suspended in 1752. At that time there were no more 
than two volumes of the dictionary published ; and the 
prohibition of the succeeding ones was only taken off at 
the end of 1753. Five new volumes then successively ap- 
peared. But in 1757 a new storm arose, and the book 
was suppressed. The remainder did not appear till about 
ten years after ; and then was only privately distributed. 
Some copies were even seized, and the printers were im- 
prisoned in the Bastille. To whatever cause all these in- 

B 2 

52 D I D E R O T, 

terruptions were imputable, Diderot did not suffer his 
genius to be impeded by the difficulties that were thrown 
in his way. Alternately serious and sportive, solid and 
frivolous, he published at the very time he was working 
on the Dictionary of Sciences, several productions which 
could scarcely have been thought to proceed from an en- 
cyclopedical head. His " Bijoux indiscrets," 2 vols. 
12mo, are of this number a disgusting work, even to 
those young- people who are unhappily too eager after li- 
centious romances. Even here a certain philosophical pe- 
dantry appears, in the very passages where it is most mis- 
placed ; and never is the author more aukvvard than when 
he intends to display a graceful ease. The " Fils naturel," 
and the " Pere de Famille," two comedies in prose, which 
appeared in 1757 and 1758, are of a superior kind ^ moral 
and affecting dramas, where we see at once a nervous style 
and pathetic sentiments. The former piece is a picture of 
the trials of virtue, a conflict between interests and pas- 
sions, wherein love and friendship play important parts. 
It has been said that Diderot has borrowed it from Gol- 
cloni ; if that be the case, the copy does honour to the 
original ; and, with the exception of a small number of 
places, where the author mixes his philosophical jargon 
with the sentiments, and some sentences out of place, the 
style is affecting and natural. In the second comedy, a 
tender, virtuous, and humane father appears, whose tran- 
quillity is disturbed by the parental solicitudes, inspired 
by the lively and impetuous passions of his children. Tin's 
philosophical, moral, and almost tragical comedy, has 
produced considerable effect on several theatres of Europe. 
The dedication to the princess of Nassau Saarbruck, is a 
little moral tract, of a singular turn, without deviating 
from nature ; and proves that the author possessed a great 
fund of moral sentiments and philosophical ideas. At the 
end of these two pieces, published together under the title 
of " Theatre de M. Diderot," are dialogues containing 
profound reflections and novel views of the dramatic art. 
In his plays he has endeavoured to unite the characters of 
Aristophanes and Plato ; and in his reflections he some- 
times displays the genius of Aristotle. This spirit of cri- 
ticism is exhibited, but with too much licence, in two other 
works, which made a great noise. The former appeared 
in 1749, 12mo, under the title of " Letters on the blind, 
for the use of those who sec." The free notions of the author 


in this work cost him his liberty, and he underwent a six 
months imprisonment atVincennes. Having naturally strong 
passions and a haughty spirit, finding himself on].a sudden 
deprived of liberty, and of all intercourse with human 
beings, he had like to have lost his reason ; and to prevent 
this, his keepers were obliged to allow him to leave his 
room, to take frequent walks, and to receive the visits of 
a few literary men. J. J. Rousseau, at that time his friend, 
went and administered consolation to him, which he ought 
not to have forgot. The letter on the blind was followed 
by another on the " deaf and dumb, for the use of those 
who can hear and speak," 1751, 2 vols. 12mo. Under, 
this title, the author delivered reflections on metaphysics, 
on poetry, on eloquence, on music, &c. There are some 
good things in this essay, mixed with others superficial 
and absurd. Though he strives to be perspicuous, yet he 
is not always understood, and indeed, of all "that he has 
composed on abstract subjects, it has been said that he 
presents a chaos on which the light shines only at intervals. 
The other productions of Diderot betray the same defect 
of clearness and precision, and the same uncouth emphasis 
for which he has always been blamed. The principal of 
them are: 1. "Principles of Moral Philosophy," 1745, 
12mo, of which the abbe des Fontaines speaks well, though 
it met with no great success. It was our philosopher's fate 
to write a great deal, and not to leave a good book, or at 
least a book well composed. 2. " History of Greece, 
translated from the English of Stanyan," 1743, 3 vols. 
12 mo, an indifferent translation of an indifferent book. 

3. " Pieces on several mathematical subjects," 1748, 8vo. 

4. " Reflections on the Interpretation of Nature," 1754, 
12mo. This interpreter is very obscure. 5. " The Code 
of Nature," 1 1755, I2mo, which is certainly not the code 
of Christianity. 6. " The -Sixth Sense," 1752, 12mo. 
7. " Of Public Education," one of that swarm of publi- 
cutio. , produced by the appearance of Emilius, and the 
abolition of the Jesuits ; but some of his ideas in this work 
are very judicious, and would be highly useful in the exe- 
cution. 8. " Panegyric on Richardson," full of nerve 
and animation. 9. " Life of Seneca." This was his last 
work; and ;', is one of those which may be perused with 
most pleasu even while we cannot approve the judgments 
be passes on beneca and other celebrated men. 


The abb Barruel says that he was the author of " Sys- 
teme de la Nature," which is usually given to Robinet ; and 
it is certain that if he was not the author, he furnished 
hints, and revised the whole. Naigeon, his friend and 
disciple, collected and published his works in 15 vols. 8vo, 
at Paris, 1797, containing some articles which we have 
not noticed; and in 18 10 a small publication appeared, en- 
titled " Diderotiana." 

It is remarkable that there were moments in which Di- 
derot, notwithstanding his avowed impiety, seems to have 
been compelled by the force of truth, to pay homage to 
the New Testament. An acquaintance found him one day 
explaining it to his daughter, with all the apparent se- 
riousness and energy of a believer. On expressing his 
surprize, Diderot replied, " I understand your meaning ; 
but after all, where is it possible to find better lessons 
for her instruction ?" This from him who had given so 
many lessons of a different kind, and had been a more 
zealous teacher of impiety and profligacy than perhaps any 
man in France, appears somewhat improbable; yet it may 
coincide with a report, which is more certain, that in his 
latter days he shewed some signs of contrition. In 1784 
bis health began visibly to decline; and one of his domes- 
tics, perceiving that his death was at no great distance, 
acquainted him with his apprehensions, and addressed him 
on the importance of preparing for another world. He 
heard the man with attention, thanked him kindly, acknow- 
ledged that his situation required seriousness, and promised 
to weigh well what he had said. Some time after this 
conversation he desired a priest might be brought, and 
the same domestic introduced one, whom Diderot saw se- 
veral times, and was preparing to make a public recanta- 
tion of his errors. Condorcet, and his other philosophic 
friends, now crowded about him, persuaded him that he 
was cheated, that his case was not so dangerous as it was 
said to be, and that he only wanted the country air to re- 
store him to health. For some time he resisted their at- 
tempts to bring him back to atheism, but was at last pre- 
vailed upon to leave Paris; and his departure being kept 
secret, he was concealed in the country till July 2, when 
he died. His dead body was then secretly brought back 
to Paris, and his friends eagerly spread the report that he 
died suddenly on rising from the table, without the least 
sign of repentance. 


His character, from what has been said, is not very dif- 
ficult to be understood. Some of his countrymen extol 
his frankness, his candour, his disinterestedness, his in- 
tegrity ; while others represent him as artful, interested, 
and concealing iiis cunning- under a cheerful air, and some- 
times >ven a rough behaviour ; which we confess appears 
more probable, as the genuine result of his principles. To- 
wards the laiter part of uis life he hurt himself in th.: public 
opinion, by taking up too warmly the pretended ahVo-Ls he 
imagined to exist against him in the " Confessions" of 
his old friend J. J. Rousseau ; and by this conduct left un- 
favourable impressions both of his heart and his understand- 
ing. This Rousseau, whom he so much decries, praises 
him in the second manuscript part of his Confessions ; but 
says in one of his letters, that " though naturally kind, 
i of a generous disposition, Diderot had the unhappy 
;>ensity to misinterpret the speeches and actions of his 
:ids; and that the most ingenuous explanations only 
furnished the subtilty of his invention with new interpre- 
tations against them." The enthusiasm Diderot displays in 
some of his productions, appeared in the circle of his, 
friends, on every topic of discourse. He spoke with ra- 
pidity, with vehemence, and the turns of his phrases were 
often poignant and original. It has been said, that nature 
by mistake made him a metaphysician, and not a poet ; but 
though he was often a poet in prose, he has left some verses 
which prove him to have had but little talent for poetry. The 
intrepid philosophy of which he boasted, affected always to 
brave the shafts of criticism ; and his numerous censors were 
unable to cure him either of his taste for a system of meta- 
physics scarcely intelligible, or of his fondness for exclama- 
tions and apostrophes which prevailed in his conversation and 
in his writings. He married, and we are told by his friends, 
was in domestic life sensible and obliging ; easily provoked, 
but as easily calmed ; yielding to transient ebullitions of 
temper, but generally having it under command. The 
goodness or badness of his temper, however, as affecting 
his relatives, is a matter of little consequence, compared 
to the more extensive mischief which arose from his writings 
as an infidel, and his example as a profligate. Of the lat- 
ter we need no more decided proof than the extract from 
one of his letters to Wilkes, published by lord Teignmouth 
in his " Life of Sir William Jones." La Harpe, to whose 
" Lyceum" we may refer for an impartial account of 


Diderot, thinks very justly that the principal cause of the 
success of the French infidels, in gaining readers and fol- 
lowers, arose from their enlisting the passions on their side. 
Such, says he, is the basis of their system, the general 
spirit of their sect, and the principle of their success. The 
method is not very honourable, but with a little address it 
is almost sure to succeed, at least for a time, for nothing 
is more easy than to pass off as a theory, a corruption which 
already exists as a fashion. 1 

DIDOT (FRANCIS AMBROSE), an eminent French printer, 
who deserves a more satisfactory article than the French 
biographers have as yet enabled us to give him, was born 
at Paris in 1730, and was the son of a printer and book- 
seller, who provided him with an excellent classical edu- 
cation before he introduced him into business. Full of 
enthusiasm for the advancement of the art of printing, 
young Didot determined to rival those celebrated printers, 
Joachim Ibarra of Spain, and Baskerville of England, and 
lived to surpass both. He soon brought his press to a state 
of excellence unattained by any of his contemporaries; 
and extended his skill to every branch connected with it. 
Among the number of improvements perfected by his 
exertions, is the construction of mills for making fine 
paper, which he assisted not only by his zeal and activity, 
but by pecuniary contribution. He also invented a press 
by which the workman is enabled to print, equally and at 
once the whole extent of a sheet ; and he was the inventor of 
many other machines and instruments now commonly used 
in printing offices, all which have powerfully contributed 
to the modern advancement of the typographical art. The 
elegant editions of the classics published by order of Louis 
XIV. for the education of the Dauphin, were the produc- 
tion of the Didots 1 press, as well as the collection of ro- 
mances called the D'Artois, in 64 vols. 18mo ; the Theatri- 
cal Selections by Corneille, the works of Racine, Tele- 
machus, Tasso's Jerusalem, two superb Bibles, and a 
multiplicity of other inestimable works, each of which, on 
its publication, seemed to make nearer approaches to per- 
fection. Didot sedulously endeavoured to unite in his 
family every talent auxiliary to the printing art; one of his 

1 Diet. Hist. Gleig's Supplement to the Encycl. Britannica. Earruel's Me- 
moirs of Jacobinism, vol.1, p. 169, 350, &c. Lord Teigqinouth's Life ot 
W. Jones, vol. I. p. 314. 

D I D O T. 57 

sons became a celebrated type-founder ; and the voice of 
fame announces the superior rank which they both de- 
servedly hold among the printers of the age. The fond 
father delighted to observe that he was excelled by his 
children ; while they dutifully ascribed their success to the 
force of his instruction, and the benefit of his example. 
The life of JDidot was the life of honour ; his abilities were 
universally known and respected ; and the following anec- 
dote will prove the goodness of his heart : in one of his 
journeys to the paper mills of Anonay, he met an artist 
who had introduced in France an improvement in the ap- 
plication of cylinders, &c. and believing that his ingenuity 
merited reward, exerted all his interest with government; 
but unfortunately, when he was on the point of succeeding, 
the artist died, leaving two girls in the helpless state of 
infancy. Didot took the orphans in his arms, proclaimed 
himself their father, and kept his word. At the age of 
seventy-three, Didot read over five times, and carefully 
corrected, before it was sent to the press, every sheet of 
the stereotype edition of Montague, printed by his sons. 
At four o'clock in the morning he was pursuing this fa- 
tiguing occupation. The correctness of the text will there- 
fore render this work particularly valuable among the pro- 
ductions of the modern press. About eighteen months 
previous to his death, he projected an alphabetical index 
of every subject treated upon in Montague's Essays. He 
had collected all his materials, at which he laboured un- 
ceasingly ; and perhaps too strict an application to this 
favourite study accelerated the death of this eminent artist 
and benevolent man, which took place July 10, 1804. 
His business is still successfully carried on by his sons, 
Peter and Firmia Didot. The reputation of the elder 
Didot was much assisted by the labours of his brother, 
Peter Francis, who died in 1795, and to whom we owe 
the beautiful editions of Thomas a Kempis, fol. ; of Te- 
lemachus, 4 to ; the " Tableau de 1'empire Ottoman," &c.' 
DIDYMUS, of Alexandria, surnamed" Bowels of Brass,'* 
from his indefatigable application to study, lived in the 
reign of Augustus, and is said by Seneca to have written 
4000 treatises, not one of which has descended to our 
times ; but some scholia on Homer are attributed to him, 
xvhich Schrevelius has joined to an edition of that poet, 

Diet. Hist. 


Amsterdam, 1656, 2 vols. 4to, and they occur in some 
other editions, but they appear to be the work of a later 
author. 1 

DIDYMUS, of Alexandria, was an ecclesiastical writer 
of the fourth century, who supplied a very important de- 
fect by dint of genius and application. Jerome and Ruf- 
finus assure us that though he lost his eyes at five years of 
age, when he had scarcely learned to read, yet he applied 
himself so earnestly to study, that he not only attained in 
a high degree grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, 
and the other arts, but even was able to comprehend some 
of the most difficult theorems in mathematics. He was 
particularly attached to the study of the Scriptures ; and 
was selected as the most proper person to fill the chair in 
the famous divinity-school at Alexandria. His high re- 
putation drew a great number of scholars to him ; among 
the principal of whom were Jerome, Ruffinus, Palladius, 
and Isidorus. He read lectures with wonderful facility, 
answered upon the spot all questions and difficulties re- 
lating to the Holy Scriptures, and refuted the objections 
which were raised against the orthodox faith. He was the 
author of a great number of works of which Jerome has 
preserved the titles in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers; 
and of many more whose titles are not known. We have 
yet remaining a Latin translation of his book upon the Holy 
Spirit, to be found in the works of Jerome, who was the 
translator ; and which is perhaps the best treatise the 
Christian world ever saw upon the subject. Whatever has 
been said since that time, in defence of the divinity and 
personality of the Holy Ghost, seems, in substance, to be 
foand in this book. His other works extant are, a treatise 
against the Manichees, in the original Greek, and " Enar- 
rations upon the seven catholic epistles in Latin," and in 
the Greek Chains are fragments of some of his commen- 
taries. J. C. \Volff, of Hamburgh, published a large col- 
lection of notes and observations of Didymus upon the Acts 
of the Apostles, taken from a manuscript Greek chain, at 
Oxford. See Wolfii Anecdot. Graec. 1724. Didymus 
also wrote commentaries upon Origen's books of Prin- 
ciples, which he defended very strenuously against all 
opposers. He was a great admirer of Origen, used to con- 
sider him as his master, and adopted many of his senti- 

1 Vossius Hist. Grace. Moreri. Saxii Onomast. 

D I D Y M U S. 59 

ments ; on which account he was condemned by the fifth 
general council. He died in the year 395, aged eighty- 
five years. 1 

DIDYMUS, another of the name, was an eminent mu- 
sician of Alexandria, and, according to Suidas, cotem- 
porary in the first century with the emperor Nero, by 
whom he was much honoured and esteemed. This proves 
him to have been younger than Aristoxenus, and more an- 
cient than Ptolemy, though some have imagined him to 
have preceded Aristoxenus. He wrote upon grammar and 
medicine, as well as music ; but his works are all lost, and 
every thing we know at present of his barmonical doctrines 
is from Ptolemy, who, by disputing, preserved them. 
However, this author confesses him to have been well 
versed in the canon and harmonic divisions ; and if we 
may judge from the testimony, even of his antagonist, he 
must have been not only an able theorist in music, but a 
man of considerable learning. As this musician pre- 
ceded Ptolemy, and was the first who introduced the minor 
tone into the scale, and, consequently, the practical ma- 
jor 3d -f, which harmonized the whole system, and pointed 
out the road to counterpoint ; an honour that most critics 
have bestowed on Ptolemy, he seems to have a better title 
to the invention of modern harmony, or music in parts, 
than Guido, who appears to have adhered, both in theory 
and practice, to the old division of the scale into major 
tones and limmas. " The best species of diapason," says 
Doni, " and that which is the most replete with fine har- 
mony, and chiefly in use at present, was invented by Didy- 
mus. His method was this : after the major semitone E F 
T-f, he placed the minor tone in the ratio of V, between 
F G, and afterwards the major tone between G A ; but 
Ptolemy, for the sake of innovation, placed the major 
tone where Didymus placed the minor." Ptolemy, how- 
ever, in speaking of Didymus and his arrangement, objects 
to it as contrary to the judgment of the ear, which requires 
the major tone below the minor. The ear certainly deter- 
mines so with us, and it is therefore probable, that in 
Ptolemy's time the major key was gaining ground. Upon 
the whole, however, it appears that these authors only 
differ in the order, not the quality of intervals. 2 

1 Cave. Lardner's Works. Dupin. Moreri. Milner's Cb. Hist, vol. II. 
p. 250. Saxii Onomast. 

8 Burney's Hist, of Music, vol. I. Hawkins's Ditto. 

60 D I E C M A N. 

DIECMAN (JOHN), a Lutheran divine, was born June 
30, 1647, at Stade in the duchy of Bremen, where his fa- 
ther was also a clergyman. He studied at Giessen, Jena, 
and Wirtemberg, at which last university he took his mas- 
ter's degree. In 1672 he finished his course of study, and 
iu 1675 was appointed rector of Stade. In 1683 he was 
raised to the dignity of superintendant of the duchies of 
Bremen and Ferden, and about that time was honoured 
with the degree of doctor of divinity by the university of 
Kiel. In 1712, the war obliging him to leave Stade, he 
went to Bremen ; but after three years returned, and was 
re-instated in his office at Stade, where he died July 4, 
1720. He wrote, 1. " De naturalismo cum aliorum, turn 
maxime Joannis Bodini, ex opere ejus manuscripto anec- 
doto, de abditis rerum subliinium arcanis, schediasnaa," 
Leipsic, 1684, 12mo. This is a very able answer to the 
impious freedoms of Bodin (See BODIN). 2. " Specimen 
glossarii Latino-theodisci." 3. " Dissertationes de spar- 
sione florum." 4. " De dissensu ecclesiae orientalis et 
Latinae circa purgatorium." 5. " Enneacles animadver- 
sionum in diversa Joca annalium cardinalis Baronii," &c. 
He wrote also various tracts in the German language, col- 
lected in a volume, Hamburgh, 1709, 4to. But he is, 
perhaps, better known as the publisher of an edition of 
the Stade Bible, which is a revision of Luther's German 
Bible. ! 

DIEMEN (ANTHONY VAN), a governor of the Dutch 
East India settlements, was born at Kuilenburg. He went, 
in early life, in a low military capacity to India, where he 
was chiefly employed in writing petitions for the soldiers ; 
but being afterwards promoted to a post under govern- 
ment, which required some skill in accounts, he became a 
merchant, and afterwards accountant-general of the Dutch 
settlements in India. In 1625, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the supreme council, and in 1631 he returned to 
Holland as commander of the India fleet. He remained 
but a few months in Europe, and when he went back to 
India many important offices devolved on him. In 1642, 
he sent out two ships to explore the unknown countries to 
the south, part of which, forming the southern extremity 
of New Holland, was, in honour of him, distinguished by 
the appellation of " Van Diemen's Land." He died in 

' Moreri. 

D I E M E N. 61 

April 1645, having held, with much reputation, the su- 
preme power in India upwards of nine years. Van Die- 
men's land is an island in the form of an oblong square, 
about I GO British miles long, by half that breadth, sepa- 
rated by a strait, or rather channel, more than 30 leagues 
wide, called, in recent maps, Bass's strait, and containing 
a chain of small islands, running N. and S. from New 
Holland. From the time it was originally discovered, says 
capt. Cook, it had escaped all farther notice by European 
navigators, till captain Furneaux touched at it in March 
1773 ; but he did not know at that time that capt. Marion, 
after having remained here for some time, sailed from 
thence on the 10th of March, 1772. It was again visited 
by captain Cook in January 1777. l 

DIEMERBROECK (IsBRAND, DE), was born at Mont- 
fort, in the neighbourhood of Utrecht, Dec. 13, 1609. 
After taking his degree of doctor in medicine at Angers, he 
went to Nimeguen in 1636, and continued there, through 
that and the following years, practising during the plague, 
which all that time raged with great .violence. This fur- 
nished him with observations on the nature and treatment 
of that disease, which he published at Amsterdam, in 1644, 
4to ; but as he pursued the injudicious plan of keeping the 
patients in close apartments, and gave them heating medi- 
cines, his practice was probably not so successful as his 
book, which has passed through many editions. In 1642 
he went to Utrecht, ar>d was made professor extraordinary 
in medicine. His lectures in medicine, and in anatomy, 
procured him great credit, and were no less useful to the 
university, drawing thither a great conflux of pupils. In 
1651, he was made ordinary professor; he was also twice 
appointed rector of the university, and continued in high 
esteem to the time of his death, which happened Nov. 17, 
1674, when his funeral oration was pronounced by the 
learned Graevius. Although an Arminian in his religious 
tenets, the magistrates dispensed in his case with the laws 
which excluded persons of that persuasion from attaining 
academical honours. In 1649 he published " O ratio de 
reducenda ad Medicinam Chirurgia;" and in 1664, Dispu- 
tationum practicarum pars prima et secunda, de morbis 
Capitis et Thoracis," 12mo, in which Haller says, there 
are some curious and useful observations. His " Anatoine 

- 1 Cook's Voyages. Kees's Cyclopaedia* 


Corporis Humani," which has passed through numerous 
editions, was first published in 1672, 4to, a compilation, 
interspersed with some original observations ; but the plates 
are neither very elegant nor very correct. In 1G85, his 
works were collected and published tog-ether, at Utrecht, 
under the title of " Opera Omnia," by his son Timanis de 
Diemerbroeck, in folio. This was reprinted in two volumes, 
4to, and published at Geneva in 1687. It contains, be- 
sides the works above named, " A treatise on the Measles 
and Small-pox, a century of observations in medicine and 
surgery, and a third part of disputations containing ac- 
counts of diseases of the lower belly." ' 

DIEPENBECK (ABRAHAM VAN), an artist, was born at 
Bois-le-Duc, in 1607, and was at first a painter on glass, 
in which he was accounted excellent, and even superior 
to any of his time ; yet he discontinued it, on account of 
a variety of discouraging accidents that happened to him, 
in his preparations for that kind of work. He studied for 
some time in Italy, and found there good employment as a 
glass painter; but he turned his thoughts entirely to paint- 
ing in oil ; and, to obtain the best knowledge of colouring, 
entered himself in the school of Rubens, where he im- 
proved exceedingly, and was considered as one of the good 
disciples of that great master; yet, notwithstanding the 
opportunity he had of refining his national taste, during 
his residence in Italy, he never altered his original style 
of design ; for all his subsequent compositions were too 
much loaded, and not very correct. His invention was 
fertile, and shewed genius, and his execution was full of 
spirit; but it was no inconsiderable prejudice to him, to 
have been engaged in such a number of designs as were 
perpetually thrown in his way, and which he was obliged 
to strike out in a hurry, without competent time allowed 
for judgment to revise, digest, and correct them. Designs 
for title-pages, for theses, and devotional subjects, en- 
grossed the greatest part of his time and his labour ; or 
designs for the decoration of books ; of which kind, that 
called the "Temple of the Muses," 1662, afforded him 
great employment, and added much honour to the artist, 
merely as a designer. His designs, indeed, of the Belle- 
rophon, the Orpheus, the Dioscuri, the Leander, the Ixion, 
Tantalus, and Sisyphus, have never been excelled by the 

1 Moreri. Buvman's Trajectam Erudition Foppem Bibl. Beljj. 


conception of the best masters of the best schools. He 
was one of the few scholars of Rubens that came to Eng- 
land, where he was much employed by William Cavendish, 
duke of Newcastle, whose managed horses he drew from 
the life ; from whence were engraved the cuts that adorn 
that nobleman's book of horsemanship. Several of the 
original pictures are, or very lately were, in the hall at 
Welbeck. Diepenbeck drew views of the duke's seats in 
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, and portraits of the 
duke, duchess, and his children, and gave designs for se- 
veral plates prefixed to the works of both their graces. At 
Cassiobery is the story of Dido and ^Eneas by him. l 

DIEST (ABRAHAM VAN), another artist, known in this 
country, was born at the Hague, in 1655 ; but spent the 
greatest part of his life in England, to which he came in 
his seventeenth year, and where he gradually rose into 
considerable credit, having been well instructed by his 
father, who was a skilful painter of sea-pieces. His taste 
of landscape was formed almost entirely (as he often de- 
clared) by designing the lovely views in the western parts 
of England, and along the coasts. Some of his pictures 
have great clearness and transparence in the colouring, and 
a peculiar tenderness in the distances ; they are truly fine 
in the skies, have an uncommon freedom in the clouds, 
and an agreeable harmony through the whole. But, as he 
was often obliged to paint for low prices, there is a great 
disproportion in his works. The narrowness of his circum- 
stances depressed his talent, and rendered him inattentive 
to fame, being solely anxious to provide for his family. 
Had he been so happy as to receive a proper degree of 
encouragement, it is not improbable that he might have 
approached near to those of the first rank in his profession. 
The figures in his landscapes were frequently inserted by 
the younger Adrian Coloni, his brother-in-law. He be- 
gan to engrave a set of prints, after views from his own 
designs, but the gout put an end to his life in 170-1, in the 
forty- ninth year of his age. Lord Orford, who has a por- 
trait of him, thinks he was not much encouraged in Eng- 
land, except by Granville earl of Bath, for whom he drew 
several views and ruins in the West of England. 2 

DIETERIC (JOHN CONRAD), the son of John Conrad, 
first minister of the church of Butzbach, and afterwards 

1 Pilkington. Argenville. Descamps. Waipole's Anecdotes. 
* Pilk t ju. Walpole. 

64 D I E T E R I C. 

superintendent of Giessen, and nephew of Conrad Dieterk, 
another learned German divine, was born at Butzbach, 
Jan. 19, 1612. After having studied at Marpurg, Jena, 
and Strasburgh, he maintained a thesis, in 1635, under 
professor Dilher, on the utility of profane authors in the 
study of the Holy Scriptures. He then went into Hol- 
land, where he became acquainted with the learned Vos- 
sius, Boxborn, Barlaeus, Heinsius, and other eminent 
scholars. Thence he travelled into Denmark and Prussia, 
remaining some time at Konigsberg. On his return, 
George II. landgrave of Hesse, appointed him professor of 
Greek and history in 1639. From the observations which 
he left on the aphorisms of Hippocrates, he appears to 
have in some early part of his life studied medicine. On 
certain disputes arising between the princes of the house of 
Hesse, prince George invited him to his court to arrange 
the papers and documents preserved in the archives. In 
1647, he obtained leave to go to Hamburgh, where he 
remained until these family-disputes were adjusted. In 
1653, when the college of Giessen was founded, which 
had brought many visitors from Marpnrg, he became one 
of the professors, and remained in this office, with great 
reputation, until his death in 1669. The letters which 
John Christian, baron of Boinebourg, wrote to him, and 
which were printed in 1 703, evince the high esteem which 
that nobleman entertained for him. He was editor of a 
work written by Henry of Bunau, entitled " Historia 
imperatorum Germanicorum familise Saxonies, Henrici I. 
Ottonis magni ; Ottonis II. Ottonis III. et Henrici II." 
Giessen, 1666, 4to. His own works are, 1. " Breviarium 
historicum et geographicum." 2. " Breviarium ponti- 
ficum." 3. " Discursus historico-politicus de perigratione 
studiorum," Marpurg, 1640, 4to. 4. " Graecia exulans, 
seu de infelicitate superioris sseculi in Greecarum littera- 
rum ignoratione." 5. " Antiquitates llomanai." 6. 
" latraeum Hippocraticum," Ulm, 1661, 4to. 7. "Bre- 
viarium ha3reticorurn et conciliorum." 8. " Index in He- 
siodum." 9. " Lexicon Etymologico-Graecum." 10. 
" Antiquitates Biblicue, in quibus decreta, prophetiae, ser- 
mones, consuetudincs, ritusque ac dicta veteris Testa- 
menti de rebus Judaeorum et Gentilium, qua sacris, qua 
profanis, expenduntur; ex editione Joannis-Justi Pistorii," 
Giessen, 1671, folio, which, with the following, was post- 
humous, 11. "Antiquitates Nov. Testamenti, seu illus- 

DIEU. 65 

trartiefltum Nov. Test, sive Lexicon philologico-theologi- 
cum Grseco-Latinum," Francfort, 1680, folio. * 

DIELJ (LEWIS DE), protestant minister of Leyden, and 
professor in the Walloon college of that city, a man of 
great abilities, and uncommonly versed in the oriental lan- 
guages, was born April 7, 1590, at Flushing, where his 
father Daniel de Dieu was minister. Daniel was a man of 
great merit, and a native of Brussels, where he had been 
a minister twenty : two years. He removed from thence in 
1585, to serve the church at Flushing, after the duke of 
Parma had taken Brussels. He understood Greek and the 
oriental languages, and could preach with the applause of 
his auditors in German, Italian, French, and English. The 
churches of the Netherlands sent him, in 1588, over to 
queen Elizabeth, to inform her of the designs of the duke 
of Parma, who secretly made her proposals of peace, while 
the king of Spain was equipping a formidable fleet against 
England. Lewis, his son, studied under Daniel Colonius, 
his uncle by his mother's side, who was professor at Ley- 
den in the Walloon college. He was two years minister 
of the French church at Flushing; and might have been 
court-minister at the Hague, if his natural aversion to the 
manners of a court had not restrained him from accepting 
that place. There are some circumstances relating to that 
affair which deserve to be remembered. Prince Maurice, 
being in Zealand, heard Lewis de Dieu preach, who was 
yet but a student ; and some time after sent for him to 
court. The young man modestly excused himself, de- 
claring, that he designed to satisfy his conscience in the 
exercise of his ministry, and to censure freely what he 
should find deserved censure ; a liberty, he said, which 
courts did not care to allow. Besides, he thought the post 
which was offered him more proper for a man in years than 
a student. The prince, conscious that he was in the right, 
commended his modesty and prudence. He was called to 
Leyden in 1619 to teach, with his uncle Colonius, in the 
Walloon college ; and he discharged the duty of that em- 
ployment with great diligence till his death, which hap- 
pened in 1642. He refused the post, which was offered 
him, of divinity-professor in the new university of Utrecht; 
but, if he had lived long enough, he would have been ad- 
vanced to the same post in that of Leyden. He married 

1 Moreri. Freheri Theatrum, Morhoff Polyhist. Saxii Onomast, 


6u DIE U. 

the daughter of a counsellor of Flushing, by whom he had 
eleven children. 

Father Simon speaks advantageously of the writings of 
Lewis de Dieu in the 35th chapter of his " Critical History 
of the Commentators on the New Testament." The esti- 
mation in which he was held by archbishop Usher, appears 
from the Letters of that excellent prelate, published by 
Dr. Parr. The titles of his learned writings are, 1. 
" Compendium Grammatica; Hebraicae," Leyden, 1626, 
4to. 2. " Apocalypsis S. Joanna Syriace ex manuscripto 
exemplari bibliothecce Jos. Scaligeri edita, &c." Leyden, 
1627, 4to. 3. " Grammatica trilinguis, Hebraica, Syriaca, 
et Chaldaica," ibid. 1628, 4to. 4. "Animadversiones in 
quatuor evangelia," ibid. 1631, 4to. 5. " Animadversiones 
in Acta Apostolorum," ibid. 1634, 4to. 6. " His- 
toria Christi et S. Petri Persice conscripta, &c." ibid. 
J639, 4to. 7. " Rudimenta linguae Persictc," ibid. 1639, 
4to. 8. " Animadversiones in Epistolam ad Romanes et 
reliquas Epistolas," ibid. 1646, 4to. 9. "Animadversiones 
in omnes libros Veteris Testamenti," ibid. 1648. 10. 
" Critica Sacra, sive animadversiones in loca qucedam diffi- 
ciliora Veteris et Novi Testamenti," Amst. 1693, folio. 1 1. 
" Grammatica Linguarum Orientalium ex recensione Da- 
vidis Clodii," Francfort, 1683, 4to, in which the editor 
has collected all that De Dieu had published on the gram- 
mar of the Eastern languages. 12. " Aphorismi Theo- 
logi," Utrecht, 1693. This and the two following were 
edited by professor Leydecker of Utrecht. 13. " Traite 
co'ntre 1'avarice, par Louis de Dieu, qui est le seul de tous 
ses ouvrages Flamans qu'il ait souhaite qu'on publiat." De- 
venter, 1695, 8vo. 14. " Khetorica Sacra." 1 

DIGBY (Sir EVERARD), an English gentleman, memo- 
rable for the share he had in the powder-plot, and his suf- 
fering on that account, was descended from an ancient 

O * 

family, and born some time in 1581. His father, Everard 
Digby, of Drystoke in Rutlandshire, esq. a person of great 
worth and learning, was educated in St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. and pub- 
lished several treatises, some on learned, others on curious 
subjects: as, 1. " Theoria analytica viam ad mouarchiam 
scientiarum demonstrans," 1579, 4to. 2. " De duplici 

1 Gen. Diet. Niceron, vol. XV. Foppen Bibl. Belg. Moreri. Blount's 
Censura. Parr's Life and Letters of Archbishop Usher, pp. 413, 461,464, 415, 
480, 481, 486, 4S7, 490, 596. Saxij Onomast. 

D I G B Y. 67 

methodo libri duo, Rami methodum refutantes," 1580, 
8vo. 3. " De arte natandi, libri duo," 1587. 4. "A 
dissuasive from taking away the goods and livings of the 
church," 4to. His son, the subject of this article, was 
educated with great care, but unfortunately under the tui- 
tion of some popish priests, who gave him those impres- 
sions which his father, if he had lived, might probably have 
prevented ; but he died when his son was only eleven 
years of age. He was introduced very early to the court 
of queen Elizabeth, where he was much noticed, and re- 
ceived several marks of her majesty's favour. On the ac- 
cession of king James, he went likewise to pay his duty, 
as others of his religion did ; was very graciously received ; 
and had the honour of knighthood conferred upon him, 
being looked on as a man of a fair fortune, pregnant abili- 
ties, and a court-like behaviour. He married Mary, 
daughter and sole heiress of William Mulsho, esq. of Go- 
thurst, in Buckinghamshire, with whom he had a great for- 
tune, which, with his own estate, was settled upon the 
children of that marriage. One would have imagined that, 
considering his mild temper and happy situation in the 
world, this gentleman might have spent his days in honour 
and peace, without running the smallest hazard of meeting 
that disgraceful death, which has introduced his name into 
all our histories : but it happened far otherwise. He was 
drawn in by the artifices and persuasions of sir Thomas 
Tresham, a zealous papist, and probably also by those of 
the notorious Catesby, with whom he was intimate, to be 
privy to the gunpowder-plot ; and though he was not a 
principal actor in this dreadful affair, or indeed an actor 
at all, yet he offered 1500/. towards defraying the expences 
of it ; entertained Guy Fawkes, who was to have executed 
it, in his house; and was taken in open rebellion with 
other papists after the plot was detected and miscarried. 
The means by which sir Everard was persuaded to engage 
in this affair, according to his own accoun' \vere these: 
first, he was told that king James had broke his promises 
to the catholics; secondly, that severer laws against popery 
would be made in the next parliament, that husbands 
would be made obnoxious for their wives' otte/iees and 
that it would be made a praemunire only to be a catholic ; 
but the main point was, thirdly, that the restoring of the 
catholic religion was the duty of every member ; and that, 

F 2 

68 D I O B Y. 

in consideration of this, he was not to regard any favonjr* 
received from the crown, the tranquillity of his country, 
or the hazards that might be run in respect to his life, his 
family, or his fortune. Upon his commitment to the Tower, 
he persisted steadily in maintaining his own innocence as 
to the powder-plot, and refused to discover any who were 
concerned in it ; but when he was brought to his trial at 
Westminster, Jan. 27, 1606, and indicted for being ac- 
quainted with and concealing the powder-treason, taking 
the double oath of secrecy and constancy, and acting 
openly with other traitors in rebellion, he pleaded guilty. 
After this, he endeavoured to extenuate his offence, by 
explaining the motives before mentioned ; and then re- 
quested that, as he had been alone in the crime, he might 
alone bear the punishment, without extending it to his 
family ; and that his debts might be paid, and himself be- 
headed. When sentence of death was passed, he seemed 
to be very much affected : for, making a low bow to those 
on the bench, he said, " If I could hear any of your lord- 
ships say you forgave me, I should go the more cheerfully 
to the gallows." To this all the lords answered, " God 
forgive you, and we do." He was, with other conspira- 
tors, upon the 30th of the same month, hanged, drawn, 
and quartered at the west end of St. Paul's church in Lon- 
don, where he asked forgiveness of God, the king, the 
queen, the prince, and all the parliament; and protested, 
that if he had known this act at first to have been so foul a 
treason, he would not have concealed it to have gained a 
world, requiring the people to witness, that he died peni- 
tent and sorrowful for it. Wood mentions a most extraor- 
dinary circumstance at his death, as a thing generally 
Itnown, or rather generally reported ; namely, that when 
the executioner plucked out his heart, and according to 
form held it up, saying, " Here is the heart of a traitor,'' 
sir Everard made answer, "Thou lyest ;" a story which 
will scarcely now obtain belief; yet it is told by Bacon in 
his " Historia vitae et mortis," although he does not men- 
tion sir Everard's name. 

Sir Everard left at his death two young sons, afterward* 
sir Kenelm and sir John Digby, and expressed his affection 
towards them by a well-written and pathetic paper, which 
he desired might be communicated to them at a fit time, 
*i> the last advice of their father. While he was in the 

D I G B Y. 69 

Tower, he wrote, in juice of lemon, or otherwise, upon 
slips of paper, as opportunity offered; and got these con- 
veyed to his lady, by such as had permission to see him. 
These notes, or advertisements, were preserved by the 
family as precious relics ; till, in 1 675, they were found at 
the house of Charles Cornwallis, esq. executor to sir 
Kenelm Digby, by sir Rice Rudd, bart. and William 
Wogan of Gray's-inn, esq. They were afterwards annexed 
to the proceedings against the traitors, and other pieces 
relating to the popish plot, printed by the orders of secre- 
tary Coventry, dated Dec. 12, 1G7S. In the first of these 
papers there is the following paragraph : " Now for my 
intention, let me tell you, that if I had thought there had 
been the least sin in the plot, I would not have been of it 
for all the world ; and no other cause drew me to hazard 
my fortune and life, but zeal to God's religion." Such 
was the subjugation of sir Everard Digby' s understanding 
and feelings to his religious principles, and the interest of 
the church to which he was devoted, that he had no con- 
ception of there being the least sin in his engaging in a 
conspiracy of the most execrable nature, and which in- 
volved in it an astonishing complication of murder. It 
appears, too, that he was surprised and grieved to the last 
degree, that the plot should be condemned by any catho- 
lic. Nor was he singular in these sentiments. The other 
persons who were concerned in the conspiracy gloried in 
the design, and they were most of them men of family, 
estate, and character. Mr. Hume's observations on the 
subject are worthy of being recited : " Neither," says he, 
"had the desperate fortune of the conspirators urged them 
to this enterprize, nor had the former profligacy of their 
lives prepared them for so great a crime. Before that 
audacious attempt, their conduct seems, in general, liable 
to no reproach. Catesby's character had entitled him to 
such regard, that Rookwood and Digby were seduced by 
their implicit trust in his judgment; and they declared, 
that, from the motive alone of friendship to him, they were 
ready, on any occasion, to have sacrificed their lives. 
Digby himself was as highly esteemed and beloved as any 
man in England ; and he had been particularly honoured 
with the good opinion of queen Elizabeth. It was bigoted 
zeal alone, the most absurd of prejudices masqued with 
reason, the most criminal of passions covered with the 

70 D I G B Y. 

appearance of duty, which seduced them into measures that 
were fatal to themselves, and had so nearly proved fatal to 
their country." 

DIGBY (Sir KENELM), who once enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of a philosopher, the eldest son of sir Everard Digby, 
was born at Gothurst in Buckinghamshire, June 11, 1603. 
At the time of his father's death, he was with his mother at 
Gothurst, being then in the third year of his age : but he 
seems to have been taken early out of her hands, since it 
is certain that he renounced the errors of popery very 
young, and was carefully bred up in the protestant religion, 
under the direction, as it is supposed, of archbishop Laud, 
then dean of Gloucester. Some have said, that king James 
restored his estate to him in his infancy ; but this is an 
error ; for it was decided by law that the king had no right 
to it. About 1618 he was admitted a gentleman-com- 
moner of Gloucester-hall, now Worcester college, in Ox- 
ford ; where he soon discovered such strength of natural 
abilities, and such a spirit of penetration, that his tutor, 
who was a man of parts and learning, used to compare him, 
probably for the universality of his genius, to the cele- 
brated Picus de Mirandula. After having continued at 
Oxford between two and three years, and having raised 
the highest expectations of future eminence, he made the 
tour of France, Spain, and Italy, and returned to England 
in 1623 ; in which year he was knighted by the king, to 
whom he was presented at the lord Montague's house at 
Hinchinbroke, October 23. Soon after, he rendered him- 
self remarkable by the application of a secret he met with 
in his travels, which afterwards made so much noise in 
the world under the title of the " Sympathetic Powder," 
by which wounds were to be cured, although the patient 
was out of sight, a piece of quackery scarcely credible, 
yet it was practised by sir Kenelni, and his patient Howell, 
the letter-writer, and believed by many at that time. The 
virtues of this powder, as himself assures us, were tho- 
roughly inquired into by king James, his son the prince of 
Wales, the duke of Buckingham, with other persons of 
the highest distinction, and all registered among the obser- 
vations of the great chancellor Bacon, to be added by 
way of appendix to his lordship's Natural History ; but 
this is not strictly true ; for lord Bacon never published 

i Biog. Brit. Dodd's Church History, vol. II. 

D I G B Y. 71 

that Appendix, although he does give a story nearly as 

After the death of James, he made as great a figure in 
the new court as he had done in the old ; and was ap- 
pointed a gentleman of the bed-chamber, a commissioner 
of the navy, and a governor of the Trinity-house. Some 
disputes having happened in the Mediterranean with the 
Venetians, he went as adoiiral thither with a small fleet in 
the summer of 1628 ; and gained great honour bv his bra- 
very and conduct at Algiers, in rescuing many English 
slaves, and attacking' the Venetian fleet in the bay of 
Scanderoon. In 1632 he had an excellent library of MSS. 
as well as printed books left him by Ins tutor at Oxford ; 
but, considering how much the MSS. were valued in that 

* O 

university, and how serviceable they might be to the stu- 
dents there, he generously bestowed them the very next 
year upon the Bodleian library. He continued to this time 
a member of the church of England; but, going some time 
afterwards into France, he began to have religious scru- 
ples, t-nd at length, in 1636, reconciled himself to the 
church of Rome. He wrote upon this occasion to Laud an 
apology for his conduct ; and the archbishop returned him 
an answer, full of tenderness and good advice, but, as it 
seems, with very little hopes of regaining him. In his 
letter to the archbishop, he took great pains to convince 
him, that he had done nothing in this affair precipitately, 
or without due consideration ; and he was desirous that the 
public should entertain the same opinion of him. As no- 
thing also has been more common, than for persons who 
have changed their system of religion, to vindicate their 
conduct by setting forth their motives ; so with this view 
he published at Paris, in 1638, a piece, entitled " A Con- 
ference with a lady about the choice of Religion." It was 
reprinted at London in 1654, and is written in a polite, 
easy, and concise style. Some controversial letters of his 
were published at London in 1651. 

After a long stay in France, where he was highly ca- 
ressed, he came over to England ; and in 1639 was, with 
sir Walter Montague, employed by the queen to engage 
the papists to a liberal contribution to the king, which 
they effected ; on which account some styled the forces 
then raised for his majesty, the popish army. Jan. 1640, 
the house of commons sent for sir Kenelm in order to know 
how far, and upon what grounds, he had acted in. this 

72 DIGBY. 

matter ; which he opened to them very clearly, without 
having the least recourse to subterfuges or evasions. Upon 
the breaking out of the civil war, being at London, he 
was by the parliament committed prisoner to Winchester- 
house; but at length, in 1643, set at liberty, her majesty 
the queen dowager of France having condescended to write 
a letter, with her own hand, in his favour. His liberty 
was granted upon certain terms ; and a very respectful 
letter written in answer to that of the queen. Hearne has 
preserved a copy of the letter, directed to the queen re- 
gent of France, in the language of that country ; of which 
the following is a translation : " Madam, the two houses 
of parliament having been informed by the sieur de Gressy, 
of the desire your majesty has that we should set at liberty 
sir Kenelm Digby ; we are commanded to make known to 
your majesty, that although the religion, the past beha- 
viour, and the abilities of this gentleman, might give some 
umbrage of his practising to the prejudice of the constitu- 
tions of this realm ; nevertheless, having so great a regard 
to the recommendation of your majesty, they have ordered 
him to be discharged, and have authorized us farther to 
assure your majesty, of their being always ready to testify 
to you their respects upon every occasion, as well as to 
advance whatever may regard the good correspondence 
between the two states. We remain your majesty's most 
humble servants, &c." In regard to the terms upon which 
this gentleman was set at liberty, they will sufficiently ap- 
pear from the following paper, entirely written, as well as 
subscribed by his own hand: " Whereas, upon the media- 
tion of her majesty the queen of France, it hath pleased 
both houses of parliament to permit me to go into that 
kingdom ; in humble acknowledgement of their favour 
therein, and to preserve and confirm a good opinion of my 
zeal and honest intentions to the honour and service of my 
country, I do here, upon the faith of a Christian, and the 
word of a gentleman, protest and promise, that I will 
neither directly nor indirectly negociate, promote, consent 
unto or conceal, any practice or design prejudicial to the 
honour or safety of the parliament. And, in witness of 
my reality herein, I have hereunto subscribed my name, 
this 3d day of August, 1643, Kenelm Digby." Hovfever, 
before he quitted the kingdom, he was summoned by a 
committee of the house of commons, in order to give an 
account of any transactions he might be privy to between 

D I G B Y. 73 

archbishop Laud and the court of Rome ; and particularly 
as to an offer supposed to be made to that prelate from 
thence of a cardinal's hat. Sir Kenelm assured the com- 
mittee that he knew nothing of any such transactions ; and 
that, in his judgment, the archbishop was what he seemed 
to be, a very sincere and learned protestant. During his 
confinement at Winchester-house, he was the author of 
two pieces at the least, which were afterwards made pub- 
lic ; namely, 1. " Observations upon Dr. Browne's Religio 
Medici," 1643*. 2. "Observations on the 22d stanza in 
the 9th canto of the 2d book of Spenser's Fairy Queen,'* 
1644, containing, says his biographer, " a very deep phi- 
losophical commentary upon these most mysterious verses.'* 
His appearance in France was highly agreeable to many 
of the learned in that kingdom, who had a great opinion of 
his abilities, and were charmed with the spirit and freedom, 
of his conversation. It was probably about this time that, 
having read the writings of Descartes, he resolved to go 
to Holland on purpose to see him, and found him in his 
retirement at Egmond. There, after conversing with him. 
upon philosophical subjects some time, without making 
himself known, Descartes, who had read some of his works, 
told him, that " he did not doubt but he was the famous 
sir Kenelm Digby !" " And if you, sir," replied the 
knight, " were not the illustrious M. Descartes, I should 
not have come here on purpose to see you." Desmaizeaux, 
who has preserved this anecdote in his Life of St. Evre- 
mond, tells us also of a conversation which then followed 
between these great men, about lengthening out life to 
the period of the patriarchs, which we have already noticed 
in our account of Descartes. He is also said to have had 
many conferences afterwards with Descartes at Paris, where 
he spent the best part of the ensuing winter, and em- 
ployed himself in digesting those philosophical treatises 
which he had been long meditating ; and which he pub- 
lished in his own language, but with a licence or privilege 
from the French king the year following. Their titles are, 
J. " A Treatise of the nature of Bodies." 2. " A Treatise 
declaring the operations and nature of Man's Soul, out of 

* In this work, says Dr. Johnson, yet its principal claim to admiration is, 

in his life of Browne, though mingled that it was written in twenty-four hours, 

with some positions fabulous and un- of which part was spent in procuring 

certain, there are acute remarks, just Browne's book, aud part in reading 

Censures, auc! profound speculations j it. 

74 D I G B Y. 

which the immortality of reasonable Souls is evinced/' 
Both printed at Paris in 1644, and often reprinted at Lon- 
don. He published also, 3. " Institutionum peripatetica- 
rum libri quinque, curn appendice theologica de origine 
mundi," Paris, 1651 : which piece, joined to the two for- 
mer, translated into Latin by J. L. together with a preface 
in the same language by Thomas Albius, \hat is, Thomas 
White, was printed at London in 4to, 1C69. 

After the king's affairs were totally ruined, sir Kenelm 
found himself under a necessity of returning into England 
in order to compound for his estate. The parliament, 
however, did not judge it proper that he should remain 
here ; and therefore not only ordered him to withdraw, 
but voted, that if he should afterwards at any time return, 
without leave of the house first obtained, he should lose 
both life and estate. Upon this he went again to France, 
where he was very kindly received by Henrietta Maria, 
dowager queen of England, to whom he had been for some 
time chancellor. He was sent by her not long after into 
Italy, and at first well received by Innocent X. but Wood 
says, behaved to the pope so haughtily, that he quickly 
lost his good opinion ; and adds farther, that there was a 
suspicion of his being no faithful steward of the contribu- 
tions raised in that part of the world for the assistance 
of the distressed catholics in England. After Cromwell 
had assumed the supreme power, sir Kenelm, who had 
then nothing to fear from the parliament, ventured to re- 
turn home, and continued here a great part of 1655 ; when 
it has generally been supposed that he was embarked in 
the great design of reconciling the papists to the protector. 

After some stay at Paris, he spent the summer of 1656 
at Toulouse, where he conversed with several learned and 
ingenious men, to whom he communicated, not only ma- 
thematical, physical, and philosophical discoveries of his 
own, but also any matters of this nature he received from. 
his friends in different parts of Europe. Among these was 
a relation he had obtained of a city in Barbary under the 
king of Tripoli, which was said to be turned into stone in 
a very few hours by a petrifying vapour out of the earth ; 
that is, men, beasts, trees, houses, utensils, and the like, 
remaining all in the same posture as when alive. He had 
this account from Fitton, an Englishman residing in Flo 
rence as library-keeper to the grand duke of Tuscany ; and 
Fitton from the grand duke, who a little before had written 

D t G B Y. 7* 

to the pasha of Tripoli to know the truth. Sir Keuelm 
sent it to a friend in England; and it was at length in- 
serted in the " Mercurius Politicus." This drew a very 
severe censure upon our author from the famous Henry 
Stubbes, who called him, on that account, "The Pliny of 
his age for lying." It has, however, been offered, in his 
vindication, that accounts have been given of such a city 
by modern writers ; and that these accounts are in some 
measure confirmed by a paper delivered to Richard Wal- 
ler, esq. F. R. S. by Mr. Baker, who was the English con- 
sul at Tripoli, Nov. 12, 1713. This paper is to be found 
in the " Philosophical Observations and Experiments of Dr. 
Robert Hooke," published by Derham in 1726, 8vo ; and 
it begins thus : " About forty days journey S. E. from 
Tripoli, and about seven days from the nearest sea-coast, 
there is a place called Ougila, in which there are found 
the bodies of men, women, and children, beasts and plants, 
all petrified of hard stone, like marble." And we are af- 
terwards told, in the course of the relation, that " the 
figure of a man petrified was conveyed to Leghorn, and 
from thence to England ; and that it was carried to secre- 
tary Thurloe." 

In 1657 we find him at Montpelier ; whither he went, 
partly for the sake of his health, which began to be im- 
paired by severe fits of the stone, and partly for the sake 
of enjoying the learned society of several ingenious per- 
sons, who had formed themselves into a kind of academy 
there. To- these he read, in French, his " Discourse of 
the Cure of Wounds by the Powder of Sympathy," which, 
was translated into English, and printed at London ; and 
afterwards into Latin, and reprinted in 1669, with "The 
Treatise of Bodies, &c." As to the philosophical argu- 
ments in this work, and the manner in which the author 
accounts for the strange operations of this remedy, how- 
ever highly admired in those days, they will not now be 
thought very convincing. He spent the year 1658, and 
part of 1659, in the Lower Germany; and then returned 
to Paris, where we find him in 16CO. He returned the 
year following to England, and was very well received at 
court ; although the ministers were far from being ignorant 
of the irregularity of his conduct, and the attention he paid 
to Cromwell while the king was in exile. It does not ap- 
pear, however, that any other favour was shewn him than 
seemed to be due to a man of letters. In the first settle- 

76 DIGBY. 

ment of the royal society we find him appointed one of 
the council, by the title of sir Kenelm Digby, knight, 
Chancellor to our dear mother queen Mary. As long as 
his health permitted, he attended the meetings of this so- 
ciety ; and assisted in the improvements that were then 
made in natural knowledge. One of his discourses, "Con- 
cerning the Vegetation of Plants," \vas printed in 1661; 
and it is the only genuine work of our author of which we 
have not spoken. For though the reader may find in 
Wood, and other authors, several pieces attributed to him, 
yet these were published after his decease by one Hartman, 
who was his operator, and who put his name in the title- 
page, with a view of recommending compositions very 
unworthy of him to the public. It may be proper to ob- 
serve in this place, that he translated from the Latin of 
Albertus Magnus, a piece entitled " A treatise of ad- 
hering to God," which was printed at London in 1654; 
and that he had formed a design of collecting and publish- 
ing the works of Roo-er Bacon. 

o o 

He spent the remainder of his days at his house in Co- 
vent Garden, where he was much visited by the lovers of 
philosophical and mathematical learning, and according to 
a custom which then prevailed much in France, he had a 
kind of academy, or literary assembly, in his own dwelling. 
In 1665 his old distemper the stone increased upon him 
much, and brought him very low ; which made him de- 
sirous, as it is said, of going to France. This, however, 
he did not live to accomplish, but died on his birth-day, 
June 1 1th, that year; and was interred in a vault built at 
his own charge in Christ-church within Newgate, London. 
His library, which was justly esteemed a most valuable 
collection, had been transported into France at the first 
breaking out of the troubles, and improved there at a very 
considerable expense ; but, as he was no subject of his 
most Christian majesty, it became, according to that branch 
of the prerogative which the French style DroilcTAubain, 
the property of the crown upon his decease. He left an 
only son, John Digby, esq. who succeeded to the family 
estate. He had an elder son, Kenelm Digby, esq. of 
great abilities and virtues ; but this gentleman appearing 
in arms for Charles I. after that monarch was utterly inca- 
pable of making the least resistance, was killed at the battle 
of St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire, July 7, 1648. 

It has been justly observed by the editors of the last 

D I G B Y. 77 

edition of the Biog. Britannica, that sir Kenelm Digby 
seems to have obtained a reputation beyond his merit ; yet 
his merit was great, and his personal character has been 
admirably drawn by lord Clarendon : " He was," says 
that historian, " a person very eminent and notorious 
throughout the whole course of his life, from his cradle to 
his grave ; of an ancient family and noble extraction ; and 
inherited a fair and plentiful fortune, notwithstanding the 
attainder of his father. He was a man of a very extraor- 
dinary person and presence, which drew the eyes of all 
men upon him, which were more fixed by a wonderful 
graceful behaviour, a flowing courtesy and civility, and 
such a volubility of language, as surprised and delighted ; 
and though in another man it might have appeared to have 
somewhat of affectation, it was marvellous graceful in. 
him, and seemed natural to his size, and mould of his 
person, to the gravity of his motion, and the tune of his 
voice and delivery. He had a fair reputation in arms, of 
which he gave an early testimony in his youth, in some 
encounters in Spain and Italy, and afterwards in an action 
in the Mediterranean sea, where he had the command of 
a squadron of ships of war set out at his own charge, under 
the king's commission ; with which, upon an injury re- 
ceived or apprehended from the Venetians, he encountered 
their whole fleet, killed many of their men, and sunk one 
of their galeasses ; which in that drowsy and unactive time 
was looked upon with a general estimation, though the 
crown disavowed it. In a word, he had all the advantages 
that nature and art, and an excellent education could give 
him, which, with a great confidence and presentness of 
mind, buoyed him up against all those prejudices and dis- 
advantages (as the attainder and execution of his father 
for a crime of the highest nature ; his own marriage with 
a lady, though of an extraordinary beauty, of as extraor- 
dinary a fame ; his changing and rechanging his religion ; 
and some personal vices and licences in his life) which 
would have suppressed and sunk any other man, but never 
clouded or eclipsed him from appearing in the best places, 
and the best company, and with the best estimation and 
satisfaction." We cati entertain no doubt, therefore, of 
the estimation in which he was held", and of the merit 
which deserved it; but on the other hand it is impossible 
to acquit him of excessive credulity, or of deliberate im- 
posture. His sympathetic powder, and his belief, or his 

73 D I G B Y. 

assertion of the power of transmuting metals, will not now 
bear examination, without affecting his character in one or 
other of these respects. 1 

DIGBY (JOHN), earl of Bristol, and father of lord 
George Digby, was by no means an inconsiderable man, 
though checked by the circumstances of his times from 
making so great a figure as his son. He was descended 
from an ancient family at Coleshill, in Warwickshire, and 
born in 1580. He was entered a commoner of Magdalen- 
college, Oxford, in 1595; and the year following distin- 
guished himself as a poet by a copy of verses made upon 
the death of sir Henry Union of Wadley, in Berks. After- 
wards he travelled into France and Italy, and returned 
from thence perfectly accomplished ; so that soon falling 
under the notice of king James, he was admitted gentle- 
man of the privy-chamber, and one of his majesty's carvers, 
in 1605. February following he received the honour of 
knighthood ; and in April 1611, was sent ambassador into 
Spain, as he was afterwards again in 1614. April 1616 
he was admitted one of the king's privy-council, and vice- 
chamberlain of his majesty's household ; and in 1618 was 
advanced to the dignity of a baron, by the title of the lord 
Digby of Sherbourne, in Dorsetshire. In 1620 he was sent 
ambassador to the archduke Albert, and the year following 
to Ferdinand the emperor ; as also to the duke of Bavaria. 
In 1622 he was sent ambassador extraordinary to Spain, 
concerning the marriage between prince Charles and Maria 
daughter of Philip III. and the same year was created earl 
of Bristol. Being censured by the duke of Buckingham, 
on his return from the Spanish court in 1 624, he was for 
a short time sent to the Tower ; but after an examination 
by a committee of lords, we do not find that any thing 
important resulted from this inquiry. After the accession 
of Charles I. the tide of resentment ran strong against the 
earl, who observing that the king was entirely governed by 
Buckingham, resolved no longer to keep any measures 
with the court. In consequence of this, the king, by a 
stretch of prerogative, gave orders that the customary 
writ for his parliamentary attendance should not; be sent 
to him, and on May 1, 1626, he was charged with high 
treason and other offences. Lord Bristol recriminated, by 
preparing articles of impeachment against the duke ; but 

1 Biog. Brit, Life of lord Clarendon. Ath. Ox. vol. H. 

D I G B Y. 79 

the king, resolving to protect Buckingham, dissolved the 
parliament. The earl now sided with the leaders of op- 
position in the long parliament. But the violences of that 
assembly soon disgusting him, he left them, and became a 
zealous adherent to the king and his cause ; for which at 
length he suffered exile, and the loss of his estate. He 
died at Paris, Jan. 21, 1653. 

He was the author of several works. Besides the verses 
above-mentioned, he composed other poems ; one of 
which, an air for three voices, was set by H. Lawes, and 
published in his " Airs and Dialogues," at London, in 
1653. Besides his tracts and speeches on the politics of 
the times, he was in the earlier part of his life the author 
of a work of a very different nature, namely, a translation 
of Peter du Moulin's book, entitled, " A Defence of the 
Catholic Faith, contained in the book of king James, against 
the answer of N. Coeffeteau, 1610, &c." He probably 
undertook this laborious task at the request of that mo- 
narch. The dedication, however, to the king, is not in 
his own, but in the name of J. Sandford, his chaplain. 1 

DIGBY (LORD GEORGE), an English nobleman of great 
parts, was son of the preceding, and born at Madrid, in 
October, 1612. In 1626 he was entered of Magdalen- 
college, in Oxford, where he lived in great familiarity 
with the well-known Peter Heylin, and gave manifest 
proofs of those great endowments for which he was after- 
wards so distinguished. In 1636 he was created M. A. 
there, just after Charles 1. had left Oxford ; where he had 
been spendidly entertained by the university, and parti- 
cularly at St. John's college, by Dr. Laud, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury. In the beginning of the long 
parliament he was disaffected to the court, and appointed 
one of the committee to prepare a charge against the earl 
of Strafford, in 1 640 ; but afterwards would not consent to 
the bill, " not only," as he said, " because he was unsa- 
tisfied in the matter of law, but for that he was more un- 
satisfied in the matter of fact*." From that time he be- 

1 Biog. Brit. Lloyd's State Worthies, and Memoirs. Ath. Ox. vol. II. 
Park's Royal and Noble Authors, vol. HI. 

* At this time a circumstance oc- he had seen it, and that it had been 

curred of a singular nature. A paper conveyed to him by some one of the 

of great consequence to the trial was committee. Mr. Whitelock, who was 

missing in the close committee of the in the chair, and who had the charge 

house of commons ; and by the earl of and custody of all the papers, was sus- 

Strafford's aufwcr it was supposed that pected move than any other person 

80 D I G B Y. 

came a declared enemy to the parliament, and shewed his 
dislike of their proceedings in a warm speech against them, 
which he made at the passing' of the bill of attainder against 
the said earl, in April 1641. This speech was condemned 
to be burnt, arid himself in June following, expelled the 
house of commons. In Jan. 1642, he went on a message 
from his majesty to Kingston-upon-Thames, to certain 
gentlemen there, with a coach and six horses. This they 
improved into a warlike appearance ; and accordingly he 
was accused of high treason in parliament, upon pretence 
of his levying war at Kingston-upon-Thames. Clarendon 
mentions " this severe prosecution of a young nobleman of 
admirable parts and eminent hopes, in so implacable a 
manner, as a most pertinent instance of the tyranny and 
injustice of those times." Finding what umbrage he had 
given to the parliament, and how odious they had made 
him to the people, he obtained leave, and a licence from 
his majesty, to transport himself into Holland ; whence he 
wrote several letters to his friends, and one to the queen, 
which was carried by a perfidious confidant to the parlia- 
ment, and opened. In a secret expedition afterwards to 
the king, he was taken by one of the parliament's ships, 
and carried to Hull; but being in such a disguise that not 
his nearest relation could have known him, he brought 
himself off very dextrously by his artful management of 

to have been guilty of this piece of and deeper imprecations than any of 

treachery. Strict search was made for the rest. Nevertheless, when, at the 

the paper ; but it could not then be battle of Naseby, the king's cabinet 

found. Mr. Whitelock alleged, in his was taken, a copy of this individual 

own vindication, that amongst such a paper was found in it, written in his 

multitude of papers as he had in his lordship's own hand. Thus was Mr. 

custody, it was not easy to see that he Whitelock cleared, and the conveyer 

had them all again, when they were of the paper to his majesty, and from 

brought forth, or any of them called him to the earl of Strafiord, fully dis- 

for. He added, that he never shewed covered. Lord Clarendon seems un- 

the paper to any but the committee; willing to credit the truth of this story; 

that he knew not who had it, or what but it appears to rest on a foundation 

was become of it; that he did not con- too strong to be easily shaken. What 

vey it away himself, and was totally his lordship observes is, that it may be 

ignorant by whom it had been con- presumed, that a man who hud goUen 

yeyed. This apology did not give full a paper in such a manner, would, at 

atisfaction. The house was acquaint- least, after such an inquiry was made 

ed with the affair, and it was ordered, upon it, have cast it into the fire. The 

that every one of the committee should earl of Clarendun, who is otherwise 

make a solemn protestation, that they mistaken in his iclation of the affair, 

did not convey away the paper in ques- should have recollected, that it was 

tion, nor know what was become of it. not in lord Digby's power to des'roy 

All of them made this protestation, and his copy of the paper, after he had 

the lord Digby with more earnestness conveyed it to the king. Biug. Brit. 

D I G B Y. 


the governor, sir John Hotham*. In 1643 he was made 
one of the secretaries of state to the king, and high steward 
of the university of Oxford, in the room of William lord 
Say. In the latter end of 1645 he went into Ireland, and 
exposed himself to great hazards of his life, for the ser- 
vice of the king ; from thence he passed over to Jersey, 
where the prince of Wales was, and after that into France, 
in order to transact some important matters with the queen 
and cardinal Mazarin. Upon the death of the king, he was 
exempted from pardon by the parliament, and obliged to 
live in exile till the restoration of Charles II. when he was 
restored to all he had lost, and made knight of the garter. 
He became very active in public affairs, spoke frequently in 

* The story is thus told : He pre- 
tended to be a Frenchman, the lan- 
guage of which country he spoke ex- 
cellently ; and he appealed to be so 
sea-sick, that he kept himsult in the 
hole of the bark, till it arrived at the 
landing-place : and in that time he 
disposed of such papers as were not fit 
to be perused. When he came on 
shore, he so well counterfeited sick- 
ness and want of health, that he ob- 
tained leave to be sent, under a guard, 
to some obscure corner, for repose. 
In this confinement he began seriously 
to reflect on the desperateness of his 
condition. He did not think it pos- 
sible for him to continue long conceal- 
ed ; and, if he should be discovered, he 
knew that he was so odious, above all 
other men, to the parliament, that his 
life would be in the greatest danger. 
At the same time, he was sensible that 
sir John Hotham, the governor of Hull, 
was his enemy, and that he was a man 
of a covetous, rough, and unfeeling 
disposition. Nevertheless, he resolved 
to discover himself to him. Accordingly, 
lord Digby, in broken English, which 
might well have become any French- 
man, found means to make one of his 
guard understand, tbat he desired to 
apeak privately with the governor ; 
and that he would reveal some secrets 
f the king's and queen's to him, that 
would highly advance the public service. 
Upon being introduced to sir John Ho- 
tham, and taken to a private part of 
the room, he asked in English, " Whe- 
ther he knew him ?" The other, sur- 
prized at the question, told him " No." 
" Then," said lord Bigby, " I shall 
try whether I know sir John Hotham, 


and whether he be in truth the same 
man of honour I have always taken 
him to be." Upon this he informed 
the governor who he was, and that he 
hoped he was too much of a gentleman 
to deliver him up a sacrifice t/i those 
who were his implacable enemies. Sir 
John Hotham was so struck with lord 
Digby's greatness of mind, and with, 
the compliment paid to him<elf, that, 
contrary to what might have been ex- 
pected, both from his own nature, and 
the most powerful motives of interest 
and ambition, he told his lordship, 
that since he had placed such a confi- 
dence in him, he would not deceive hi* 
trust ; and wished him to consider in 
what way, and under what pretence, 
he should be set at liberty. At length 
it was agreed that the Frenchman 
should be openly sent te York, as 
going upon a political business, with 
an assurance that he would return to 
Hull. In the conversations which at 
this time lord Digby had with the go- 
vernor, he used every argument to 
persuade him to engage in the king's 
service ; and it was upon some encou- 
ragement of that kind, that an expe- 
dition which his majesty shortly after 
made to Beverley, was founded. T 
forward the design, our enterprizing 
nobleman returned to Hull in his old 
disguise : but all his efforts to prevail 
upon sir John Hotham to surrender the 
town were in vain. Sir John's son, and 
the principal officers, were devoted to the 
parliament; and new supplies of men 
were sent into the place ; so that the 
governor either wanted the courage or 
the power lo execute what be desired, 

52 D I G B Y. 

parliament, and distinguished himself by his enmity to 
Clarendon while chancellor. He died at Chelsea, March 
20, 1676, after succeeding his father as earl of Bristol. 
Many of his speeches and letters are still extant, to he 
found in our historical collections ; and he \vt\>te " Elvira," 
a comedy, &c. There are also letters of L is cousin 

sir Kenelm Digby, against popery, mentioned in our ac- 
count of sir Kenelm ; yet afterwards he became a papist 
himself; which inconsistencies in' his character have been 
neatly depicted by lord Orford. " He was," says he, " a 
singular person, whose life was one contradiction. He 
wrote against popery, and embraced it ; he was a zealous 
opposer of the court, and a sacrifice for it ; was conscien- 
tiously converted in the midst of his prosecution of lord 
Strafford, and was most unconscientiously a prosecutor of 
lord Clarendon. With great parts he always hurt himself 
and his friends ; with romantic bravery, he was always an 
unsuccessful commander. He spoke for the test act, 
though a Roman catholic, and addicted himself to astro- 
logy on the birth-day of true philosophy." 1 

DIGGES (LEONARD), an able mathematician, was de- 
scended from an ancient family, and born at Digges-court, 
in the parish of Barham, in Kent, in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. He was sent, as Wood conjectures, 
(for he is doubtful as to the place), to University-college, 
Oxford, where he laid a good foundation of learning ; and 
retiring from thence without a degree, prosecuted his 
studies, and composed the following works : 1. " Tecto- 
nicum ; briefly shewing the exact measuring, and speedy 
reckoning of all manner of lands, squares, timber, stones, 
steeples," &c. 1556, 4to ; repubiished, with additions, by 
his son Thomas Digges, 1592, 4to ; and again in 1647, 
4to. 2. " A geometrical practical treatise, named Pan- 
tometfia, in three books," left imperfect in MS. at his 
death ; but his son supplying such parts of it as were ob- 
scure and imperfect, published it in 1591, folio; sub- 
joining, " A discourse geometrical of ae iiv< regular and 
Platonical bodies, containing sundry theoretical and prac- 
tical propositions, arising by mutual conference of these 
solids, inscription, circumscription, and i'-ansfonnaiion." 
3. " Prognostication everlasting of right good effect ; or, 
choice rules to judge the weather by the sun, moon, anet 

Biog. Biit. Ath. Ox. vol. TL Park's Orford, vol. Ilf, 

D 1 G G E S. 83 

stars," &c. 1555, 1556, and 1564, 4to, corrected and 
augmented by his son ; with general tables, and many 
compendious rules, 1592, 4to. He died not later than 
1573. ' 

DIGGES (THOMAS), only son of the preceding Leo- 
nard Digges, after a liberal education at home, studied f r 
some time at Oxford ; and partly by the improvements he 
made there, and the previous instructions of his learned 
father, became one of the greatest mathematicians of his 
age. Of his history, however, we only know that when. 
queen Elizabeth sent some forces to assist the oppressed 
inhabitants of the Netherlands, he was appointed muster- 
master general, by which he hud an opportunity of be- 
coming skilled in military affairs. The greater part of his 
life must have been spent in his favourite studies, as be- 
sides the revising, correcting, and enlarging some pieces 
of his father's, already mentioned, he wrote and published 
the following learned works himself: 1. " Ala? sire scalse 
mathematical ; or mathematical wings or ladders," 1573, 
4to ; containing several demonstrations for finding the 
parallaxes of any comet or other celestial body ; with a 
correction of the errors in the use of the radius astro- 
nomicus. 2. " An arithmetical military treatise, con- 
taining so much of arithmetic as is necessary towards mili- 
tary discipline," 1579, 4to. 3. " A geometrical treatise, 
named Stratioticos, requisite for the perfection of soldiers," 
1579, 4to. This was begun by his father, but finished by 
himself. They were both reprinted together in 1590, with 
several amendments and additions, under this title : u " An 
arithmetical warlike treatise, named Stratioticos ; com- 
pendiously teaching the science of numbers, as well in 
fractions as integers, and so much of the rules and equa- 
tions algebraical, and art of numbers cossical, as are re- 
quisite for the profession of a souldier. Together with the 
moderne militaire discipline, offices, lawes, and orders in 
every well-governed campe and armie, inviolably to be 
observed." At the end of this work there are two pieces ; 
the first entitled " A briefe and true report of the pro- 
ceedings of the earle of Leycester, for the reliefe of the 
towne of Sluce, from his arrival at Vlishing, about the end 
of June 1587, untill the surrendrie thereof, 26 Julii next 
ensuing. Whereby it shall plainlie appear his excellencie 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. LBio$, Brit. 
G 2 

84 D I G G E- S. 

was not in anie fault for the losse of that towne ;" the se- 
cond, " A briefe discourse what orders were best for re- 
pulsing of foraine forces, if at any time they should invade 
us by sea in Kent, or elsesvhere." 4. " A perfect descrip- 
tion of the celestial orbs, according to the most ancient 
doctrine of the Pythagoreans," &c. This was placed at 
the end of his father's " Prognostication everlasting, &c." 
printed in 1592, 4to. 5, " Humble motives for associa- 
tion to maintain the religion established," 1601, 8vo. To 
which is added, his " Letter to the same purpose to the 
archbishops and bishops of England." 6. " England's 
Defence ; or a treatise concerning invasion." This is a 
tract of the same nature with that printed at the end of his 
Stratioticos, and called, " A briefe discourse," &c. It 
was written in 1599, but not published till 1686. 7. A 
letter printed before Dr. John Dee's " Parallaticce com- 
mentationis praxeosque nucleus quidam," 1573, 4to. Be- 
sides these and his " Nova Corpora," he had by him se- 
veral mathematical treatises ready for the press ; but law- 
suits, which probably descended upon him with his patri- 
mony, and were productive of pecuniary embarrassments, 
broke in upon his studies, and embittered his days. He 
died Aug. 24, 1595, and was buried in the chancel of the 
church of Aldermanbury, London. Among his unpub- 
lished works, was a Plan for the improvement of the Haven 
and Mole of Dover, in 1582, which was communicated to 
the Society of Antiquaries, and is printed in the " Archaeo- 
logia," vol. XI. He married Agnes, daughter of sir Wil- 
liam St. Leger, knt. l 

DIGGES (SiR DUDLEY), eldest son of Thomas Digges, 
just mentioned, was born in 1583, and entered a gentle- 
man-commoner of University-college, in Oxford, 1598. 
Having taken the degree of B. A. in 1601, he studied for 
some time at the inns of court; and then travelled beyond 
sea, having before received the honour of knighthood. On 
his return he led a retired life till 1618, when he was sent 
by James I. ambassador to the tzar, or emperor of Russia. 
Two years after he was commissioned with sir Maurice Ab- 
bot to go to Holland, in order to obtain the restitution of 


goods taken by the Dutch from some Englishmen in the 
East Indies. He was a member of the third parliament of 

' Biog. Brit. Ath. Ox. vol. I. Bibliographer, No. XII. where are some cu- 
rious extracts from his works. 

D I G G E S. 85 

James I. which met at Westminster, Jan. 30, 1621 ; but 
was so rule compliant with the court measures, as to be 
ranked a.^ong those whom the king called ill-tempered 
spirits, lie was likewise a member of the first parliament 
of Charles 1. in 1626 ; and not only joined with those emi- 
nent patriots, who were for bringing Villiers duke of 
Buckingham to an account, but was indeed one of the 
most active managers in that affair, for which he was com- 


mitted to the Tower, though soon released. He was again 
member of the third parliament of Charles I. in 1628, 
being one of the knights of the shire for Kent ; but seemed 
to be more moderate in his opposition to the court than 
he was in the two last, and voted for the dispatch of the 
subsidies, yet opposed all attempts which he conceived to 
be hostile to the liberties of his country, or the constitu- 
tion of parliament. Thus, when sir John Finch, speaker 
of the house of commons, on June 5, 1628, interrupted 
sir John Elliot in the house, saying, " There is a command 
laid upon me, that I must command you not to proceed ;" 
sir Dudley Digges vented his uneasiness in these words : 
" I am as much grieved as ever. Must we not proceed ? 
Let us sit in silence : we are miserable : we know not what 
to do." In April of the same year, he opened the grand 
conference between the commons and lords, " concerning 
the liberty of the person of every freeman," with a speech, 
in which he made many excellent observations, tending to 
establish the liberties of the subject. In all his parliamen- 
tary proceedings, he appeared of such consequence, that 
the court thought it worth their while to gain him over ; 
and accordingly they tempted him with the advantageous 
and honourable office of master of the rolls, of which he 
had a reversionary grant Nov. 29, 1630, and became pos- 
sessed of it April 20, 1636, upon the death of sir Julius 
Csesar. But he did not enjoy it quite three years ; for he 
died March 8, 1639, and his death was reckoned among 
the public calamities of those times. He was buried at 
Chilham church, in Kent, in which parish he had a good 
estate, and built a noble house. 

He was a worthy good man, and, as Philipot says, " a 
great assertor of his country's liberty in the worst of times, 
when the sluices of prerogative were opened, and the 
banks of the law were almost overwhelmed with the inun- 
dations of it." He is now chiefly known as the author of 

86 D I G G E S. 

several literary performance;, lie published, 1. "A De- 
fence of Trade ; in a letter to sir Thomas Smith, km. go- 
veri.or of the East India company," 1615, 4to ; and ai 
his death there was printed under his name, 2. " A Dis- 
course concerning the Rights and Privilege's of the Subjv 
in a conference desired by the lords, and had by a com- 
mittee of both houses April 3, 1628," 1642, *4to. At 
this conference, it was, that sir Dudley made the speech 
above-mentioned ; which is probably the same given here. 

3. He made several speeches upon other occasions, inserted iu 
Raaimorth's Collections, and ; ' Ephemeris Parliamentarian 1 

4. He collected the letters that passed between the lord 
Burleigh, sir Francis Waisingham, and others, about the 
intended marriages of queen Elizabeth with the dnke of 
Anjou, in 1570, and with the duke of Alencon in 15- ; 1, 
\vhich were published in 16,55, under the title of "The 
Complete Ambassador, &c." 16*5. folio. 

Learning was long hereditary in this family. Sir Dudley 

had a brother, Leonard, and a son Dudley, who were both 

learned men and authors. His brother LEONARD, born in 

1-588, was educated in University-college, Oxford, took 

the degree of B. A. in 1606, removed to London ; and then 

travelling beyond sea, studied in foreign universities: i'rcm 

whence returning a good scholar, and an accomplished 

person, he was created M. A. in 1626. His commendatory 

verses to Shakspeare are prefixed to that poet's works. He 

also translated from Spanish into English " Gerardo the 

unfortunate Spaniard, 1622," 4to, written by Goncalo de 

Cespades : and from Latin into English verse, " Clau- 

clian's Rape of Proserpine, 1617," 4to. He died April 

7, 1635, being accounted a good poet and orator; and a 

great master of the English, French, and Spanish lan- 

g ua , 

His son Drni.EY, who was his third son, was born about 
1612, and educated ;;t Oxford, where he took the degree 
of B. A. in 1632; and the year after was elected a fellow 
\ll-souls' college. He took a master's degree in 1635; 
and became a good poet and linguist, and a general 
scholar. He died October 1, 1643; having distinguished 
himself only by the two following productions: 1. " An 
answer to a printed book entitled * Observations upon some 
of his majesty's late answers and expresses, 1 " Oxon. 1642. 
'2. " The unlawfulness of subjects taking up arms against 

D I G G E -S. 87 

their sovereign in what case soever; with answers to all 
objections," Lond. 161-3, 4to. ' 

DILLENIUS (JoiiN JAMES), an eminent botanist, who 
settled in England, was born at Darmstadt, in Germany, 
in 1681. He was early intended for the study of physic, 
and had the principal part of his education at the university 
of Giessen, a city of Upper Hesse. Of all the parts of 
science connected with the medical profession, he was 
most attached to the cultivation of botany ; by which he 
soon obtained so much reputation, that early in life he was 
chosen a member of the Academia Curiosorum Germanise. 
Ho\v well he deserved this honour, was apparent in his 
papers published in the " Miscellanea Curiosa." The 
first of his communications that we are acquainted with, 
and which could not have been written later than 1715, 
was a dissertation concerning the plants of America that 
are naturalized in Europe. The subject is curious, and is 
still capable of much farther illustration. A diligent in- 
quiry into it weuld unquestionably prove that a far greater 
number of plants than is usually imagined, and which are 
now thought to be indigenous in Europe, were of foreign 
origin. Besides the most obvious increase of them, owing 
to their passage from the garden to the dunghill, and 
thence to the field, they have been augmented in conse- 
quence of various other causes, no small number of them 
having been introduced and dispersed by the importatiou 
of grain, the package of merchandise, and the clearing 
out of ships; The English Flora of this kind, in its pre- 
sent state, cannot perhaps contain fewer than sixty ac- 
knowledged species ; and a critical examination would 
probably add greatly to the catalogue. Another paper of 
Diiienius's, published in the " Miscellanea Curiosa," was 
a critical dissertation on the coffee of the Arabians, and on 
European coffee, or such as may be prepared from grain 
or pulse. In this dissertation he gives the result of his 
own preparations made with pease, beans, and kidney- 
beans ; but says, that from rye is produced what comes 
the nearest to true coffee. In another paper he relates the 
experiment which he made concerning some opium which 

1 Biog. Brit. Bibliographer, No. XII. iu which there are some particulars 
of the family an;! their descendants, and a very interesting account of the 
Worthies of W .., *ith whom ihe writer of that article may be justly classed. 
Ath. Ox. vols. I and H. 

88 D I L L E N I U S. 

he had prepared himself from the poppy of Europe 
growth. In the same collection he shews himself as a / 
logist, in a paper on leeches, and in a description of t 
species of the Papilio genus. In 1719, Dillenius excited 
the notice of naturalists by the publication of his Catalogue 
of plants growing in the neighbourhood of Giesseu. No- 
thing can more strongly display the early skill and inde- 
fatigable industry of Dillenius, than his being able to 
produce so great a number of plants in so small a ti.. 
-He enumerates not fewer than 980 species ot what w. 
then called the more perfect plants; that is, exclusiv.. . 
of the mushroom class, and all the mosses. By the nu 
of this performance, the character of Dillenius, us a truly 
scientific botanist, was fixed ; and henceforward he at- 
tracted the notice of all the eminent professors and ad- 
mirers of the science. To this science no one was more 
ardently devoted at that time in England, than William 
Sherard, esq. who had been British consul at Smyrna, from 
which place he had returned to his own country in 1718 ; 
and who, soon after, had the honorary degree of LL. D. 
conferred on him by the university of Oxford. Being par- 
ticularly enamoured with Dillenius's discoveries in the 
cryptogamia class, he entered into a correspondence with 
him, which ripened into a close friendship. In 1721, Dr. 
Sherard, in the pursuit of his botanical researches, made 
the tour of Holland, France, and Italy, much to the ad- 
vantage of the science ; but what in an especial manner 
rendered his travels of consequence to the study of nature 
in our own country, was, that on his return he brought 
Dillenius with him to England. It was in the month of 
August in the same year that this event took place ; and 
Dillenius had not long resided in England before he un- 
dertook a work that was much desired, a new edition of 
the " Synopsis stirpium Britannicarum" of Ray, which 
was become scarce. This edition of the " Synopsis" seems 
to have been the most popular of all his publications. 

During the former years of Dillenius in England, his 
time appears to have been divided between the country 
residence of Mr, James Sherard, at Eltham, in Kent ; the 
consul's house in town ; and his own lodgings, which in 
1728 were in Barking-alley. At the latter end of 1727, 
Dillenius was so doubtful concerning what might be the 
state of his future circumstances, that he entertained 4 

D I L L E N I U S. 89 

design of residing in Yorkshire. This scheme did not take 
effect; and on Aug. 12, 1728, Dr. William Sherard died, 
and by his will gave 3000/. to provide a salary for a pro- 
fessor of botany at Oxford, on condition that Dillenius 
should be chosen the first professor; and he bequeathed 
to the establishment his botanical library, his herbarium, 
and his pinax. The university of Oxford having waved 
the right of nomination, in consequence of Dr. Sherard's 
benefaction, Dillenius now arrived at that situation which 
had probably been the chief object of his wishes, the 
asylum, against future disappointments, and the field of 
all that gratification which his taste and pursuits prompted 
him to desire, and qualified him to enjoy. He was placed 
likewise in the society of the learned, and at the fountain 
of every information which the stores of both ancient and 
modern erudition could display to an inquisitive mind. 
One of the principal employments of Dr. William Sherard 
was the compilation of a pinax, or collection of all the 
names which had been given by botanical writers to each 
plant. After the death of Sherard, our professor zealously 
fulfilled the will of his benefactor, in the care he took of 
his collection, which he greatly augmented. But he was 
not a little chagrined at the want of books, and the means 
of purchasing them. Another undertaking in which our 
author was engaged, was the " Hortus Elthamensis." In 
this elegant and elaborate work, of which Linnaeus says, 
" Est opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit," 
417 plants are described and figured with the most cir- 
cumstantial accuracy. They are all drawn and etched by 
Dillenius's own hand, and consist principally of such 
exotics as were then rare, or had but lately been intro- 
duced into England. The sale of this work, which was 
published in London, 1732, fol. did not by any means cor- 
respond with its merit. So limited was the attention at 
that time paid to botanical objects, that the " Hortus 
Elthamensis" found but few purchasers. Dillenius cut up 
a considerable number of copies, as papers to hold his 
Hortus Siccus ; and in despair of selling the remainder, 
through the recommendation of his friend Gronovius, dis- 
posed of them, together with the plates, to a Dutch book- 
seller, who broke ; so that our author lost the whole 
of the little profit he had expected to derive from the sale. 
April 3, 1735, he was admitted to the degree of M. D. in 

D I L L E N I U S. 

the university of Oxford. His former degree of the same 
kind had probably been taken at Giessen. In the summer 
of 1736 he had the honour of a visit at Oxford from the 
celebrated Linnaeus, who returned with the highest opinion 
of his merit ; and from this period a correspondence was 
carried on between them*. After the publication of the 
Hortus Elthamensis, Billenius pursued his " History of 
Mosses" with great application ; in the prosecution of 
which he enjoyed every desirable assistance. There is the 
utmost reason to believe that Dillenius intended to have 
undertaken the funguses as well as the mosses ; which de- 
sign he appears to have had in contemplation not long 
after his settlement in this country. Dillenius is said to 
have heen of a corpulent habit of body ; which circum- 
stance, united to his close application to study, might 
probably contribute to shorten his days. In the last week 
of March, 1747, he was seized with an apoplexy, and died 
on the 2d of April, in the sixtieth year of his age. Con- 
cerning Dillenius's domestic character, habits, temper, 
and dispositions, there is but slender information. The 
account of his contemporaries was, that he was moderate, 

* This good opinion was not at first 
reciprocal. According to the account 
of their first and subsequent inier; lews-, 
J)illenius did not exhibit those pio'ifs 
of a liberal mi nil which might have 
been expected from one who had him- 
yelt'been iiKlebt.d so much to the li- 
berality of others. See Stoever's Lite 
of Linnaeus, p. 90, et seqq. But the 
ingenious writer of his life in the Cy- 
cloppedi . that although l)il- 

lenius was priTaously rather unfa- 
vourably deposed towards the refor- 
mat! ..-us and innovations of J.iniircus, 
a^ tending to create difficulty niiij con- 
fusion in the first instance. lie vxm 
forgot all such prejudices, and these 
two great men became mutually at- 
tached, as honest liberal culiivalurs of 
M> liberal and pleasing a .science ought 
to be. Dillenius wished to fix Lin- 
naeus at Oxford, as his coadjutor in 
the Pinaxj and if fir H;ms Sluaue had 
been equally discerning and equally 
.liberal, the illustrious Swede might 
have been naturalized airici 
The errors of Dillenius respecting the 
fructification of mosses, were too im- 
plicitly adopted by Liunxus against 
his own judgment asid observation ; and 

hence a totally erroneous use of terms 
has prevailed in bis works and those 
of his followers, to the present day. 
In his " Flora Lapponica," he often 
cites Dillenius, especially concerning 
willows, for information respecting sy- 
nonyms, that is erroneous ; but his 
own remarks being subjoined, we are 
guarded against any errors that aright 
ensue from such high authority. The 
" Critica Botanica" of Linnaeus was 
dedicated to the Sherardian professor, 
as being, from his peculiar occupation 
and duty, more than any other person, 
aware of the evils arising from confu- 
sion in botanical nomenclature, and 
the praise and respect habitual in de- 
dications, have rarely been so sincerely 
bestowed, or >o justly deserved. Lin- 
naeus remarked in a Idler to IJalier, 
INlay 1, 1737, that " Dillenius was the 
only person then in Kngland who either 
il about or understood the genera 
of plants ;" a degree of scientific com- 
mendation, which in any ag-e or coun- 
try, can bo extended to v 
sons. Nor did he to whom 
applied, long continue in the same de- 
gree lo deserve it. 

D I L L E N I U S. 91 

temperate, and gentle in all his conduct; that he was 
known to few who did not seek him ; and, as might he 
expected from the hent of his suidies, and die close appli- 
cation he gave to them, that his habits were of the recluse 
kind. From the perusal of some of his letters it may he 
collected that he was naturally endowed with a placid dis- 
position, improved hy a philosophical calmness of mind, 
which secured him in a considerable degree from the ef- 
fects of the evils incident to life. In one of these he ex- 
presses himself as follows : " For my little time, 1 have 
met with as man*-* adversities and misfortunes as any body; 
which, by the help of exercise, amusement, and reading 
some of the stoic philosophers, I have overcome ; and am 
resolved that nothing shall afflict me more. Many things 
here, as well as at my home, that have happened to me, would 
cut down almost any body. But two days ago I had a let- 
ter, acquainting me with a very near relation's death, 
whom 1 was obliged to assist with money in his calamities, 
in order to set him up again in business ; and now this is 
all gone, and there is something more for me to pay, which 
is not a little for me; but it does not at all affect me. I 
rather thank God .that it is not worse. This is only one, 
and I have had harder strokes than this ; and there lie still 
some upon me." His drawings, dried plants, printed 
books, and manuscripts, &c. were left by our author to 
Dr. Seidel, his executor ; by whom they were sold to Dr. 
Sihthorpe, his ingenious and learned successor in the bo- 
tanical professorship. They have been frequently studied 
by succeeding botanists, .as may be found recorded in the 
works of Lightfoot, Dickson, Turner, Smith, and others; 
the present amiable professor, Dr. George Williams, being 
happy at all times to render them useful, and to forward 
the views of the truly excellent founder. 1 

English poet, was born in Ireland about 1633, while the 
\ernment of that kingdom was under the first earl of 
Srraiford, to whom he was nephew; his father, sir James 
Dillon, third earl of Roscominon, having married Eliza- 
beth the youngest daughter of sir William Wenuvorth, of 
Wentworth-Woodhouse, in the county of York, sister to 
the earl of Stratford. Hence lord Roscommon was chris- 

1 Bio;:. Brit. Pulteney's Sketches. Stoever's Life of Linnaeus. Rees's Cy- 
clops."! i;i. 

92 D I L L O X. 

tened Wentivorth*. He was educated in the protestant 
religion, his father (who died at Limerick in 1619) having 
been converted by archbishop Usher from the communion 
of the church of Rome; and passed the years of his in- 
fancy in Ireland. He was brought over to England by his 
uncle, on his return from the government of Ireland*, and 
placed at that nobleman's seat in Yorkshire, under the 
tuition of Dr. Hall, erroneously* said to have been after- 
wards bishop of Norwich. The celebrated Hall was at this 
time a bishop, and far advanced in years. By this Dr. 
Hall, whoever he was, he was instructed in Latin ; and, 
without learning the common rules of grammar, which he 
could never remember, attained to write that language 
with classical elegance and propriety. When the cloud 
began to gather over England, and the earl of Strafford 
was singled out for an impeachment, he was, by the advice 
of Usher, sent to finish his education at Caen in Nor- 
mandy, where the protestants had then an university, and 
studied under the direction of the learned Bochart ; but at 
this time he could not have been more than nine years old. 
After some years he travelled to Rome, where he grew 
familiar with the most valuable remains of antiquity, apply- 
ing himself particularly to the knowledge of medals, \vhich 
he gained to perfection ; and he spoke Italian with so much 
grace and fluency, that he was frequently mistaken there 
for a native. 

Soon after the restoration, he returned to England,* 
where he was graciously received by Charles II. and made 
captain of the band of pensioners. In the gaieties of that 
age, he was tempted to indulge a violent passion for 
gaming; by which he frequently hazarded his life in duels, 
and exceeded the bounds of a moderate fortune. A dis- 

* These circumstances were first print prefixed to his Poems (some edi- 

pointed out by Mr. Nichols, in a note tion probably about the and of the 

on bis " Select Collection of Poems," last century) was very like him; and 

vol. VI. p. 54. It had been generally that he very strongly resembled his 

said by preceding biographers, that the noble uncle. It is not generally 

earl M'nt for him " after the breaking known that all the particulars of lord 

out of the civil wars." But, if his lord- Roscommon, related by Fenton, are 

ship sent for him at all, it must have taken from this Life by Clietwode, with 

been at some earlier period; for he which he was probably furnished hy 

himself was beheaded before the civil Mr. T. Baker, who left them with 

war can properly be said to have be- many other MSS. to the library of St. 

gun. No print of lord Roscommon is John's college, Cambridge. The Life 

known to exist ; though Dr. Chetwode, of lord Roscommon is very ill-written, 

in a MS life of him, says, that tke and full of common-place obscivatiou-. 


pute with the lord privy seal, about part of his estate, 
obliging him to revisit his native country, he resigned his 
post in the English court; and, soon after his arrival at 
Dublin, the duke of Ormond appointed him to be captain 
of the guards. Mrs. Catharine Phillips, in a letter to sir 
Charles Cotterel, Dublin, Oct. 19, 1662, styles him " a 
very ingenious person, of excellent natural parts, and cer- 
tainly the most hopeful young nobleman in Ireland." How- 
ever, he still retained the same fatal affection for gaming; 
and, this engaging him in adventures, he was near being 
assassinated one night by three ruffians, who attacked him 
in the dark ; but defended himself with so much resolu- 
tion, that he dispatched one of them, while a gentleman 
coming up, disarmed another ; and the third secured him- 
self by flight. This generous assistant w r as a disbanded 
officer, of a good family and fair reputation, but whose 
circumstances were such, that he wanted even cloaths to 
appear decently at the castle. Lord Roscommon, on this 
occasion, presenting him to the duke of Ormond, obtained 
his grace's leave to resign to him his post of captain of the 
guards : which for about three years the gentleman en- 
joyed ; and upon his death the duke returned the commis- 
sion to his generous benefactor. 

The pleasures of the English court, and the friendships 
he had there contracted, were powerful motives for his re- 
turn to London. Soon after he came, he was made mas- 
ter of the horse to the duchess of York ; and married the 
lady Frances, eldest daughter of the earl of Burlington, 
and widow of colonel Courtney. He began now to distin- 
guish himself by his poetry ; and about this time projected 
a design, in conjunction with his friend Dryden, for re- 
fining and fixing the standard of our language. But this 
was entirely defeated by the religious commotions that 
were then increasing daily; at which time the earl took a 
resolution to pass the remainder of his life at Rome, telling 
his friends, " it would be best to sit next to the chimney 
when the chamber smoked," a sentence of which, Dr. 
Johnson says, the application seems not very clear. 
Amidst these reflections, being seized with the gout, he 
was so impatient either of hindrance or of pain, that he 
submitted himself to a French empiric, who is said to have 
repelled the disease into his bowels. At the moment in 
which he expired he uttered, with an energy of voice that 


expressed the most fervent devotion, two lines of his own 
version of " Dies Ira? :" 

" My God, my Father, and my Friend, 
Do not forsake me in my end." 

He died Jan. 17, 168-t ; and was buried with great pomp in 
Westminster- abbey. 

His poems, which are not numerous, are in the body of 
English poetry collected by Dr. Johnson. His " Essay on 
Translated Verse," and bis translation of " Horace's Art of 
Poetry," have great merit. Waller addressed a poem to 
his lordship upon the latter, when he was 7.5 years of age. 
*' In the writings of this nobleman we view," says Fenton, 
" the image of a mind naturally serious and solid; richly 
furnished and adorned with all the ornaments of art and 
science; and those ornaments unaffectedly disposed in the 
most regular and elegant order. His imagination might 
probably have been more fruitful and sprightly, if his 
judgment had been less severe ; but that severity (de- 
Jivered in a masculine, clear, succinct style) contributed 
to make him so eminent in the didactical manner, that no 
man, with justice, can affirm he was ever equalled by any 
of our nation, without confessing at the same time that he 
is inferior to none. In some other kinds of writing his ge- 
nius seems to have wanted fire to attain the point of per- 
fection ; but who can attain it ? He was a man of an 
amiable composition, as well as a good poet; as Pope, in 
his ' Essay on Criticism,' had testified in the following lines: 

' Roscommon not more learn'd than good, 

With manners generous as his noble blood ; 

To him the wit of Greece and Rome was known, 

And every author's merit but his own.' " 

We must allow of Roscommon, what Fenton has not 
mentioned so distinctly as he ought, and, what is yet very 
much to his honour, that he is perhaps the only correct 
writer in verse before Addison ; and that, if there are not 
so many or so great beauties in his compositions as in those 
of some contemporaries, there are at least fewer faults. 
Xor is this his highest praise ; for Pope has celebrated 
him as the only moral writer of king Charles's reign : 

I ahappy Dryden ! in all Charles's days, 
Roscommon only boasts unspotted lays." 

" Of Roscommon's works," says Dr. Johnson, " the 
judgment of the public seems to be right. He is elegant, 


but not great ; he never labours after exquisite beavities, 
and he seldom falls into gross faults. His versification is 
smooth, but rarely vigorous, and his rhymes are remark- 
ably exact. He improved taste, if he did not enlarge 
knowledge, and may be numbered among the benefactors 
to English literature." Nor ought it to be forgot, that he 
was the first critic who had tire taste and spirit publicly to 
praise the " Paradise Lost ;" with a noble encomium on 
which, and a rational recommendation of blank verse, he 
concludes his " Kosay on Translated Verse," though this 
passage was not in the first edition. l 

DiLWORTH (THOMAS), a diligent schoolmaster, was 
many years settled in Wapping, and is known by an use- 
ful " Spelling Book," where, in imitation of his predeces- 
sors, he has favoured the public with a print of himself. 
He wrote besides, " The young Book-keeper's Assistant,'* 
Svo. " The Schoolmaster's Assistant," 12mo; and 
3. " Miscellaneous Arithmetic," 12mo, all of them many- 
times printed. He died Jan. 17, 1780. To this brief no- 
., from the last edition of this Dictionary, perhaps of 
little importance, we may add, that there wa-j, about fifty 
or sixty years ago, a W. H. Dilworth, M. A. the author of 
many abridged Lives and Histories, price one shilling 
each, " adorned with cuts," such as " The Life of Alex- 
ander Pope, esq. with the Secret History of Himself and 
the Noble Lords his patrons ;" " The Life of Dean Swift, 
with a thousand agreeable incidents," &c. &c. He appears 
to have been the legitimate successor of Robert Burton, 
and probably, like him, may one day be elevated from the 
hawker's stall to the collector's library. 2 

DIMSDALE (THOMAS, Baron), a celebrated inoculator 
for the small pox, was the son of John Dimsdale of They- 
don Gernon, near Kpping in Essex, a surgeon and apothe- 
cary, by Susan, daughter of Thomas Bowyer of Albury- 
hail, in the parish of Albury, near Hertford. He was born 
in 1712, and received his first medical knowledge from his 

' O 

father, and at St. Thomas's hospital. He commenced 
practice at Hertford about 1734, where he married the 
only daughter of Nathaniel Brassey, esq. of Roxford, an 
eminent banker in London. This lady died in 1744, leav- 
ing no children ; and to relieve his mind under this loss, 

1 Biog, Brit. Life by Johnson. Nichols's PoeniSj vol. VI, 

* Lust edition of this Dictiuuary, &. 

96 D I M S D A L E. 

Mr. Dimsdale joined the medical staff of the duke of Cum- 
berland's army, then on its way to suppress the rebellion 
in Scotland. In this situation he remained until the sur- 
render of Carlisle to the king's forces, when he received 
the duke's thanks, and returned to Hertford. In 1746 he 
married Anne lies, a relation of his first wife, and by her 
fortune, and that which he acquired by the death of the 
widow of sir John Dimsdale of Hertford, he was enabled to 
retire from practice; but his family becoming numerous, 
he resumed it, and took the degree of M. D. in 1761. 

Having fully satisfied himself about the new method of 
treating persons under inoculation for the small-pox, he 
published his treatise on the subject in 1766, which was 
soon circulated over the continent, and translated into all 
languages. His particular opinion may be learned from 
the conclusion, in which he says that, " although the whole 
process may have some share in the success, it consists 
chiefly in the method of inoculating with recent fluid mat- 
ter, and the management of the patients at the time of 
eruption." This proof of his professional knowledge oc- 
casioned his being invited to inoculate the empress Cathe- 
rine of Russia, and her son, in 1768, of which he gives a 
very particular and interesting account in his "Tracts on 
Inoculation," printed in 1781. Never, perhaps, did the 
empress display her courage and good sense to more ad- 
vantage than in submitting to an operation, of which she 
could have no experience in her own country, and where 
at that time it was the subject of uncommon dread and 
alarm. Nor was her liberal conduct towards Dr. Dimsdale 
less praiseworthy. He was immediately appointed actual 
counsellor of state and physician to her imperial majesty, 
with an annuity of 500/. the rank of a baron of the Russian 
empire, to descend to his eldest son, and a black wing 
of the Russian eagle in a gold shield in the middle of his 
arms, with the customary helmet, adorned with the baron's 
coronet, over the shield. He also received at the same 
time, the sum of 10,000/., and 2000/. for travelling charges, 
and miniature pictures of the empress and her son, &c. 
The baron now inoculated great numbers of people at 
Petersburgh and Moscow; but resisted the empress's invi- 
tation to reside as her physician in Russia. He and his 
son, Dr. Nath. Dimsdale, were afterwards admitted to a 
private audience of Frederick III. king of Prussia, at Sans 
Souci, and thence returned to England, and for some time 

D I M S D A L E. 97 

the baron resumed practice at Hertford. In 1776, he pub- 
lished " Thoughts on general and partial Inoculation," 8vo; 
and two years after, " Observations on the Introduction to 
the plan of the Dispensary for general Inoculation," 8vo. 
This involved him in a controversy with Dr. Lettsom, in 
which he opposed the above plan for inoculating the poor 
at their own houses; and opened an inoculation-house, 
under his own direction, for persons of all ranks in the 
neighbourhood of Hertford, which was resorted to with 
success. His controversy with Dr. Lettsom was carried on 
in the following pamphlets : " Dr. Lettsom's letter on Ge- 
neral Inoculation ;" " Remarks on Ditto," 8vo; " Review 
of Dr. Lettsom's observations on the Baron's Remarks ;" 
" Letter to Dr. Lettsom on his Remarks, &c." "Answer to 
Baron Dimsdale's Review," and " Considerations on the 
plan, &c." In 1781 he printed the " Tracts on Inocula- 
tion," already mentioned, which were liberally distributed, 
but not sold. 

Bar.on Dimsdale afterwards opened a banking-house in 
Cornhill, in partnership with his sons, and the Barnards, 
which still flourishes under the firm of Barnard, Dimsdale, 
and Dimsdale. In 1779 he lost his second wife, by whom 
he had seven children, and afterwards married Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Dimsdale of Bishops- Stortford, who 
survived him. In 1780 he was elected representative for 
the borough of Hertford, and declined all practice, except 
for the relief of the poor. He went, however, once more 
to Russia, in 1781, where he inoculated the present em- 
peror and his brother Constantino ; and as he passed 
through Brussels, the late emperor of Germany, Joseph, 
received him with great condescension. In 1790 he re- 
signed his seat in parliament, and passed some winters at 
Bath; but at length fixed altogether at Hertford, where 
he died Dec. 30, 1800. His remains were interred in the 
Quakers' burying-ground at Bishops- Stortford. His family 
were originally quakers. ' 

DINANTO (DAVID DE), an heretic of the thirteenth 
century, was a disciple of Amauri or Almaric, who im- 
bibed many errors from the study of Aristotle, and fell 
under the ecclesiastical censure of the second council of 
Paris. (See AMAURI). The writings both of Amauri and 
Dinanto were condemned to be burned, which sentence 

i Gent. May. vol. LXXl. 88, COP, 069, 


9g DIN A N T O. 

xvas folldwed by a general prohibition of the use of the 
physical and metaphysical writings of Aristotle in the 
schools, by the synod of Paris, and afterwards, under pope 
Innocent III. by the council of the Laternu. Dinanto ex- 
pressed the fundamental principle of his master in the fol- 
lowing proposition, " God is the primary matter and sub- 
stance of all things." He composed a work entitled 
"Quaternarii," with several other productions, which were 
chiefly designed to atfect and gain the multitude, in which 
lie partly succeeded until b.e was obliged to save himself 
by flight. ' 

D1XARCHUS, an orator of Greece, the son of Sostra- 
tus, and a disciple of Thcophrastus, was a native of Attica, 
or of Corinth, and earned a great deal of money by com- 
posing harangues, at a time when the city of Athens was 
without orators. Being accused of receiving bribes from 
the enemies of the republic, he took to flight, and did not 
return till fifteen years afterwards, about the year 340 be- 
fore Christ. Of 64 harangues which, according to Plu- 
tarch, he composed, and which Photins says he read, only 
three have come down to us, in the collection of Stephens, 
1575, folio, or in that of Venice, 1513, 3 vols. folio. His 
oration against Demosthenes is the most remarkable of 
thesej and abounds in personal invective of the grossest 
kind. Dionysias cf Halicarnassus used to call him Demo- 
sthenes the savage, meaning probably that he had some of 
his eloquence deformed bv his own malice and temper. 1 

DJNGLKY (ROBERT], second son of sir John Dingley, 
knt. by a sister of Dr. Henry Hammond, was born in Surrey 
in 1619, and educated at Magdalen college, Oxford; 
where he was a strict observer of all church ceremonies. 
He afterwards became a zealous puritan j and was remark- 
ably active in ejecting such as were, by that party, styled 
ignorant and scandalous ministers and school-masters. He 
was rector of Brighton, in the Isle of Wight, when his 
kinsman colonel Hammond was governor there. The Ox- 
ford antiquary has given us a catalogue of his works, the 
most extraordinary of which is : " The Deputation of An- 
gels, or the Angel Guardian ; 1. proved by the divine 
light of nature, &c. 2. from many i" l) bs and mistakes, &c. 
3. applied and improved for our information, &c. chiefly 

1 Mosheim. T'rvK.-'ker. Fabric. Bib!. Lai. Mni. *Mureri, 
* Morcii. Saxii Unoiuaau 

D I N G L E Y. 9'j 

grounded on Acts xii. 15." London, 1654, Svo. He died 
vin 1659, and was buried in the chancel of BrigUton church. 1 


DINOCRATES, a celebrated ancient architect of 
Macedonia, of whom several extraordinary tilings are 
related, lived in the 112th olympiad, or 332 B. C. 
Vitruvius tells us, that, when Alexander the Great had 
conquered all his enemies, Dinocrates, full of great con- 
ceptions, and relying upon them, went from Macedonia 
to the army, with a view of acquiring his notice and fa- 
vour. He carried letters recommendatory to the nobles 
about him, who received him very graciously, and promised 
to introduce him to the king ; but suspecting, from some 
delays, that they were not serious, he resolved at length 
to introduce himself; and for this purpose conceived the 
following project. He anointed his body all over with oil, 
and crowned his temples with poplar; then he flung a lion's 
skin over his left shoulder, and put a club into his right 
hand. Thus accoutred, he appeared in the court, where 
the king was administering justice. The eyes of the peo- 
ple being naturally turned upon so striking a spectacle, 
tor, in addition to his singular garb, he was tall, well pro- 
portioned, and very handsome ; the king asked him, who 
he was ? " I am," says he, " Dinocrates the Macedonian 
architect, and bring to your majesty thoughts and designs 
that are worthy of your greatness : for I have laid out the 
mount Athos.into the form of a man, in whose left hand 1 
have designed the walls of a great city, and all the rivers 
of the mount to tiow into his right, and from thence into 
the sea." Alexander seemed amused with this vast project, 
but very wisely declined putting it in execution. He kept 
the architect, however, and took him into Egypt, where 
he employed him in marking out and building the city of 
Alexandria. Another memorable instance of Dinocrates's 
architectonic skill is his restoring and building, in a more 
august and magnificent manner than before, the celebrated 
temple of Diana at Ephesus, after Herostratus, for the sake 
of immortalizing his name, had destroyed it by fire. A 
third instance, more extraordinary and wonderful than 
either of the former, is related by Pliny in his Natural 
History; who tells us, that he had formed a scheme, by 
building the dome of the temple of Arsinoe at Alexandria, 

i Ath. Ox. vol. H. 

n ? 

loo D I N O C R A T E S. 

of loadstone, to make her image all of iron hang in the 
middle of it, as if it were in the air. Dinocrates probably 
deserves great credit as an architect, but such foolish sto- 

O * 

ries as this last must be placed to the account of the cre- 
dulity of the times in which Pliny wrote, and of which he 
largely partook. ' 

DINOSTRATES was an ancient geometrician, whom 
some authors have erroneously represented as a disciple of 
Pythagoras, but who, according to Proclus, lived in the 
time of Plato, about 360 B. C. and was a disciple of the latter 
in philosophy. He was chiefly distinguished for his know- 
ledge of geometry, and was the brother of Menechmus, 
who amplified the theory of the conic sections. Dinostrates 
also is said to have made many geometrical discoveries ; 
but he is particularly distinguished as the inventor of the 
quadratrix, by which the quadrature of the circle is effect- 
ed, though isot geometrically, but only mechanically. 
Montucla, howev-. T, observes that there is some reason for 
ascribing the original invention of this curve to Hippias of 
Elaea, an ingemous philosopher and geometer, contem- 
porary with Socrates. 2 

the chapter of St. Bennet at Paris, and member of the 
academy of the Arcades at Rome, was born of a reputable 
family at Amiens, Nov. 1, 1715, and died at Paris April 23, 
1786. After exercising the ministerial functions in the 
place of his nativity, he repaired to the capital to engage 
in literary pursuits. M. Joly le Fleuri, at that time avo- 
eat-g6nral, gave him his esteem, his confidence, and his 
patronage. He was first employed on the "Journal Chre- 
tien," under the abbe Joannetj and the zeal with which 
he attacked certain authors, and especially M. de Saint- 
Foix, involved him in some unpleasant controversy. He had 
represented this latter as an infidel seeking every occasion 
for mixing pestilential notions in whatever he wrote. Saint- 
Foix took up the affair with warmth, and brought an action 
against both him and abbe Joannet, which terminated in a 

O * 

sort of reparation made him by the two journalists, in their 
periodical publication. After this the abbe Dinouart be- 
gan to write on his own account, and in October 1 760, set 
up his "Journal Ecclesiastique," or, Library of ecclesias- 
tical knowledge, which he continued till his death. He 

i Moreri. Vilruvius, lib. II. Pliny, lib. XXXIV. 

i. HuUon's Math. Diet, in art. Quadratnx.- Pves'< Cyclopaedia. 

D I N O U A R T. 101 

established a very extensive correspondence with the pro- 
vincial clergy, who consulted him on the difficulties of their 
ministration. This correspondence contributed greatly to 
the recommendation of his journal, which contained in- 
structions in all matters of church discipline, morality, and 
ecclesiastical history. The editor indeed made no scruple 
of drawing almost all his materials from well-known books, 
without altering a word ; he inserted, for example, in his 
journal, all the ecclesiastical part of Hardion's Universal 
History ; but it was useful to the inferior provincial 
clergy, who were deficient in libraries, and not sorry to 
have their loss in some shape made up by the periodical 
compilation of abbe Dinouart. Other critics censured him 
for giving an incoherent assortment of articles ; for adver- 
tising, for instance, in the same leaf, " Balm of Genevieve," 
and " Sermons to be sold" for the use of young orators 
who would not take the trouble to compose them ; imi- 
tating in this a quack of our own nation, who used to ad- 
vertise sermons, marmalade, and rules for carving. Di- 
nouart, however, bears a reputable personal character. He 
was naturally of a kind disposition and a sensible heart. 
The great vivacity of his temper, which hurried him some- 
times into transient extravagancies, which he was the first 
to condemn in himself, prompted also his activity to 
oblige, for which he never let any opportunities escape him. 
He generally wrote in a loose, negligent, and incorrect 
manner, both in verse and prose, and even aspired to be 
thought a French and Latin poet ; but still the usefulness 
of the greater part of his works recommended them. 
Among them, we find, 1. " Embriologie sacre'e, traduite 
du Latin de Cangiamila," 12mo. 2. " Hymnes Latines." 
3. " Manuel des pasteurs," 3 vols. 12mo. 4. " La llhe- 
torique du predicateur, ou Traite de 1'eloquence du corps,'* 
12mo. 5. A new edition of the " Abrege" chronologique 
de Phistoire ecclesiastique de Pabbe Macquer," Paris, 
1768, 3 vols. 3vo. 6. "Anecdotes ecclesjastiques," ibid. 
1772, 2 vols. 8vo, in which he was assisted by the abbd 
Jaubert. 1 

DIN US, or DING, a native of Mugello in Tuscany, 
was a very learned lawyer and professor of law at Bologna, 
in the thirteenth century, and indeed accounted the first 
man of his time for knowledge, eloquence, and style both 

Diet. Hist. 

102 D I N U S. 

of speaking and writing. Pope Boniface VIII. employed 
him in compiling the fourth book of the Decretals, 
called the Sextus. He died at Bologna in 1303, as it is 

o * 

said, of chagrin. He had entered into the church, and 
been disappointed of rising according to what he thought 
his deserts. Of his works, his " Commentarium in regulas 
juris Pontificii," Svo, was so valuable that Alciat reckoned 
it one of those books which a student ought to get by 
heart, a character which it ceased to support when Charles 
du Moulin pointed out a great many errors in it. His 
other publication is entitled " De glossis contrariis," 2 
vo!s. fol. 1 

DIO or DION CASSIUS, an ancient historian, known 
also by the surnames of Cocceius or Cocceianus, was born 
at Nicsea, a city of Bithyuia, and flourished in the third 
century. His father Aproniatius, a man of consular dig- 
nity, was governor of Dalmatia, and some time after pro- 
consul of Cilicia, under the emperors Trajan and Adrian. 
Dio was with his father in Cilicia ; and from thence went 
to Rome, where he distinguished himself by public plead- 
ings. From the reign of Commodus he was a senator of 
Rome ; was made prtetor of the city under Pertinax ; and 
raised at length to the consulship, which he held twice, 
and exercised the second time, jointly with the emperor 
Alexander Severus. He had passed through several great 
employments under the preceding emperors. Macrinus 
had made him governor of Pergamus and Smyrna ; he 
commanded some time in Africa ; and afterwards had the 
administration of Austria and Hungary, then called Pan- 
nonia, committed to him. He undertook the task of writ- 
ing history, as he informs us himself, because he was ad- 
monished and commanded to do it by a vision from heaven ; 
and he tells us also, that he spent ten years in collecting 
materials for it, and twelve more in composing it. His 
history began from the building of Rome, and proceeded 
to the reign of Alexander Severus. It was divided into 
SO books, or eight decades ; many of which are not now 
extant. The first 34 books are lost, with part of the 35th. 
The 25 following are preserved intire; but instead of the 
last 20, of which nothing more than fragments remain, we 
have only the epitome, which Xiphtliuus, a monk of Cou- 

1 Moreri. Tiraboschi. Diet. Hist. Dupin. Freheri Theatruiu. Fabric. Lat. Med. 

DIG. 103 

stantinople, has given of them. Photius observes, that he 
wrote his Roman history, as others had also done, not 
from the foundation of Home only, but from the descent 
of^neas into Iialy ; which he continued to the year of 
Home 982, and of Christ 228, when, as we have observed, 
he was consul a second time with the emperor Alexander 
Severus. What we now have of it, begins with the expe- 
dition of Lucullus against Mithridates king of Pontus, about 
the year of Home eiS4, and ends with the death of the 
emperor Claudius about the year 80G. 

Though all that is lost of this historian is much to be re- 
gretted, yet that is most so which contains the history of 
the forty !^st years ; for within this period he was an eye- 
witness of all that passed, and a principal actor in a great ' 
part. Before the reign of Com mod us, he could relate 
nothing but what he had from the testimony of others ; 
after that, every thing fell under his own cognizance; and 
a man of his quality, who had spent his life in the manage- 
ment of great affairs, and had read men as well as books, 
must have had many advantages in delineating the history 
of his own times ; and it is even now allowed, that no man 
has revealed more of those state-secrets, which Tacitus 
styles arcana imperil, and of which he makes so high a 
mystery. He is also very exact and full in his descriptions, 
in describing the order of the comitia, the establishing of 
magistrates, &c. and, as to what relates to the apothcosi-, 
or consecration of emperors, perhaps he is the only writur 
who has given us a good account of it, if we except Ilero- 
dian, who yet seemh to have been greatly indebted to him. 
Besides his descriptions, there are several of his speeches, 
which have been highly admired ; those particularly of 
Maecenas and Agrippa, upon the question, whether Au- 
gustus should resign the empire or no. Yet he has been 
exceedingly blamed for his partiality, which to some has 
appeared so great, as almost to invalidate the credit of 
his whole history ; of those parts at least, where he can be 
supposed to have been the least interested. The instances 
alleged are his partiality for Caesar against Pompey, for 
Antony against Cicero, and his strong prejudices against 
Seneca. " The obvious cause of the prejudice which Dio 
had conceived against Cicero," Dr. Middleton supposes 
" to have been his envy to a man who for arts and elo- 
quence was thought to eclipse the fame of Greece-; 11 but 
he adds another reason, not less probable, deducible from 

lOi D I O. 

Dio's character and principles, which were wholly oppo- 
site to those of Cicero. " For Dio," as he says, " flou- 
rished under the most tyrannical of the emperors, by whom 
he was advanced to great dignity ; and, being the creature 
of despotic power, thought it a proper compliment to it, 
to depreciate a name so highly revered for its patriotism, 
and whose writings tended to revive that ancient zeal and 
spirit of liberty for which the people of Rome were once 
so celebrated : for we find him taking all occasions in his 
history, to prefer an absolute and monarchical govern- 
ment to a free and democratical one, as the most bene- 
ficial to the Roman state." 

Dio obtained leave of the emperor Severus to retire to 
Nicaea, where he spent the latter part of his life. He is 
supposed to have been about seventy years old when he 
died ; although the year of his death is not certainly known. 
His History was first printed at Paris, 1548, fol. by Robert 
Stephens, with only the Greek; but has been reprinted 
since with a Latin translation by Leunclavius, Hanov. 1592, 
fol. The best edition, however, is that of Reimarus, Ham- 
burgh, 1750, 2 vols. fol. which was begun by Fabricius. 
Photius ranks the style of Dio Cassius amongst the most 
elevated. Dio seems, he says, to have imitated Thucy- 
clicles, whom he follows, especially in his narratives and 
orations; but he has this advantage over him, that he can- 
not be reproached with obscurity. Besides his History, 
Suidas ascribes to him some other compositions; as, 1. 
" The Life of the Philosopher Arrianus. " 2. " The Ac- 
tions of Trajan ;" and 3. certain " Itineraries." Ra- 
phael Volaterranus makes him also the author of three 
books, entitled " De Principe," and some small treatises 
of morality. His History, as abridged by Xiphilinus, was 
translated into English by Manning, and published at 
London, 1704, 2 vols. Svo. 1 

DIO CHRYSOSTOM, the son of Pasicrates, was born 
at Prusa in Bithynia. We have just seen that Dio Cas- 
, sius had the name of Cocceius or Cocceianus, and accord- 
ing to Mr. Wakefield, Dio Chrysostom had the same name' 
from his patron Cocceius ; but as an entire century inter- 
vened between these two Dio's, it is impossible that Cas- 
sius could have derived that name from the same cause. 

1 Fabric. Bib!. Gra-c. Vossius Hist. Grace. Middleton's preface to the Life 
f Cicero. tiouut's Ceusura. Saxii Onoma&U, 

D I O. 105 

It is more certain, however, that the subject of the present 
article was called Chrysostom, or golden mouthed, from 
the elegance and purity of his compositions. This name 
has occasioned a frequent confusion of our Dio Chrysostom 
with John Chrysostom, the Christian preacher, so deno- 
minated for the same solid and splendid excellencies of his 
style. Dio Chrysostom, under Nero and Vespasian, main- 
tained the profession of a sophist : and frequently in- 
veighed, in a declamatory and luxuriant style, against the 
most illustrious poets and philosophers of antiquity ; which 
obliged him to leave Rome, and withdraw to Egypt. He 
then assumed the character of a stoic philosopher ; embel- 
lishing, however, his philosophical discourses that treated 
of moral topics, with the graces of eloquence. As his 
character corresponded to his principles of virtue, he was 
a bold censor of vice, and spared no individual on account 
of his rank. By his freedom of speech he offended Do- 
mitian, and being obliged to become a voluntary exile irr 
Thrace, he lived in great poverty, and supported himself 
by private labour. After the death of this emperor, he 
returned to Rome, arid for some time remained concealed; 
but when he found the soldiers inclined to sedition, he 
brought to their recollection Dio the orator and philo- 
sopher, by haranguing them in a strain of manly eloquence, 
which soon subdued the tumult. He was admitted into the 
confidence of Nerva and Trajan, and distinguished by the 
former with tokens of favour. He lived to old acre, but 


the time of his death cannot be ascertained. His "Ora- 
tions" are still extant, from which we may infer that he 
was a man of sound judgment and lively fancy, and that 
he blended in his style the qualities of animation and sweet- 
ness. The first edition of his works was published at Mi- 
lan, 1476, 4to. The principal subsequent editions are, 
Venice, 15.51, 8vo ; Paris, 1604, fol. and Paris, 1533, 4to, 
In 1800 the late Rev. Gilbert Wakefield published " Se- 
lect Essays of Dio Chrysostom, translated into English, 
from the Greek, with notes critical and illustrative," 8vo, 
a work, however,- rather calculated for political allusion, 
to which the translator was unhappily addicted, than for 
classical illustration. r 

DIODATI (JOHN), a very eminent divine, descended 
of a noble family of Lucca, was born June 6, 1576; but 

1 Fabric. Bibl. Grace. Brucker. Wakefield's preface. Saxii Onomast, 

106 D I O D A T I. 

of his early years we have no information. When, how- 
ever, he was only nineteen years of age, \ve find him ap- 
pointed professor of Hebrew at Geneva. In 1619 tlie 
church of Geneva sent him to the synod of Dort, with his 
colleague Theodore Tronchin. Diodati gained so much 
reputation in this synod, that he was chosen, with five 
other divines, to prepare the Belgic confession of faith. 
He was esteemed an excellent divine, and a good preacher. 
His death happened at Geneva, Oct. 3, 16 9, in his se- 
venty-third year, and was considered as a public loss. - He 
has rendered himself noticed by some works which he 
published, but particularly by his translation of the whole 
Bible into Italian, the first edition of which he published, 
with notes, in 1607, at Geneva, and reprinted in 16 n. 
The New Testament was printed separately at Geneva in 
1608, and at Amsterdam and Haerlem in 1665. M. Simon 
observes, that his method is rather that of a divine and a 
preacher, than of a critic, by which he means only, that 
his work is more of a practical than a critical kind. He 
translated the Bible also into French, but not being so in- 
timate with that language, he is not thought to have suc- 
ceeded so well as in the Italian. This translation was 
printed in folio, at Geneva, in 1664. He was also the 
first who translated into French father Paul's " History of 
the Council of Trent," and many have esteemed this a 
more faithful translation than de la Houssaye's, although 
less elegant in language. He also is said to have trans- 
lated sir Edwin Sandys' book on the " State of Religion in 
the West." But the work by which he is best known in 
this country is his Annotations on the Bible, translated into 
English, of which the third and best edition was published 
in 1651, fol. He is said to have begun writing these an- 
notations in 1606, at which time it was expected that 
Venice would have shaken off the popish yoke, a mea- 
sure to which he was favourable ; and he went on im- 
proving them in his editions of the Italian and French 
translations. This work was at one time time very popular 
in England, and many of the notes of the Bible, called the 
*' Assembly of Divines' Annotations," were taken from Dio- 
dati literally*. Diodati was at onetime in England, as we 
learn from the life of bishop Bedell, whom he was desirous 

* See his Letter to this Assembly in the Appendix to Abp. Usher's Life and 
Letters, p. U. 

DJ. O D A T I. 107 

to become acquainted with, and introduced him to Dr. Mor- 
ton, bishop of Durham. From Morrice's " State Letters 
of tbe right hon. the earl of Orrery," we learn that when 
invited to preach at Venice, he was obliged to equip him- 
self in a trooper's habit, a scarlet cloak with a sword, and 
in that garb he mounted the pulpit ; but was obliged to 
escape again to Geneva, from the wrath of a Venetian 
nobleman, whose mistress, affected by one of Diqdati'a 
sermons, had refused to continue her connection with her 
keeper. The celebrated Milton, also, contracted a friend- 
ship for Diodati, when on his travels ; and some of his 
Latin elegies are addressed to Charles Diodati, the nepheiv 
of the divine. This diaries was one of Milton's most in- 
timate friends, and was the son of Theodore Diodati, who, 
although originally of Lucca, as well as his brother, mar- 
ried an English lady, and his son in every respect became 
an Englishman. He was also an excellent scholar, and 
being educated to his father's profession, practised physic 
in Cheshire. He was at St. Paul's school, with Milton, 
and afterwards, in 1621, entered of Trinity-college, Ox- 
ford. He died in I638. 1 

D1ODORUS SICULUS, an ancient historian, was born, 
at Agyrium, in Sicily, and nourished in the times of Julius 
Caesar and Augustus, in the first century. He informs us 
that he was no less than thirty years in writing his history, 
in the capital of the world, viz. Rome; where he collected 
materials which he could not have procured elsewhere. 
Nevertheless, he did not fail to travel through the greatest 
part of the provinces of Europe and Asia, as well as to 
Egypt, that he might not commit the usual faults of those 
who had ventured to treat particularly of places which they 
had never visited. He calls his work, not a history, but an 
Historical Library ; and with some reason ; since, when it 
was intire, it contained, according to the order of time, 
all which other historians had written separately. He had 
comprized in forty books the most remarkable events which 
had happened in the world during the space of 1 138 years; 
without reckoning what was comprehended in his six first 
books of the more fabulous times, viz. of all which hap- 
pened before the Trojan war. But of these forty, only 
fifteen books are now extant. The first five are intire, 

1 Moreri. Frcheri Theatrum. P.urnet's Life of Be.tell, 5. 19, 30. War- 
ton's Milton, p. 429, and MS notes by the author. 

10$ D I O D O R U S. 

and give us an account of the fabulous times, explaining 
the antiquities and transactions of the Egyptians, As- 
syrians, Persians, Libyans, Grecians, and other nations, 
before the Trojan war. The five next are wanting. The 
llth begins at Xerxes's expedition into Greece; from 
whence, to the end of the 20th, which brings the history 
down to the year of the world 3650, the work is intire ; 
but the latter twenty are quite lost. Henry Stephens as- 
serts, from a letter communicated to him by Lazarus Baif, 
that the Historical Library of Diodorus remains intire in 
some corner of Sicily ; upon which, says la Mothe le 
Yayer, " I confess I would willingly go almost to the end 
of the world, in hopes to find so great a treasure. And 
I shall envy posterity this important discovery, if it be to 
be' made when we are no more; when, instead of fifteen 
books only, which we now enjoy, they shall possess the 
whole forty." 

The contents of this whole work are thus explained in 
tbe preface by Diodorus himself; " Our six first books," 
says he, " comprehend all that happened before the war 
of Troy, together with many fabulous matters here and 
there interspersed. Of these, the three former relate the 
antiquities of the barbarians, and the three latter those of 
the Greeks. The eleven next include all remarkable 
events in the world, from the destruction of Troy to the 
death of Alexander the Great. And lastly, the other twenty- 
three extend to the conquest of Julius Caesar over the Gauls, 
when he made the British ocean the northern bounds of the 
Roman empire." Since Diodorus speaks of Julius Caesar, 
as he does in more places than one, and always according 
to the pagan custom, with an attribute of some divinity, 
he cannot be more ancient than he. When Eusebius writes 
in his Chronicon, that Diodorus lived under this emperor, 
he seems to limit the life of the former by the reign of the 
latter; yet Suidas prolongs his days even to Augustus; 
and Scaliger observes in his " Animadversions upon Eu- 
sebius," that Diodorus must needs have lived to a very great 
age ; and that he was alive at least half the reign of Au- 
gustus, since he mentions on the subject of the olympiads, 
the Roman bissextile year : now this name was not used 
before the fasti and calendar were corrected ; which was 
done by Augustus, to make the work of his predecessor 
jnore perfect. 

D I O D O R U S. 105* 

Diodorus has met with a different reception from the 
learned. Pliny affirms him to have heen tiie first of the 
Greeks who wrote seriously, and avoided trifles : " primus 
apud Graccos desiit nugari," are his words. Bishop Mon- 
tague, in his preface to his " Apparatus," gives him the 
praise of being an excellent author ; who, with great fide- 
lity, immense labour, and uncommon ingenuity, has col- 
lected an " Historical Library," in which he has exhibited 
his own and the studies of other men. This history, with- 
out which we should have been ignorant of the antiquities 
and many other particulars of the little town of Agyrium, 
or even of Sicily, presents us occasionally with sensible 
and judicious reflections. Diodorus takes particular care 
to refer the successes of war and of other enterprises, not 
to chance or to a blind fortune, with the generality of his- 
torians ; but to a wise and kind providence, which presides 
over all events. Yet he exhibits proofs of extraordinary 
credulity, as in his description of the Isle of Panchaia, 
with its walks beyond the reach of sight of odoriferous 
trees; its fountains, which form an infinite number of 
canals bordered with flowers; its birds, unknown in any 
other part of the world, which warble their enchanting 
notes in groves of uninterrupted verdure ; its temple of 
marble, 4000 feet in length, &c. The first Latin edition 
of Diodorus is that of Milan, 1472, folio. The first of the 
text was that of Henry Stephens, in Greek, 1559, finely 
printed : Wesseling's, Amsterdam, Gr. and Lat. with the 
remarks of different authors, various lections, and all the 
fragments of this historian, 1745, 2 vols. folio, was long 
accounted the best, but is not so correct as was supposed. 
Poggius translated it into Latin, the abbe Terasson into 
French, and Booth into English, 1700, fol. Count Caylus 
has an ingenious essay on this historian in vol. XXVII. of 
the " Hist, de 1'academie des Belles Lettres," and profes- 
sor Heyne has a still more learned and elaborate memoir in 
" The Transactions of the Royal Society of Gottingen," 
vol. V. on the sources of information from which Diodorus 
composed his history. This was afterwards inserted among 
the valuable prolegomena to Heyne's edition of Diodorus, 
1798, &c. 10 vols. 8vo, which is now reckoned the best. 1 

DIODORUS, of Antioch, priest of that church, and 
afterwards bishop of Tarsus in the fourth century, was dis- 

1 Mor<*ri. Fabric. Bib!. Grose. La Molhc Je Vayer Jugemen* sur le Hiat, 
Vessiui de Grc. Hist, Saxil Guocuast, 

110 . D 1 O D O R U S. 

ciple of Sylvanus, and master of St. John Chrysostom, of 
St. Basil, and of St. Athanasius, who all bestow great 
praises on his virtues and his zeal for the faith : praises 
which were confirmed by the first council of Constanti- 
nople. St. Cyril, on the contrary, calls him the enemy of 
the glory of Jesus Christ, and regards him as the fore-runner 
of Nestorins. Diodorus was one of the first commentators 
who adhered to the literal sense of Scripture, without ex- 
patiating in the fields of allegory ; but only some fragments 
of his writings are come down to us, in the " Catena pa- 
trum Grrccorum." His contemporaries and immediate suc- 
cessors differ very essentially as to his real character, as 
may be seen in our authorities. 1 

DIODORUS, of Caria, a philosopher of the Megaric 
school, flourished about 2SO years B. C. and was a famous 
adept in the verbal quibbles so common at that time, and 
which Aristotle called Kristic syllogisms. A dialectic 
question was proposed to him in the presence of Ptolemy 
Soter, at whose court he was, by Stilpo, another quibbler 
like himself ; and Diodorus acknowledging himself inca- 
pable of giving an immediate answer, requested time for 
the solution ; on which the king himself, we presume a 
wit, ridiculed his want of ingenuity, and gave him the 
surname of CHRONUS. Mortified at this defeat, he retired 
from the court, wrote a book upon the question, and at 
last, foolishly enough, died of vexation. He is said to 
have invented the famous argument against motion : " if any 
body be moved, it is either moved in the place where it is, 
or in a place where it is not; but it is not moved in the 
place where it is, for where it is, it remains ; nor h it moved 
in a place where it is not, for nothing can either actor suffer 
where it is not ; therefore there is no such thing as motion." 
Diodorus, after the invention of this wonderful argument, 
was very properly repaid for his ingenuity. Having had 
the misfortune to dislocate his shoulder, the surgeon whom 
he sent for to replace it, kept him for some time in torture, 
whilst he proved to him, from his own method of reasoning, 
that the bone could not have mo-ced out of its place. Dio- 
dorus has been ranked among the atomic philosophers, 
because he held the doctrine of small indivisible bodies, 
infinite in number, but finite in magnitude; but it does 
Dot appear that he conceived the idea which distinguishes 
the atomic doctrine, as it was taught by Democriuis and 

' Lardner's Works. Cave, vol. I. Dupin. 

D 1 O D O R U S, III 

others, that the first atoms are destitute of all properties 
except extension and figures. 1 

DIOGENES, a celebrated Cynic philosopher, was born 
in the third year of the ninety-first olympiad, or 413 B.C. 
at Sinope, a city of Pont us. His father, who was a banker, 
was convicted of debasing the public coin, and was obliged 
to leave his country. This circumstance gave the sou 
an opportunity of visiting Athens, where he offered him- 
self as a pupil of Aniisthenes; but that philosopher hap- 
pening to be in a peevish humour, refused to receive him. 
Diogenes still importuning him for admission, Antistheues 
lifted up his staff to drive him away; upon which Diogenes 
said, " Beat me as you please ; I will be your scholar." 
Antisthenes, overcome by his perseverance, received him, 
and afterwards made him his intimate companion and 
friend. Diogenes perfectly adopted the principles and 
character of his master, and renouncing every other object 
of ambition, he determined to distinguish himself by his 
contempt of riches and honours, and by his indignation 
against luxury. He wore a coarse cloak ; carried a wallet 
and a staff; made the porticoes and other public places 
his habitation ; and depended upon casual contributions 
for his daily bread. A friend, whom he had desired to 
procure him a cell, not executing his order so soon as he 
expected, he took up his abode in a tub, or large open 
vessel, in the Metro urn. It is probable, however, Brucker 
thinks, that this was only a temporary expression of in- 
dignation and contempt, and that he did not make a tub 
the settled place of residence, although it is mentioned 
by Juvenal and Seneca. Whether true or not, there is 
no doubt of his practising rigid abstinence, .and depending 
upon casual charity ; nor is it less certain that he reproved 
the luxurious manners of the Athenians with great free- 
dom ; and yet his reproofs, though very pungent, mani- 
fested so much ingenuity, as to excite even the admiration 
of those against whom they were directed. lie uniformly 
inculcated patience of labour and pain, frugality, tem- 
perance, and an entire contempt of pleasure ; and whe- 
ther praised or blamed, appeared equally indifferent, and 
preserved on all occasions a perfect self-command. 

Diogenes, in his old age, is said to have sailed to the 
island of ^gina; and having met with pirates, he was car*- 

' Moreri. Brucker. Dicj. laert'uis. 


ried into Crete, and exposed to public sale. Being asked 
what he could do ? he replied, "I can govern men, and 
therefore sell me to one who wants a master:" Xeniades, a 
wealthy Corinthian, being struck by this singular reply, 
purchased him ; upon which Diogenes told him, " I shall 
be more useful to you as your physician, than as your 
slave." Upon their arrival at Corinth, Xeniades gave him 
his liberty, and committed to his direction the education 
of his children, and the management of his domestic con- 
cerns. Xeniades had so much reason to be satisfied with 
his judgment and fidelity, that he used to say the gods 
had sent a good genius to his house. He accustomed his 
pupils to the discipline of the Cynic sect, and took greater 
pains to inure them to habits of self-command, than to 
instruct them in the elements of science. However, he 
was not negligent in teaching them lessons of moral wis- 
dom, which he inculcated by sententious maxims ; and he 
allowed them the moderate use of athletic exercises and 
hunting. During his residence at Corinth, he frequently 
attended the assemblies of the people at the Crancum, a 
place in its vicinity; and at the Isthmian games, where he 
appeared under the character of a censor, severely lashing 
the follies of the times, and inculcating rigid lessons of 
sobriety and virtue. At one of these assemblies the con- 
ference between Alexander the Great and Diogenes is 
said to have happened. Plutarch relates the story thus : 
Alexander received the congratulations of all ranks on his 
being appointed, after the death of his father, to the com- 
mand of the Grecian army in their projected expedition 
against the Persians. Diogenes was absent on this occa- 
sion, and Alexander expressed his surprise at this circum- 
stance. Wishing to gratify his curiosity by the sight of 
such a philosopher as Diogenes, he visited the Craneum, 
where he found the philosopher sitting in his tub in th 
sun. The king came up to him in the crowd, and said, 
" I am Alexander the Great; 1 ' to which Diogenes replied, 
in a surly tone, " and I am Diogenes the Cynic." Alex- 
ander, requesting to know if he could render him any ser- 
vice, received for answer, " Yes," says he, " do not stand 
between me and the sun." Alexander surprised at the 
magnanimity of this reply, said to his friends, " If I were 
not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." There arc several 
circumstances in this narrative which suggest some doubts 


as to its truth : yet, from the character of Diogenes, it is 
not very improbable. 

Some writers assert, that after the death of Antisthenes, 
Diogenes passed his summers in Corinth, and his winters 
in Athens, for which there seems to be no better founda- 
tion than for the whole detail of small anecdotes and jests 
which have been ascribed to him, and which are entirely 
contrary to the general scope of his philosophy, and to 
that authority and respect which he enjoyed with the wise 
men of his age. If we can pay any credit to the repre- 
sentation of the ancients, Diogenes was a philosopher of a 
penetrating genius, not unacquainted with learning, and 
deeply read in the knowledge of mankind. He moreover 
possessed a firm and lofty mind, superior to the injuries 
of fortune, hardy in suffering, and incapable of fear. 
Contented with a little, and possessing within himself 
treasures, sufficient for his own happiness, he despised the 
luxuries of the age. From an earnest desire to correct 
and improve the public manners, he censured reigning 
follies and vices with a steady confidence which sometimes 
degenerated into severity. He spared neither the rich nor 
the powerful ; and even ventured to ridicule the religious 
superstitions of the age. This freedom gave great offence 
to multitudes, who could not endure such harsh and re- 
proachful lectures from the mouth of a mendicant philo- 
sopher. The consequence was, that he suffered much 
obloquy, and was made the subject of ludicrous and dis- 
graceful calumny. It is wholly incredible, that a man 
universally celebrated for his sobriety, contempt of plea- 
sure, and indignation against vice, should have been guilty 
of the grossest indecencies. Brucker has amply refuted 
the story of his amour with Lais, the celebrated courtesan, 
by proving that at the time this intrigue is said to have 
taken place, Lais must have been eighty years old, and 
Diogenes seventy. Of philosophical pride, however, it is 
less easy to acquit him ; and it was probably to his haughty 
temper, his coarse invectives, and scurrilous replies, that 
he owed the hostility which broke out in misrepresenta- 
tions of his real character. Various accounts are given, 
concerning the time and manner of his death, It seems 
most probable that he died at Corinth, of mere decay, in 
the ninetieth year of his age, and in the hundred and four- 
teenth olympiad. His friends contended for the honour 
of defraying the expences of his funeral ; but the m 



trates of Athens settled the dispute, by ordering him ao 
honourable interment at the public expence. A column 
of Parian marble, terminated by the figure of a dog, was 
raised over his tomb ; and his friends erected many brazen 
statues from respect to his memory. 

Diogenes left behind him no system of philosophy. 
After the example of his master, he was more atten- 
tive to practical, than theoretical wisdom. The chief 
heads of his moral doctrine may be thus briefly stated : 
Virtue of mind, as well as strength of body, is chiefly to 
be acquired by exercise and habit. Nothing can be ac- 
complished without labour, and every thing may be ac- 
complished with it. Even the contempt of pleasure may, 
by the force of habit, become pleasant. All things belong 
to wise men, to whom the gods are friends. The ranks 
of society originate from the vices and follies of mankind, 
and are therefore to be despised. Laws are necessary in 
a civilized state ; but the happiest condition of human life 
is that which approaches the nearest to a state of nature, 
in which all are equal, and virtue is the only ground of 
distinction. The end of philosophy is to subdue the pas- 
sions, and prepare men for every condition of life. 

From the numerous maxims and apothegms which have 
been ascribed to Diogenes, we shall select the following, 
without staying to inquire what right he has to the credit 
of them : Diogenes treading upon Plato's robe, said, " I 
trample under foot the pride of Plato." " Yes," said 
Plato, " with greater pride of your own." Being asked 
in what part of Greece he had seen good men, he an- 
swered, " No-where ; at Sparta I have seen good boys." 
To a friend who advised him in his old age to indulge him- 
self, he said, " Would you have me quit the race when 
J have almost reached the goal ?" Observing a boy drink 
water out of the hollow of his hand, he took his cup out of 
his wallet, and threw it away, saying that he would carry 
no superfluities about him. Plato having defined man to 
be a two-legged animal without wings, Diogenes plucked 
off the feathers from a cock, and turned him into the aca- 
demy^ crying out, " See Plato's man." In reply to one 
who asked him at what time he ought to dine ; he said, 
" If you are a rich man, when you will ; if you are poor, 
when you can." " How happy," said one, " is Caiiis- 
thenes, in living with Alexander !" " No," said Diogenes, 
" he is not happy ; for he must dine and sup when Alex- 


ander pleases." Plato, discoursing concerning ideas, 
spoke of the abstract idea of a table and a cup; Diogenes 
said, " I see the table and the cup, but not the idea of the 
table and the cup." Plato replied, " No wonder, for you 
have eyes, but no intellect." His answer to an invitation 
from Craterus to come and live with him was, " I had ra- 
ther lick salt at Athens, than sit down to the richest feast 
with Craterus." Being asked what countryman he was, he 
answered, " A citizen of the world." To one that reviled 
him he said, " No one will believe you, when you speak 
ill of me, any more than they would me, if I were to speak 
well of you." Hearing one of his friends lament that he 
should not die in his own country, he said, " Be not un- 
easy ; from every place there is a passage to the regions 
below." " Would you be revenged upon your enemy," 
said Diogenes, " be virtuous, that he may have nothing 
to say against you." 1 

DIOGENES APOLLONIATES, or of Apollonia, in 
the island of Crete, was a disciple of Anaximenes, and the 
successor of Anaxagoras in the Ionic school. Following 
the steps of his master, he devoted himself to the contem- 
plation of nature ; not, however, without mingling with 
the severer pursuits of philosophy the study of eloquence. 
This qualified him to execute the office of preceptor with 
great reputation, both at Miletus and at Athens. But his 
success, and perhaps his opinions, excited so much jea- 
lousy and aversion among the Athenians, that, like Anax- 
agoras, he was obliged to provide for his safety by flight. 
What befel him afterwards, or what was the exact time of 
his birth or death, is unknown. With Anaximenes, he 
taught that air, or a subtle ether, is the first material prin- 
ciple in nature, but that it partakes of a divine intelligence, 
without which nothing could be produced. From com- 
paring the imperfect accounts of his doctrine which re- 
main, with the opinions of his predecessors, it appeals 
probable that he conceived the infinite ether to be ani- 
mated by a divine mind, and all things to be formed from 
this compound principle. 3 

DIOGENES, called the BABYLONIAN, from his birth- 
place, Seleucia, near Babylon, flourished in the second 

1 Brucker. Diogenes Laertius. Fenelon's Lives of the Philosophers. Gen. 
Diet. Stanley's Hist, of Philosophy. Saxii Onomast. 
8 Gen. Diet. Brucker, DiogCHes Laertius. Moreri. 

I 2 


century B. C. He was the disciple of Chrysippus, and 
the successor of Zeno of Tarsus, where he taught the 
principles of his sect with unwearied diligence, and a high 
reputation. He was the author of several works on divi- 
nation, the laws, learning, &c. which have been quoted 
with respect by Cicero and others. He is said to have 
lived to the age of eighty-eight years, and philosophized 
to the last. That he was highly esteemed by his contem- 
poraries, is evident from his being appointed in conjunc- 
tion with Carneades, the head of the academies, and Cri- 
tolaus, the chief of the peripatetic school, to the embassy 
to Home ; and as a proof how well his practice conformed 
to his principles, we are told, that when he \vas once dis- 
coursing against anger, an insolent young man, with the 
hope of exposing him to the ridicule of his audience, spat 
upon him, and otherwise contumeliously treated him, 
upon which the philosopher observed with meekness, " I 
am not angry, but I am doubtful whether I ought not to 
be so." 1 

DIOGENES LAERTIUS, so called from Laerta, or 
Laertes, a town of Cilicia, where he is supposed to have 
been born, is an ancient Greek author, who wrote ten books 
of the Lives of the Philosophers, still extant. In what age 
he flourished, is not easy to determine. The oldest writers 
who mention him are Sopater Alexandrinus, who lived 
in the time of Constantine the Great, and Hesychius Mile- 
sius, who lived under Justinian. Diogenes often speaks in 
terms of approbation of Plutarch and Phavorinus; and there- 
fore, as Plutarch lived under Trajan, and Phavorinus under 
Hadrian, it is certain that he could not flourish before the 
reigns of those emperors. Menage has fixed him to the time 
of Severus ; that is, about the year of Christ 200 ; and 
from certain expressions in his works, some have fancied 
him to have been a Christian ; however, as Menage ob- 
serves, the immoderate praises he bestows upon Epicurus 
will not suffer us to believe this, but incline us rather to 
suppose that he was an Epicurean. He divided his Lives 
into books, and inscribed them to a learned lady of the 
Platonic school, as he himself intimates in his life of Plato. 
Montaigne was so fond of this author, that, instead of one 
Laertius, he wishes we had a dozen ; and Vossius says, that 
his work is as precious as old gold. Without doubt we are 

1 Brucker, Diogenes Laertius. 


greatly obliged to him for what we know of the ancient 
philosophers ; and if he had been as exact in the execu- 
tion, as he was judicious in the choice of his subject, we 
had been more obliged to him still. Bishop Burnet, in the 
preface to his Life of sir Matthew Hale, justly speaks of 
him in the following manner: "There is no hook tne an- 
cients have left us," says he, " which might have informed 
us more than Diogenes Laertius's Lives of the Philosophers, 
if he had had the art of writing equal to that great subject 
which he undertook : for if he had given the world such an 
account of them, as Gassendus has done of Peiresc, how 
great a stock of knowledge might we have had, which by 
his unskilfulness is in a great measure lost ! since we must, 
now depend only on him, because we have no other and 
better author who has written on that argument." He is 
no where observed to be a rigid affecter or favourer of any 
sect; which makes it somewhat probable, that he was a 
follower of Potomon of Alexandria, who, after all the rest, 
and a little before his time, established a sect which were 
called Eclectics, from their choosing out of every sect vviv.t 
they thought the best. His books shew him to have been 
a man of universal reading ; but as a writer he is very ex- 
ceptionable, both as to the disposal and the defect of his 
materials. Brucker, whose opinion must be of sterling 
value, in estimating the merits of Diogenes Laertius, says, 
that " he has collected from the ancients with little judg- 
ment, patched together contradictory accounts, relied 
upon doubtful authorities, admitted as facts many tales 
which were produced in the schools of the sophists, and 
has been inattentive to methodical arrangement." Dio- 
genes also composed a book of epigrams, to which he re- 
fers. The best edition is that of Meibomius, Amst. 1692, 
2 vols. 4to ; yet Rossius, in his " Commentationes Laer- 
tianae," has convicted Meibomius of innumerable errors. 1 

DIONIS (PETER), an eminent French surgeon and wri- 
ter, was born at Paris, and became surgeon in ordinary to 
Maria Teresa of Austria, queen of France, and to the 
dauphinesses and the royal family. These honours were 
bestowed in consequence of the fame which he acquired as 
lecturer in surgery and anatomy in the royal gardens at 
Paris, an office founded by Louis XIV. He retained this 

1 Vossius de Hist. Grace. Fabr. Bjbl. Grace. Brucker. Saxii Onomast. * 
Dibdin's Classics. 

118 D I O N I S. 

and his other offices with increasing reputation, until his 
death, Dec. 11, 1718. His first publication was " Histoire 
anatomique d'une matrice extraordinaire," 1683. In 1690, 
he published " Anatomic de 1'homme suivant la circulation 
du sang, et les nouvelles decouvertes," 8vo, an useful epi- 
tome, containing all that was then known on the subject. 
It was well received, frequently reprinted, and was trans- 
lated in 1718, into the Tartar language, by order of 
Cam-hi, the emperor of China, for the benefit of his sub- 
jects. His next work, which first appeared in 1707, was 
" Cours d'Operations de Chirurgie demontree, au Jardin 
Royal de Paris," 8vo. This has been reprinted still more 
frequently than the former work, and has been translated 
into nearly all the modern languages. Heister gave an 
edition of it in Latin, with notes, and it still retains a cer- 
tain degree of credit. In 1709, he gave " Dissertation sur 
la mort subite, avec 1'histoire d'une fille cataleptique," 
12mo; and in 1718, " Traite general des Accouchmens," 
8vo. This also has been translated into most modern lan- 
guages, though it contains little more than an abridgment 
of the practice of Mauriceau, and is now almost entirely 
unnoticed. 1 

first French astronomers of the last century, was born at 
Paris Jan. 1 1, 1734, and appears to have been educated to 
the profession of the law, as he became a counsellor of 
parliament ; but his fame is more solidly" established on his 
astronomical pursuits. In the former capacity, however, 
he was appointed a deputy from the noblesse of Paris as 
one of their representatives in the constituent assembly. 
His conduct here appears to have been moderate, and even 
praiseworthy, as he incurred the displeasure of the succes- 
sion of tyrants who ruined their country, and was obliged 
to escape to some secure place of retirement, where he 
died in August 1794. During his more prosperous ca- 
reer, he was chosen a member of the royal societies of 
London (in 1775) and of Stockholm and Gottingen, and 
contributed many papers to Memoirs of the academy of 
sciences at Paris, of which he was also a member. His 
principal works, all of high value, are, 1. " Traite des 
courbes algebraiques," 1756, 12mo. 2. " Methode gene- 

i Moreri. Diet. Hist. Haller. Manget, where there is a portrait of him, 
-Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

D I O N I S. 119 

rale et directe pour resoudre les problemes relatifs aux 
eclipses," read in the academy. 3. " Recherches sur la 
gnomonique et les retrogradations des Planetes," 1761, 
8vo. 4. " Traite" analytique des mouvemens apparens des 
corps celestes," 1774, 2 vols. 4to. 6. " Essai sur les 
Cometes en general, et en particulier sur celles qui peu- 
vent approcher de 1'orbite de la terre," 17" -", svo ; a work, 
says its reviewer, which deserves undoubtedly to be placed 
among astronomical productions of the first rank, and in 
which the learned author has omitted nothing that has the 
least relation towards the general theory of comets. Ac- 
cordingly the commissaries, who were appointed by the 
royal academy of sciences at Paris to examine this work, 
declared that it contained the most complete theory of 
comets hitherto given. 6. " Essai sur les phenomenes re- 
latifs aux disparitions periodiques del'anneaude Saturne," 
1776, 8vo. This work amply supported the character 
which the author had established by his former writings, 
and it received the unanimous approbation of D'Alembert, 
Borda, Vaudermonde, Bezout, and La Place, the members 
of the academy who were appointed to examine it. * 

DIONYSIUS (PERIEGETES), was an ancient poet and 
geographer, concerning whom we have no certain infor- 
mation but what we derive from the elder Pliny. Pliny, 
speaking of the Persian Alexandria, afterwards called An- 
tioch, and at last Charrax, could not miss the opportunity 
of paying his respects to a person who had so much ob- 
liged him, and whom he professes to follow above all men 
in the geographical part of his work. He tells us, that 
*' Dionysius was a native of this Alexandria, and that he 
had the honour to be sent by Augustus to survey the 
eastern part of the world, and to make reports and obser- 
vations about its state and condition, for the use of the 
emperor's eldest son, who was at that time preparing an 
expedition into Armenia, Parthia, and Arabia." This pas- 
sage, though seemingly explicit enough, has not been 
thought sufficient by the critics to determine the time 
when Dionysius lived, whether under the first Augustus 
Caesar, or under some of the later emperors, who assumed 
his name : Vossius and others are of opinion, that the for- 
mer is the emperor meant by Pliny ; but Scaliger and 
Salmasius think he lived under Severus, or Marcus Aure- 

1 Dick Hiit. Month. Rev. vol. Hi. and liv. 

120 D I O N Y S I U S. 

lias, about A. D. 130 or 150. Dionysius wrote a great 
number of pieces, enumerated by Suidas and his commen- 
tator Eustathius : but his " Periegesis," or survey of the 
world, is the only one we have remaining; and it would 
be superfluous to say, that this is one of the most exact 
systems of ancient geography, when it has been already 
observed, that Pliny himself proposed it for his pattern. 
It is written in Greek hexameters ; but some think that 
Dionysius is no more to be reckoned a poet, than any of 
those authors who have included precepts in numbers, for 
the sake of assisting the memory. Yet, although his book 
is more valuable for matter than manner, it has been 
thought that he had a genius capable of more sublime 
undertakings, and that he constantly made the Muses the 
companions, though not the guides, of his travels. As 
proofs of this, we are referred to his descriptions of the 
island of Lucca, inhabited by departed heroes ; of the 
monstrous and terrible whales in Taprobana ; of the poor 
Scythians that dwelt by the Meotic lake ; to the account 
of himself, when he comes to describe the Caspian sea, 
and of the swans and bacchanals on the banks of Cayster, 
which shew him to have possessed no small share of poetic 

The "Periegesis" has been published several times with 
and without the commentaries of Eustathius ; but the 
neatest edition is that printed by Thwaites, at Oxford in 
1697 ; the best and most useful that enlarged and im- 
proved with notes and illustrations by Hill, Lond. 1688 and 
1708. Dr. Wells's " Dionysii Geographia emendata," 
1707, 8vo, has been often reprinted, and is held in estima- 
tion ; Dr. John Free translated it in his " Tyrocinium 
Geographicum Londinense." 1 

DIONYSIUS (HALICARNASSENSIS), a historian and cri- 
tic of antiquity, was born at Halicarnassus, a town in Caria; 
which is also memorable for having before produced Hero- 
dotus. He came to Rome soon after Augustus had put an 
end to the civil wars, which was about 30 years before 
Christ; and continued there, as he himself relates, twenty- 
two years, learning the Latin tongue, and making all ne- 
cessary provision for the design he had conceived of writ- 
ing the Roman history. To this purpose he read over, as 

l Vossius de Hist. Grtec. Dodwell's Dissert de Dionysio, in vol. IV. Geog. 
Minor. Hudson!. Fabr. Bibl. Grsec. Saxii Onomast. 

D I O N Y S I U S. 121 

he tells us, all the commentaries and annals of those Ro- , 
mans who had written with any reputation about the anti- 
quities and transactions of their state ; of such as old Cato, 
Fabius Maximus, Valerius Antias, Licinius Macer, and 
others ; but owns, after all, that the conferences he had 
with the great and learned men at Rome upon this subject, 
were almost as serviceable to him as any thing he had read. 
His history is entitled " Of the Roman antiquities," and 
was comprised in twenty books, of which only the first 
eleven are now extant. They conclude with the time 
when the consuls resumed the chief authority of the re- 
public, after the government of the decemviri ; which hap- 
pened 312 years after the foundation of Rome. The en- 
tire work extended to the beginning of the first Punic war, 
ending where Polybius begins his history, which is about 
200 years later. Some have imagined that Dionysius never 
ended his work, but was prevented by death from com- 
posing any more than eleven books out of the twenty 
which he had promised the public ; but this is contrary to 
the express testimony of Stepbanus, a Greek author, who 
quotes the 16th and 17th books of Dionysius' s Roman 
antiquities ; and Photius, in his Bibliotheca, says, that 
he had read all the twenty, and had seen the compendium 
or abridgment which Dionysius made of his own history 
into five books, but which is now lost. The reputation of 
this historian stands very high on many accounts, notwith- 
standing the severe attacks made on him by Mr. Hooke, in 
his " Observations, &c." on Middleton and Chapman, &c. 
1750, 4to. As to what relates to chronology, all the critics 
have been apt to prefer him even to Livy himself : and 
Scaliger declares, in his animadversions upon Eusebius, 
that we have no author remaining, who has so well ob- 
served the order of years. He is no less preferable to the 
Latins on account of the matter of his history ; for his 
being a stranger was so far from being prejudicial to him, 
that on this single consideration he made it his business to 
preserve an infinite number of particulars, most curious to 
us, which their own authors neglected to write, either be- 
cause, by reason of their familiarity, they thought them 
below notice, or that all the world knew them as well as 
themselves. His style and diction, however, although 
pure, insomuch that many have thought him the best author 
to be studied by those who would attain a perfect know- 
ledge of the Greek tongue, is not so elegant or lively as 

D I O N Y S I U 8. 

that of Livy, to whom he has been compared in historic 

Besides the Roman Antiquities, there are other writings 
of his extant, critical and rhetorical. His most admired 
piece in this way is " De structura Orationis," first printed 
by Aldus at Venice in 1508, which has undergone several 
impressions since, with a Latin version joined to it ; the 
last and best by Upton, printed at London in 1702. Se^ 
veral other compositions of the same kind, as his " Vita 
Isa^i et Dinarchi ;" " Judicium de Lysia ;" " Homeri 
vita;" " De Priscis Scriptoribus ;" " De antiquis Orato- 
ribus," of which Rowe Mores published an edition in 
1749, reprinted in 1781, after his death, with additional 
notes taken from his copy of Hudson's edition of Dionysius. 
All these shew Dionysius to have been a man of taste in 
the belles lettres, and of great critical exactness; and 
nothing can more clearly convince us of the vast reputa- 
tion and high authority he possessed at Rome among the 
learned, than Pompey's singling him out to give a judg- 
ment of the first Greek historians, and especially of Hero- 
dotus and Xenophon. There is extant a letter of his upon 
this subject, written to Pompey, at Pompey's own request ; 
and if there be any thing exceptionable in that letter, or 
in the other critical and rhetorical pieces of Dionysius, it 
is, that he was too rigorous in his criticisms, and con- 
tended too obstinately for perfection in an historian or 
orator. His finding fault with Plato upon his rigid prin- 
ciples, was one of the occasions of the letter which Pompey 
wrote to him : and we see by his answer^ that though, to 
gratify Pompey, he professes himself an admirer of Plato, 
he does not forbear to prefer Demosthenes to him ; pro- 
testing, that it was only to give the whole advantage to 
the latter, that he exercised his censure against the former. 
Nevertheless it appears, that at another season he spared 
Demosthenes no more than the rest ; so prone was his 
inclination to find fault, merely because writers did not, 
in their works, come up to that ideal perfection which he 
had conceived in his mind. The best edition of all Dio- 
nysius's works is that by Hudson, at Oxford, 1704, in 2 
vols. fol. His Roman History was translated into English 
by Edward Spelman, esq. 1757, 4 vols. 4to, with consi- 
derable fidelity and elegance, and illustrated with some 
dissertations, by which it appears that Mr. Spelman had de- 
voted much time and study to his favourite author, as well 

D I O N Y S I U S. 123 

tis to his subject; but he has likewise bestowed very un- 
necessary pains in exhibiting the defects of the French 
translators. 1 

D1ONYSIUS (HALICARNASSENSIS), junior, flourished, 
according to Suidas, under the emperor Adrian, and wrote 
twenty-six books of the " History of Musicians," in which 
he celebrated not only the great performers on the flute 
and cithara, but those who had risen to eminence by every 
species of poetry. He was, likewise, author of five books, 
written in defence of music, and chiefly in refutation of 
what is alleged against it in Plato's Republic. Aristides 
Quintilianus has also endeavoured to soften the severity 
of some animadversions against music in the writings of 
Cicero ; but though time has spared the defence of this 
author, yet it does not indemnify us for the loss of that 
which Dionysius junior left behind him ; as testimonies are 
still remaining or his having been a much more able writer 
than Aristides Quintilianus. 

The loss of the entire works of this writer is severely felt 
by all musical historians, but particularly by those who 
seek information concerning the music and musicians of 
the ancient Greeks. 2 

DIONYSIUS (AREOPAGITA) was born at Athens, and 
educated there. He went afterwards to Heliopolis in 
-/Egypt ; where, if we may believe some writers of his life, 
he saw that wonderful eclipse which happened at our Sa- 
viour's passion, and was urged by some extraordinary im- 
pulse to cry out, " Ant Deus patitur, aut cum patiente 
dolet ;" Either God himself suffers, or condoles with him 
who does. At his return to Athens he was elected into 
the court of Areopagus, from whence he derived his name 
of Areopagite. About the year 50 he embraced Chris- 
tianity, and, as some say, was appointed first bishop of 
Athens by St. Paul, and consecrated by his hands. Of his 
conversion we have this account in Acts xvii. : Paul, 
preaching at Athens, was brought before the Areopagus, 
to give account of himself and his doctrine. He harangued 
in that court, taking occasion to speak against the prevail- 
ing idolatry of the place, from an altar which he found 
with this inscription, " To the unknown God." The event 

i Fabric. Bibl. Grasc. Vossius <le Hist. Grxc. Dibdin's Classics and 
Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary. Saxii Onomast. 
* Suidas. Rees's Cyclopsdia. 


of which preaching was, as the sacred historian tells us, 
that " certain men clave unto him, and believed ; among 
the which was Dionysius the Areopagite, a woman named 
Damaris, and others with them." He is supposed to have 
suffered martyrdom; but whether under Domitian, Trajan, 
or Adrian, is not certain. 

The works ascribed to this Dionysius, printed at Co- 
logne in 1536, at Antwerp, 1634, and at Paris, 1644, 2 
vols. fol. are generally allowed to be spurious, and pro- 
bably were written in the fifth or sixth century, as they 
abound with the mystical trifles of the Plotinian school. 1 

DIONYSIUS, bishop of Corinth, flourished under the 
reigns of Marcus Antoninus and Commodus ; and is sup- 
posed to have suffered martyrdom about the year 178. We 
know little more of him than what appears from some of 
his epistles, preserved by Eusebius : from which we learn, 
that he was not only very diligent in his pastoral care over 
the flock committed to him, but that he extended this 
care likewise to the inhabitants of all other countries and 
cities. He wrote a letter to the Lacedaemonians, in which 
he exhorts them to peace and concord ; another to the 
Athenians, in which he recommends purity of faith and 
evangelical holiness; a third to the Nicomedians, to guard 
them against the heresy of Marciou ; a fourth to the 
churches of Crete ; a fifth to the churches of Pontus ; a 
sixth to the Gnossians, in which he admonishes Pinytus, 
their bishop, not to impose too severely upon the brethren 
the heavy burden of continence, but to consider the frail- 
ties and infirmities of the flesh ; a proof that monastic 
austerities were beginning at this early period of the 
church. He wrote also a seventh letter to the Romans, in 
which he mentions the famous epistle of Clemens to the 
Corinthians ; which, as we learn from him, was wont at 
that time to be publicly read in their churches. He re- 
commends to them also to continue a charitable custom, 
which, from their first plantation, they had always prac- 
tised ; namely, to send relief to divers churches through- 
out the world, and to assist particularly those who were 
condemned to the mines ; a strong proof, says a recent 
historian, both that the Roman church continued opulent 
and numerous, and that they still partook much of the 
spirit of Christianity. None of these epistles are now 

' Cave. Dupin. Larclner's Works. Saxii Onomast. 

D I O N Y S I U S. 125 

extant, but Eusebius has preserved some fragments of 
them. l 

DIONYSIUS, bishop of Alexandria, a man of great 
renown in the church, was born a heathen, and of an 
ancient and illustrious family. He was a diligent inquirer 
after truth, which he looked for in vain among the sects of 
philosophers; but at last found it in Christianity, in which 
he was probably confirmed by his preceptor Origen. He 
was made a presbyter of the church of Alexandria in the 
year 232 ; and in the year 247 was raised to that see upon 
the death of Heracles. When the Decian persecution arose, 
lie was seized by the soldiers and sent to Taposiris, a little 
town between Alexandria and Canopus; but he escaped 
without being hurt, of which there is an extraordinary 
account in the fragments of one of his letters, which Euse- 
bius has preserved. He was less fortunate under the Va- 
lerian persecution, which began in the year 257, being 
then forcibly hurried off in the midst of a dangerous illness, 
and banished to Cephrus, a most desert and uncultivated 
region of Libya, in which terrible situation he remained 
for three years. Afterwards, when Gallienus published 
an edict of toleration to the Christians, he returned to 
Alexandria, and applied himself diligently to the offices 
of his function, as well by converting heathens, as by 
suppressing heretics. To the Novatian heresy he laboured 
to put a stop ; he endeavoured to quiet the dispute, which 
was risen to some height, between Stephen and Cyprian, 
concerning the re-baptization of heretics : both which he 
attempted with Christian moderation and candour, and it 
must be acknowledged to his credit, that he seems to have 
possessed more of that spirit of gentleness and meekness 
than was usually to be found in those zealous times. He 
does not indeed appear to have been quite so moderate in 
the next congress which he had with Sabellius, who had as- 
serted, that " the substance in the trinity was nothing more 
than one person distinguished by three names ;''' which 
Dionysius opposed with such zeal and ardour, as to fall 
into the Arian opinion, and maintain, that there was 
*' not only a distinction of persons, but of essence or sub- 
stance also, and even an inequality of power and glory in 
them." Cave, however, excuses this error, or " blind- 
ness," as he calls it, in him, because it flowed from his 

1 Cave. Dupin. Milner's Church History, vol. I. p. 233. 


intemperate zeal and hatred of heretics, and because Dio- 
nysius was in all other respects a very sound and orthodox 
bishop. A little before his death he was called to a synod 
at Antioch, to defend the divinity of Jesus Christ against 
Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch: but he could not 
appear by reason of his great age and infirmities. He 
wrote a letter, however, to that church, in which he ex- 
plained his own opinion of the matter, and refuted Paul, 
whom he thought so very blameable for advancing such an 
error, that he did not deign to salute him even by name. 
He died in the year 267 ; and though his writings were 
very numerous, yet scarce any of them are come down to 
us, except some fragments preserved by Eusebius. ' 

DIONYSIUS, surnamed EXIGUUS, or LITTLE, on ac- 
count of his stature, was a monk by profession, and born 
in Scythia, where he is supposed to have died about the 
year 540, as Dupin reckons, or 556, according to Cave. 
He understood Greek and Latin, and was well acquainted 
with the holy scriptures. Cassiodorus, who was intimate 
with him, wrote his panegyric in the 23d chapter of his 
book on divine learning. At the desire of Stephen, bishop 
of Salone, he made a collection of canons, which contains, 
besides those which were in the code of the universal 
church, the fifty first canons of the apostles, those of the 
council of Sardica, and 138 canons of the council of Africa. 
This code of canons was approved and received by the 
church of Rome, and France, and by the Latin churches ; 
and was printed by Justel in 1628, with a version of the 
letter of St. Cyril, and of the council of Alexandria against 
Nestorius, which is also the translation of Dionysius Exi- 
guus. He afterwards joined these with the decretals of the 
popes from Syricius to Anastasius, to which have been, 
since added those of Hilary, Simplicius, and other popes, to 
St. Gregory. This second collection was printed by Justel 
in his Bibliotheca of Canon law. Dionysius was the first 
who introduced the way of counting the years from the 
birth of Jesus Christ, and who fixed it according to the 
epocha of the vulgar sera. He wrote also two letters upon 
Easter in the years 525 and 526, which were published by 
Petavius and Buchevius ; and made a cycle of 95 years. 
Father Mabillon published a letter of his written to Eugip- 
pius, about the translation which he made of a work of 

I Cave. Dupin. 

D I O N Y S I U S. 127 

Gregory Nyssen, concerning the creation of man. With 
respect to the epoch which he invented, he began his 
account from the conception or incarnation, usually called 
the Annunciation, or Lady-day ; which method obtained 
yi the dominions of Great Britain till 1752, before which 
time the Dionysian was the same as the English epoch : 
but in that year the Gregorian calendar having been ad- 
mitted by act of parliament, they now reckon from the 
first of January, as in the other parts of Europe, except 
in the court of Rome, where the epoch of the Incarnation 
still obtains for the date of their bulls. 1 

DIONYSIUS, a Greek poet and musician, was the 
author of the words and music of three hymns, of which 
the first is addressed to Calliope, the second to Apollo, 
and the third to Nemesis. Of these the music has been 
preserved and published by Dr. Fell, bishop of Oxford, in 
1672. This precious manuscript, which was found in Ire- 
land, among the papers of the famous archbishop Usher, 
was bought, after .his decease, by Mr. Bernard, fellow of 
St. John's college, who communicated it to the editor, 
together with remarks and illustrations by the rev. Mr. 
Edmund Chilinead, of Christ church, who likewise re- 
dueed the ancient musical characters to those in common, 
use. It appears by the notes, that the music of these 
hymns was composed in the Lydian mode, and diatonic 
genus. Vincenzo Galilei, father of the great Galileo, first 
published these hymns with their Greek notes, in his 
" Dialogues upon Ancient and Modern Music," printed at 
Florence, 1581, folio. He assures us, that he had them 
from a Florentine gentleman, who copied them very accu- 
rately from an ancient Greek manuscript, preserved in th 
library of cardinal St. Angelo, at Rome, which MS. like- 
wise contained the treatises of music by Aristides Quin- 
tilianus, and Bryennius, since published by Meibomius 
and Dr. Wallis. The Florentine edition of these hymns 
entirely agrees with that printed at Oxford. In 1602, Her- 
cules Bottrigari mentioned the same hymns in his harmo- 
nical discourse, called " Melone," printed at Ferrara, in 
4to. But he derived his knowlege of these pieces only 
from the Dialogues of Galilei ; however, he inserted, in 
the beginning of his book, some fragments of them in 
common notes j but they were disfigured by a number of 

i Dupin. Cave. Fabric. Bibl. Lat. Med, Saxii. Onomast. 

128 D I O N Y S I U g. 

typographical errors. At length, in 1720, M. Burette 
published these three hymns in the " Memoirs of the Aca- 
demy of Inscriptions," ton), v. from a copy found at the 
end of a Greek manuscript in the king of France's library 
at Paris, No. 3221, which likewise contained the musical 
treatises of Aristides Quintilianus, and of Bacchius senior'. 
But though the words were confused, and confounded one 
with another, they appeared much more complete in this 
manuscript than elsewhere, particularly the hymn to 
Apollo, which had six verses more at the beginning ; and 
that to Nemesis, which, though deficient at the end in all 
the other editions, was here entire, having fourteen verses, 
exclusive of the six first. ' 

DIOPHANTUS, a celebrated mathematician of Alex- 
andria, has been reputed to be the inventor of algebra ; at 
least his is the earliest work extant on that science. It is 
not certain when he lived. Some have placed him before 
Christ, and some after, in the reigns of Nero and the An- 
tonines ; Saxius places him in the fourth century. He ap- 
pears to be the same Diophantus who wrote the " Canon 
Astronomicus, which Suidas says was commented on by 
the celebrated Hypatia, daughter of Theon of Alexandria. 
His reputation must have been very high among the an- 
cients, since they ranked him with Pythagoras and Euclid 
in mathematical learning. Bachet, in his notes upon the 
5th book " De Arithmeticis," has collected, from Dio- 
phantus's epitaph in the Anthologia, the following circum- 
stances of his life ; namely, that he was married when he 
was thirty-three years old, and had asonbornfive years after; 
that this son died when he was forty-two years of age, and 
that his father did not survive him above four years ; from 
which it appears, that Diophantus was eighty-four years 
old when he died. 

He wrote thirteen books of arithmetic, or algebra, which, 
Regiomontanus in his preface to Alfraganus tells us, are 
still preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library. In- 
deed Diophantus himself tells us that his work consisted of 
thirteen books, viz. at the end of his address to Dionysius, 
placed at the beginning of the work; and from hence Re- 
giomontanus might be led to say the thirteen books were 
in that library. No more than six whole books, with part 
of a seventh, have ever been published ; and it is probable 

1 Burney's Hist, of Music, vol. T .where the mu sic is engraved. 

D I O P H A N T U S. 129 

there are no more in being ; indeed Bombelli, in the pre- 
face to his Algebra, written in 1572, says there were but 
six of the books then in the library, and that he and ano- 
ther were about a translation of them. Those six books, 
with the imperfect seventh, were first published at Basil by 
Xylander in 1575, but in a Latin version only, with the 
Greek scholia of Maximus Planudes upon the two first 
books, and observations of his own. The same books were 
afterwards published in Greek and Latin at Paris in 1G2I, 
by Bachet, an ingenious and learned Frenchman, who made 
a new Latin version of the work, and enriched it with very 
learned commentaries. Bachet did not entirely neglect 
the notes of Xylander in his edition, but he treated the 
scholiast Planudes with the utmost contempt. He seems 
to intimate, in what he says upon the 28th question of the 
second book, that the six books which we have of Dio- 
phantus may be nothing more than a collection made by 
some novice, of such propositions as he judged proper, 
out of the whole thirteen : but Fabricius thinks there is 
no just ground for such a supposition. From him, certain 
questions relating to square and cubic numbers, and to 
right-angled triangles, have been called Diophantine pro- 
blems, because the nature of them was first and chiefly 
treated of by him in his arithmetic, or rather algebra. l 

DIOSCOIUDES (PEDACIUS), an eminent physician of 
Anaxarba, since called Ceesarea, in Cilicia, flourished iu 
the reign of Nero, in the first century, and composed five 
books of the- Materia Medica. Fabricius is certain, that 
he composed these books before Pliny wrote his Natural 
History, although he supposes Pliny might reach the age 
of Dioscorides. Pliny has indeed made no mention of 
him, and yet relates many things of a very similar nature; 
which circumstances Fabricius imputes to their both hav- 
ing collected their materials from the same store-house, 
and to Pliny's not having seen the books of Dioscorides. 
This physician tells us, in the preface of his first book, that 
he had consulted all who had written upon the Materia 
Medica before him ; that to the information he had received 
from others, he had joined great application of his own ; 
that he had travelled over many countries, for the sake of 
confirming by observation what he had learned from books; 

1 Fabric. Bibl. Graec. Hutton's Dictionary. Montucla Hist. Math. VS 
skis de Scieut. Math. Moreri. 



that he had corrected many errors of others, added many 
new things of his own, and digested the whole into a regu- 
lar order. Salmasius considers all this as so much boast- 
ing, and treats Dioscorides as merely a laborious compiler, 
or pillager of others ; but Galen has pronounced these 
books of Dioscorides to be the best that had been written 
upon the subject, and it is evident that in the early stages 
of botanical science he was looked up to with a reverence 
which is no longer paid. His object being solely the Ma- 
teria Medica, he discusses each subject specifically, and in 
a separate chapter, dividing the whole into five books ; in 
which, as far as any order takes place, they arrange into 
aromatic, alimentary, and medicinal plants. His descrip- 
tions are chiefly taken from colour, size, mode of growing, 
comparison of the leaves and roots, with other plants well 
known, and therefore left undescribed. In general they 
are short, and frequently insufficient to determine the spe- 
cies ; and hence arise the endless and irreconcileable con- 
tentions among his commentators. In this manner, how- 
ever, he has described near 700 plants; to which he sub- 
joins the virtues and uses ; and to him all posterity have 
appealed as decisive on the subject. 

Besides these five books, there are a sixth and a seventh 
mentioned by Photius ; but the genuineness of them is 
justly doubted, since Galen takes no notice of them in se- 
veral places where he could hardly be supposed to overlook 
them. There are also two other books " upon simple and 
compound medicines easy to be come at," which have been 
attributed to Dioscorides ; but these are supposed to be 
spurious, though they seem to have borne his name when 
,/Etius read them. Several manuscripts of this author's 
works with figures are extant, which have often been cited 
by his commentators. Of these the most celebrated is in 
the imperial library at Vienna, the figures of which \\ere 
partly engraved in the reign of the empress Ptlaria Theresa, 
under the inspection of Jacquin. Two impressions only 
of these plates, as far as we can learn, have ever beeiv 
taken off, as the work was not prosecuted. Of these, one 
was sent to Linnaeus, with notes by Jacquin, and is now in 
the valuable library of Dr. Smith ; the other was given, out 
of professor Jacquin's own library, to Dr. Sibthorp, to as- 
sist his inquiries in Greece, and remains at O.vford. The 
LimiEcan copy consists of 142 plates, in oblong quarto, in 
alphabetical order ; but nothing can be more rude than 

D I O S C O R I D E S. 131 

these figures ; and they scarcely afford any information 
that is not familiar to botanists versed in the subject. Hal- 
ler asserts, that perhaps a third part of the plants of Dios- 
corides is still unknown, and it is to be feared they will 
never be entirely determined. The inquiry, indeed, at 
present, is rather a matter of curiosity than of any consi- 
derable medical importance. Dioscorides was first pub- 
lished at Cologn, in a Latin translation, 1478,, and ia 
the original by Aldus, 1495, folio. It was afterwards pub- 
lished in Latin by Hermolaus Barbartis, and Ruellius, 
1516 ; by Vergilius, 1518 ; and by Cornarus, 1529, all in. 
folio. There are many other editions, but the learned pre- 
fer that with a translation by Saracenus, Lyons, 1598, and 
Francfort, 1 620, folio. l 

DIPPEL (JoHN CONRAD), an author famous for his ex- 
travagancies, and who styled himself in his writings Chris- 
tianus Democritus, was born Aug. 10, 1672, at Franken- 
stein, near Darmstadt, where he commenced his studies. 
He afterwards studied philosophy and theology at Giessen, 
where he took his master's degree in 1693. He began his 
literary career by a controversy with the pietists, a sect 
against which he declaimed publicly at Strasburg. Being 
obliged, for some irregularities, to quit that city, he re- 
turned to Giessen, and shewed himself as zealous in be- 
half of pietism as he had been before in opposition to it. 
Having failed in his views of getting a wife, and a profes- 
sor's chair, he threw off the mask, and openly attacked the 
reformed religion, in his " Papismus Protestantium vapu- 
lans." This book having incensed the protestants against 
him, he abandoned theology for chemistry ; and gave out, 
that, after a process of eight months, he had succeeded in 
making a sufficient quantity of gold to enable him to keep 
a country house, which he bought for 50,000 florins; but 
he was at that time actually in the utmost indigence ; and 
could think of no better expedient for avoiding the pur- 
suit of his creditors than by commencing his travels. After 
having run over various countries, Berlin, Copenhagen, 
Francfort, Leyden, Amsterdam, Altona, Hamburgh, and 
having experienced the discipline of the prison in every 
one, he was invited to Stockholm in 1727 to prescribe for 
the king of Sweden. The clergy of that kingdom, pleased 

' Moreri. Haller Bib!. Bot. Fabric. Bibl. Grc. Pulteney's Sketches-* 
Rees's Cyclopxdia. 

K 2 

132 D I P P E L. 


with the hope of the king's recovery, but unwilling to owe 
it to a man that openly derided their religion, procured an 
order for the medical alchemist to quit the kingdom. 
Dippel returned to Germany, without having changed 
either his opinions or his conduct. The report of his death 
having been several times falsely propagated, he in 1733 
published a sort of certificate, in which he affirmed that he 
should not die till the year 180$ ; a prophecy which was 
not fulfilled : for he was found dead in his bed at the castle 
of Witgenstein, the 25th of April, 1734, at the age of 62. 

His works were published together in 1747, 5 vols. 4to, 
and, notwithstanding his many extravagancies and absur- 
dities, many have considered him as an eminent teacher 
of true piety and wisdom. He probably deserved more 
praise as a physician and chemist. He is said to have in- 
vented Prussian blue ; and there is still an oil called 
DippePs oil, which he first discovered, a powerful-sudorific, 
and deserving of more notice than it now receives. l 

DIROJS (FRANCIS), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, 
was at first a friend to the society of Port-royal, but after- 
wards disagreed with them on account of the formulary, 
which he defended in several of his writings. He was very 
intimate with Richard Simon, and died canon of Avranches 
at the end of the seventeenth century. Besides his works 
in favour of the formulary, he left a treatise, entitled 
*' Preuves et Prejuges pour la Religion Chretienne et Ca- 
tholique, contre les fausses Religions, et I'Atheisme," 4to, 
much esteemed by his Roman catholic brethren. It \vas 
Dirois who inserted the ecclesiastical history of each cen- 
tury in Mezeray's History of France. 8 

DISNEY (JoiiN), a learned English divine and magis- 
trate, was born at Lincoln in 1677. "At the grammar school 
in that city he received the early part of his education, and 
afterwards studied at a private academy among the dissen- 
ters, to whom his father was attached. He was next en- 
tered at the Middle Temple with a viexv of making- him- 
self so far acquainted with the law as to enable him to be- 
come respectable as a magistrate and an author. The for- 
mer character he sustained with dignity and much reputa- 
tion : he was diligent, disinterested, and impartial in his 
decistons : he took an active part with those who formed 
themselves into a society for the suppression of vice and 

Moreri. Mosbeim's Ecdes. Hist. " I.'Avocat. Moreri. 

D I S N E Y. 133 

HP morality. His regard to duty gained him tlie respect of 
the wise and good, and on some occasions he was singled 
out as meriting the thanks of the judges of the circuit for 
. ices that he had rendered his country. As he advanced 
in life, and after he hud acted as a magistrate more than 
twenty years, he conceived the design of becoming a mi- 
nister in the church of England, with which he had com- 
municated from the time that he had attained to manhood. 
He was accordingly first ordained a deacon, and afterwards, 
in 1719, a priest. In the same year he was presented with 
the vicarage of Croft, and to the rectory of Kirby-super- 
Baine, both in his native county. In the year 1722, he 
was instituted to the vicarage of St. Mary in Nottingham, 
to which town he removed ; and here he remained till his 
death, Feb. 3, 1729-30, in the 53d year of his age. He 
was buried, according to his own request, in the chancel 
of his church, near to the communion-table, having no 
other inscription over his grave than the initial letters of 
his name, and the year of his death. He left a widow, 
who afterwards lived at her own family-seat, Flintham-hall, 
in Nottinghamshire, and died there May 20, 1763, in the 
86th year of her age, by whom he had five sons and three 

He was a zealous advocate for, and a great friend to, the 
religious societies (particularly that for the reformation of 
manners), then in their infancy. His temper was naturally 
warm and impatient ; but he was formed by nature also 
with a generous and forgiving mind, and his warmth and 
impatience were generally under the government of his 
reason. His principles of religion were orthodox in re- 
gard to points of doctrine and articles of faith: in respect 
to the principles of others, they were truly catholic. Mr, 
Disney's correspondence with some persons of high name 
for literature in his age does honour to both parties. His 
own learning was acknowledged, and the great work which 
he had designed to have published, under the title of 
" Corpus Legum de Moribus Reformandis," was greatly 
approved by several judicious and learned men, and for- 
warded by their ready answers to queries proposed to them 
by the writer, as occasion suggested them, and not unfre- 
qnently by their voluntary contributions. His own library 
contained a very extensive and valuable collection of books 
in all languages ; but he spared not journies to the public 
libraries in London, and both of our universities, for the 

134 DISNEY. 

consultation of such scarce books and manuscripts as 
were nowhere else to be met with. His manuscripts, which 
are numerous, are preserved in his family, and his exact- 
ness and precision in their arrangement, and the fairin 
of their transcript, are peculiar to himself. 

He published: 1. " Primitive Sacrse, the reflections of 
a devout solitude, consisting of Meditations and Poems ou 
divine subjects," London, 1701 and 1703, 8vo. 2. "Flora," 
in admiration of the Gardens of Rapin, and the translation 
of Mr. Gardiner, written in 1705, prefixed to Subdean 
Gardiner's translation of " Rapin of Gardens," the third 
edition of which was published 1728, 8vo. 3. " An Essay 
upon the Execution of the Laws against Immorality and 
Profaneness. With a Preface addressed to her Majesty's 
justices of the peace," London, 1708 and 1710, 8vo. His 
portrait is prefixed to several copies on large paper. 4. 
" A Second Essay upon the Execution of the Laws against 
Immorality and Profaneness. Wherein the case of giving 
informations to the magistrate is considered, and objections 
against it answered. By John Disney, esq. With a Pre- 
face addressed to grand juries, constables, and church- 
wardens," London, 1710, 8vo. The preface to this se- 
cond essay was afterwards printed in a small size by itself, 
in order to distribute it among those whom it more par- 
ticularly concerned. 5. " Remarks upon a Sermon preached 
by Dr. Henry Sacheverell, at the assizes held at Derby, 
Aug. 15, 1709. In a Letter to himself. Containing a 
just and modest defence of the Societies for Reformation 
of Manners, against the aspersions cast upon them in that 
Sermon," London, 1711, 8vo. 6. Proposals for the pub- 
lication of his great work, entitled " Corpus Legum de 
Moribus Reformandis," dated Lincoln, 1713; a single 
sheet, and republished in the " View of ancient laws." 
7. " The Genealogy of the most serene and most illustrious 
House of Brunswick Lunenburgh, the present royal fa- 
mily of Great Britain ; drawn up from the best historical 
and genealogical writers," 1714. Dedicated to his ma- 
jesty, king George I. and engraved by .1. Sturt, on two 
sheets of imperial paper. N. B. A mistake in this Genea- 
logical Table is corrected in the " Acta Regia," 1716, Svo, 
vol. I. p. 102. Rymer says, that " Albert Great Duke of 
Brunswick married Adelhard, daughter to Henry the 
magnanimous duke of Brabant ; whereas, Mr. Disney 
makes Adelhard daughter of the marquis of Montserrat, 

DISNEY. 135 

8. " A Sermon, preached in the parish church of St. Bo- 
tolph's, Aldgate, London, on Sunday, Nov. 22, 1719," 
London, 1720, 8vo. 9 14. Six other occasional Ser- 
mons. 15. " A View of ancient laws against Immorality 
and Profaneness, under the following heads : lewdness ; 
profane swearing, cursing, and blasphemy ; perjury; pro- 
fanation of days devoted to religion ; contempt or neglect 
of divine service ; drunkenness ; gaming, idleness, va- 
grancy, and begging; stage-plays and players; and duel- 
ling. Collected from the Jewish, Roman, Greek, Gothic, 
Lombard, and other Laws, down to the middle of the 
eleventh century." Dedicated to lord King, lord high 
chancellor," Cambridge, 1729, fol. 1 

Mersburgh, in Misnia, was the son of Sigefroy, count of 
Saxony, and was born in the year 976. In his eighteenth 
or twentieth year, he embraced the monastic life, in the 
convent of St. John of Magdeburgh ; and after he had 
executed the office of prior in another religious house, the 
emperor Henry II. advanced him in 1018, to the bishop- 
ric of Mersburgh. In 1027 he began his Chronicle, in 
seven books, which includes the history of the emperors 
Henry I. ; Otto I. II. and III. ; and Henry II. which is 
thought to be very faithful and accurate, lleinar Rei- 
neccius published an edition of it at Francfort, in 1584, 
fol. with a life of the author; and it has been also added 
to the collection of the German historians. Other editions, 
Francfort, 1600, and Helmstadt, 1664, followed; but the 
best is that of Leibnitz, among his writers on the history 
of the house of Brunswick, Hanover, fol. It was also 
translated into German, and published in 1606, 4to. 
Dithmar, after holding his bishopric a little more than ten 
years, died Oct. 1, 1028, revered for his piety. 2 

law of nature and nations, and of history, at Francfort on 
the Oder, and a member of the royal society of Berlin, 
was born March 13, 1677, at Rottenburgh, in Hesse. 
His father was rector of that place, and became afterwards 
minister and dean. His son was at first educated under 
his care, which he amply repaid by a proficiency far be- 
yond his years. In his seventeenth year he went to Mar- 

1 Life in Biog. P.rit. by his grandson, Dr. Disney. 

2 Moreri. -Dupin, whose dates dirt'ur from the above. Fabric. Bibl. Lat. 

136 D I T H M A R. 

purg, and studied under Otto, the celebrated orientalist, 
and Tilemann, professor of divinity, with whom he lodged, 
and who afterwards procured him the appointment of tutor 
to the two young barons of Morrien. Dithmar executed 
this office with general satisfaction, and when he went af- 
terwards to prosecute his studies at Leyden, he was main- 
tained at the expence of the landgrave of He^r Cusstl. 
He afterwards travelled over some parts of Germany and 
Holland, as" tutor to the son of M. the great president 
Dancklemann. The learned Perizonius, with whom he 
became acquainted at Leyden, and who had a great es- 
teem for him, procured him the offer of a prod s^orsiiip at 
Leyden, with a liberal salary ; but Dithmar thought him- 
self obliged first to return M. Dancklemann's sun to his 
father, who was so sensible of the value of his services, as 
to procure him a settlement at Francfort on the Oder. 
Here he was appointed professor of history, then of the 
law of nature and nations, and lastly, gave lectures on 
statistics and finance. He had been before this admitted 
a member of the royal society of Berlin, and was created 
a counsellor of the order of St. John. His situation at 
Francfort was in all respects so agreeable, that he refused 
many offers to remove, and in 1715 again declined a very 
honourable opportunity of settling at Leyden. He died 
at Francfort March 13, 1737, after a short illness; and 
with the reputation of one of the most learned men of his 

His works are: I. " Maimonidis constit. de Jurejurando," 
with notes and additions, Leyden, 4to. 2. " Gregorii 
VII. pontif. Ilomani Vita," Francfort, 8vo. 3. " Historia 
belli inter imperium et sacerdotium," ibid. 8vo. 4. 
" Teschenmacheri Annalis divine, &c. notis, tabulis ge- 
nealogicis et codice diplomatico illustrati," ibid. fol. 5. 
" Summa Capita Antiq. Judaicarum et Romanarutn in 
usum praelectionum privatarum," ibid. 4to. 6. " Chytraci 
Marchia Brandenburgensis ad nostra tempora continuata," 
ibid. Svo. 7. " Delineatio historic Brandenburgensis in 
privatis pnelectionibus prolixius illustranda," ibid. Svo. 
8. " Delineatio historise praecipuorurn juris, aut pneten- 
sium statibus Europe competentium in collegio private 
magis illustranda," ibid. 9. " C. Corn. Taciti Germania, 
cum perpetuo et pragmatico Commentario," ibid. Svo, a 
very correct and valuable edition, which has been twice 
reprinted since its first appearance, in 1724. 10. " Dis- 

D I T H M A R. 137 

sertatio deabdicatione regnorum, aliarumqtie dignitatum il- 
lustrium turn secularium quamecclesiasticarum," ibid. 1724-, 
4to ; a pamphlet. 11. " Cotnmentatio de honoratissimo 
ordine militari de Balneo," ibid. 1729, fol. containing a 
history of tbe origin of tbe order of the Bath ; its progress, 
restoration (by George I. about four years before this pub- 
lication), die rules of the order, and a list of the mem- 
bers. 12. An edition of the history of the order of St. John, 
by Becman, in German, 4to. 13. Introduction to the know- 
ledge of finance, police, .c. ; also in German, 8vo. Besides 
these, he contributed some papers to the literary journals, 
and superintended before his death a collection of his dis- 
seruaions on various subjects of law and history, which 
was published at Leipsic in 1737, 8vo. l 

DITTON (HUMPHREY), an eminent mathematician, was 
born at Salisbury, on the 2S>th of May, 1675, being the four- 
teenth of that name in a direct line. His father was a gen- 
tleman possessed of a small estate in the county of Wilts. 
His mother was of the family of the Luttrells of Dunster- 
castle, nearTannton, in Somersetshire, whose fortune made 
a considerable increase to the family income. Mr. Ditton's 
father being of the sect of nonconformists, and extremely 
tenacious of his opinions, entered much into the religious con- 
troversifs of those times, and in supporting such contentions 
impaired iiis fortune, almost to the ruin of his family. Mr. 
Humphrey Dit.ion was the only son ; and his father, observing 
in him an extraordinary good capacity, was desirous that 
he should .not want the advantage of a good education. 
Accordingly, he placed him in a private academy, under 
the direction of Dr. Olive, a clergyman of the established 
church, who, notwithstanding his religious sentiments were 
different from those of Mr. Ditton's family, was much es- 
teemed by them for his candour and moderation in those 
troublesome times. When Mr. Ditton had finished his studies 
under Dr. Olive, he at the desire of his father, although 
contrary to his own inclination, engaged in the professioa 
of divinity, and began to exercise his function at Tun- 
bridge, "in Kent, where he continued to preach some 
years ; during which time he married Miss Ball, a lady at 
that place. 

He was so indefatigable and assiduous in the exercise 
of his calling, that he very much impaired his health; so 

1 Moreri. Chaufepie. Bibl. Gerraanique, vol. X. and XII. Republic of 
Letters, vol. IV. 

13S D 1 T T O N. 

that several of his friends foreseeing it \vould shorten his 
life, advised him to relinquish a profession which the weak- 
ness of his constitution could not support. These circum- 
stances, together with the death of his father, which hap- 
pened about the same time, determined him to quit the 
profession of divinity ; and at the persuasion of Dr. Harris 
and Mr. Whiston, hoth eminent mathematicians, he en- 
gaged in the study of mathematics, to which he had always 
a great propensity. In the prosecution of this science he 
was much encouraged by the success and applause he re- 
ceived. He was highly esteemed by sir Isaac Newton, by 
whose interest and recommendation he was elected master 
of the new mathematical school in Christ's hospital, in 
which office he remained during his life. 

Mr. Ditton published many mathematical and other 
tracts. His first works were a paper on the Tangents of 
Curves, and a treatise on Spherical Catoptrics, both which 
were published in the " Philosophical Transactions." This 
last was written in the Latin language, and was so highly 
approved, that it was republished in a foreign periodical 
work, called the " Acta Eruditortim," in 1707; and was 
afterwards printed in the " Memoirs of the Academy of 
Sciences at Paris." In 1706 he published a treatise, en- 
titled, " An Institution of Fluxions, containing the first 
principles, operations, and applications of that admirable 
method, as invented by sir Isaac Newton." This work, 
with additions and alterations, was again published by Mr. 
John Clarke, in 1726, some years after Mr. Ditton's death. 
The same year, 1706, Mr. Ditton also published a treatise 
on the laws of nature and motion. Of this the celebrated 
Wolfius makes mention-, and asserts, that it illustrates arid 
renders easy the writings of Galileo, Huygens, and the 
" Principia" of sir Isaac Newton. It is also noticed by De la 
Roche, in " The Memoiresde Literature," vol. VIII. p. 46. 
In 1709 he published the " Synopsis Algebraicum" of John 
Alexander Bernatus Helvetius; with many additions and cor- 
rections. His treatise on Perspective was published in 1712. 
In this work he explained the principles of that art mathe- 
matically ; and besides teaching the methods then gene- 
rally practised, gave the first hints of the new method 
afterward enlarged upon and improved by Dr. Brook Tay- 
lor ; and which was published in 1715. Several publica- 
tions of Mr. Ditton's appeared in 1714, one of which was 
a " Discourse upon the Resurrection of Jesus Christ f* 

DITTON. 139 

the truth of which he here endeavoured to demonstrate. 
This work went through four editions, and was translated 
into several of the modem languages. Tindal, Collins, 
and some other authors, opposed it, and endeavoured to 
confute the reasoning ; to whom Ditton had begun an 
answer, but died before it was finished ; and his friends, 
upon revising it, found it too incomplete to hazard its 
publication. Another of his works that appeared in the 
same year, was, " The new law of Fluids ; or, a Discourse 
concerning the ascent of liquids, in exact geometrical 
figures, between two nearly contiguous surfaces." To 
tins was annexed a tract, to demonstrate the impossibility 
of thinking or perception being the result of any combina- 
tion of the parts of matter and motion ; a subject much 
agitated in those days by the free-thinkers and their oppo- 
nents. There was also adjoined to this work an adver- 
tisement from him and Mr. Whiston, concerning a method 
for discovering the longitude ; which, it appears, they 
had published about half a year before. This attempt, it is 
thought, cost Mr. Ditton his life ; for, although it was ap- 
proved and countenanced by sir Isaac Newton, previously 
to its being presented to the Board of longitude, and the 
method lias been since successfully put in practice, in 
finding the longitude between Paris and Vienna, yet that 
board then determined against it. Such a disappointment, 
together with the public ridicule incurred, is supposed to 
have affected his health, but this we think unlikely, as his 
death was occasioned by a putrid fever, which proved 
fatal Oct. 13, 1715, in the fortieth year of his age. He 
was much regretted by the philosophical literati of that 
time, who expected from his assiduity, learning, and pe- 
netrating genius, many useful and ingenious discoveries*. 

* Doctor Arbuthnot, in a letter to charges, and dimensions. Now you 
dean Swift, dated July 17, 1714, says, must understand, his project is by 
' Whiston has at last published his light-houses, and explosions of bombs 
piojcct of the longitude ; the most ri- at a certain hour." Absurd, however, 
diculou* thing that ever was thought as this might appear to the wits of the 
on. Hut a pox on him, he has spoilt day, Whiston's plan was the caus* of 
one of my papers of Scriblerus, which an act being passed in the British par- 
was a proposal tor the longitude, not liamf nt, allowing '2000/. towards mak- 
very unlike his, to this purpose; that, ing experiments; and =lso offering a 
since there was no pole for east and reward to the person who should dis- 
west, all the pi inces of Europe should cover the longitude at sea, propor- 
join and built two prodigious poles, tioned to the degree of accuracy that 
upon high mountains, with a vast light- might be attained by such discovery; 
house, to serve for a pole-star. I was viz. a reward of 10, 0001. if it deter- 
thjiiking of a calculation of the time, mines the longitude to one degree pf 

1*0 DITTO N. 

In an account of Mr. Ditton, prefixed to the German 
translation of his Discourse on the Resurrection, it is said, 
that he had published, in his own name only, another me- 
thod for finding the longitude; but which Mr. Whiston 
denied*. However, Raphael Levi, a learned Jew, who 
bad studied under Leibnitz, informed the German editor 
that he well knew that Ditton and Leibnitz hud corre- 
sponded upon the subject ; and that Ditton had sent to 
Leibnitz a delineation of a machine he had invented 
that purpose ; which was a piece of mechanism con 
with many wheels, like a clock, and which Leibnitz highly 
approved of for land use,*but doubted whether it wouldans- 
wer on ship-board, on account of the motion of the ship. 

Mr. Ditton was buried in the cloisters of Christ's-hos- 
pital, on the north side of the quadrangle, and near the 
passage at its east end. A large blue grave-stone, with a 
Latin inscription cut in it, was laid over the grave. The 
stone yet remains; but the inscription is entirely effaced. 
From a private diary of Mr. Ditton's, he appears to have 
been a man of warm piety and simplicity of heart. His 
son, the rev. John Ditton, was many years lecturer of St. 
Mary's, Islington, where he died March 16, 1776. 1 

DLUGOSS (JOHN LONGINUS), a Polish historian, was 
born in Ml 5, at Brzeznich, a town in Poland, of which 
his father was governor. In his sixth year, his father 
being appointed governor of Korczyn, he was removed 
thither with the family, and began his education, which was 
continued in the different places of which his father was 
successively appointed governor, until he was sent to 
Cracow. Here and at other places he pursued his studies, 
with very little encouragement from his father, but found 
a friend in Zbigneus, bishop of Cracow, who was a patron 
of learned men. This prelate first placed him at the head 
of his chancery, after that of his house, and at last made 
him general manager of his affairs ; and he acquitted him- 

a great circle, or 60 geographical and 20.000/. if it determines it to half 
miles; lo,000/. if it determines the that distance ; with other regulations 
same to two-thirds of that distance ; and encouragements. 

* So in the Biographia Britannica, 174<>, Whiston informs us that he 
which does not give us the date of this wrote a life of his friend, to be pre- 
German translation. There was a Ger- fixed to a German cdrion then in the 
jnan translation published in IT'20, by press, and in which he would riot have 
Cornelius Coorn, which might have a asserted what is here contradicted, 
life of Ditton prclixrd to it, but in 

1 Biog. Brit. Whiston's Memoirs. Gospel Magazine, by Vallance and 
Simmons, for 1777, where are many extracts tiom his Diary. 

D L U G O S S. 141 

self so much to the satisfaction of the bishop, that on his 
death-bed he appointed him one of his executors. He 
had also ordained him priest at the age of twenty-five, and 
gave him some church preferment, particularly the living 
of St. Martin of Klobuczk, and a canonry of Cracow. He 
\vas afterwards promoted to be chanter, and treasurer 
of the church of Vissicza, canon of Sendomir, and got 
some other preferments less considerable. Tfoe only use 
he made of the wealth arising from these benefices, was 
to share it with poorer clergymen of talents and character; ,. 
or to bestow it on the poor, on the repairs of churches, 
and other pious purposes. Eugene IV. having appointed 
Zbignetis to the dignity of cardinal, and several impedi- 
ments being thrown in the way of this preferment, Dlugoss 
went to Rome in 1449, and had these difficulties removed. 
Pope Nicholas V. employed him to carry the cardinal's 
cap to the bishop, which he had the honour to put on his 
head in the cathedral of Cracovr, in the same year. In 
1450 he took a journey to the land of Palestine, where he 
contemplated with veneration the places dignified by being 
the site of Scripture history. On his return to Poland, 
king Casimir IV. appointed him tutor to his sons, which 
office he filled for many years with great reputation. On 
the death of his early patron, cardinal Zbigneus, in April 
1455, Dlugoss was accused by the brother of the deceased 
for having abused his confidence, a charge which he had 
little difficulty in repelling, but was less successful with 
the king, whose displeasure he incurred by espousing the 
cause of an ecclesiastic whom the pope had nominated 
bishop of Cracow, while the king had nominated another; 
and for this slight reason Dlugoss was exiled for the space 
of three years ; at the end of which, however, he was re- 
called, and his majesty restored him to his favour, and not 
only consulted him on many public affairs of importance, 
but employed him to negociate in various parts of Europe, 
on matters respecting the interests of Poland. At length 
he was appointed archbishop of Leopold, but died before 
his consecration, May 29, 1480. His principal historical 
work is entitled " Historia Polronica," the first volume of 
which was printed in 1615, fol. This edition, which is of 
rai .- jccurrence, is one of the few scarce books which pro- 
c< od from the private press of Herburt of DobTornil, 
It contains, however, only the first six books, bringing the 
history clown to 1240 ; the rest remained i-u manuscript 

142 D L U G O S S. 

until 1711, when they were printed at Francfort, along 
with the preceding, under the title " J. Dlugossi historiie 
Polonicoe Hbri duodecim, &c." This hrings the history 
down to 1444, but a continuation was published by J. G. 
Krause, which he called the thirteenth book, at Leipsic, 
1712, folio, and which extends to 1480, the year of the 
author's death. He is esteemed a very correct historian, 
although not free from the barbarism of his age. His other 
works are, 1. " Vita St. Stanislai episcopi et martyns," 
Cracow, 1611 and 1666. 2. " Plocensium episcoporuin 
vita 1 ," which is inserted in " Stanislai Lubienski opera post- 
hum^," Antwerp, 1643, fol. 3."Vitae episcoporum Postna- 
.jiiensium," 1G'24, 4to ; and some other lives of bishops. 1 

DOBSON (WILLIAM), an English painter, was born in 
London, in 1610. His father was master of the Alienation 
office ; but " spending his estate upon women, necessity 
forced his son to be the most excellent painter that England 
hath yet bred." He was put out early an apprentice to 
one Mr. Peake, a stationer and trader in pictures, with 
whom he served his time. Nature inclined him very 
powerfully to the practice of painting after the life, in 
which he had some instructions from Francis Cieyne ; and, 
by his master's procurement, he had the advantage of 
copying many excellent pictures, especially some of Ti- 
tian and Van Dyck. How much he was beholden to the 
latter, may easily be seen in all his works ; no painter 
having ever so happily imitated that excellent master, who 
was so much pleased with his performances, that he pre- 
sented him to Charles I. This monarch took him into 
his immediate protection, kept him in Oxford all the 
while his majesty continued in that city, sat several 
times to him for his picture, and obliged the prince of 
Wales, prince Rupert, and most of the lords of his court, 
to do the like. Dobson \\as a fair, middle-sized man, 
of a ready wit and pleasing conversation ; but some- 
what loose and irregular in his way of living ; and, not- 
withstanding the opportunities he had of making his for- 
tune, died poor at his house in St. Martin's-lane, in 1647. 
Although it was his misfortune to want suitable helps in 
beginning to apply himself to painting, and he was much 
disturbed by tiie commotions of the unhappy times tie nou- 
rished in, yet he shone out through all disadvantages ; 

i Niceron, vo'. XXXVIII. Moreri. Fabric. Bibl. Med. Lat. Clement Bitd. 
Ourieuse, Saxii Onuma&ticon. 

D O B S O N. 143 

and it is universally agreed, that, had his education and 
encouragement been answerable to his genius, England 
might justly have been as proud of her Dobson, as Ve- 
nice of her Titian, or Flanders of her Van Dyck. He 
was both a history and portrait painter ; and there are in 
the collections of the dukes of Marlborough, Devonshire, 
Northumberland, and the earl of Pembroke, several of his 
pictures of both kinds. 1 

DOD (JOHN), usually styled the DECALOGIST, from his 
Commentary on the commandments, and called b}' Fuller, 
the " last of the Puritans," was a native of Shotledge, in. 
Cheshire; in which county there were several ancient fa- 
milies of the Dods; but to which of them he belonged, we 
have not been able to ascertain. He was born, the youngest 
of seventeen children, in 1547, and sent to school at West- 
Chester, but Mr. Cole says he was educated at Winchester, 
a name which he probably transcribed hastily for the other. 
In 1561, when he was fourteen years of a;j;e, he was en- 
tered of Jesus college, Cambridge, of which he was chosen 
fellow in 1585, according to a MS note of Mr. Baker; 
and Mr. Cole adds, that he was junior proctor in 1614; 
both which dates must belong to some other person, as it 
does not appear that he remained in all more than six- 
teen years at college. At what time he took his master's 
degree is uncertain, but a few years after, being appointed 
to oppose in the philosophy act at the commencement, he 
exhibited such a display of talents, as highly gratified his 
hearers, and in consequence, he had liberal offers to re- 
move to Oxford. These he declined, but was incorpo- 
rated M. A. in that university in 1585. Associating much 
with Drs. Fulke, Chaclerton, and Whitaker, he imbibed 
the principles and strictness for which they were famous, 
and conceived an early dislike to some of the ceremonies 
or discipline of the church, but to what we are no.t told. 
After taking orders, he first preached a weekly lecture at 
Ely, until invited by sir Anthony Cope to be minister of 
Hanwell, in Oxfordshire, in 1577, where he became a 
constant and diligent preacher, and highly popular. Nor 
was his hospitality Jess conspicuous, as he kept an open 
table on Sundays and Wednesdays lecture days, gene- 
rally entertaining on these occasions from eight to twelve 
persons at dinner. At Hanwell he remained twenty years, 

1 Biof. Brit. Walpole's Antedates. Pilkington. Letter* by eminent Per- 
sons, &c. 18 13, 3 voU. 3vo. 

144 D O D. 

in the course cf which he married, and had a large family; 
but, owing to his nonconformity in some points, he was 
suspended by Dr. Bridges, bishop of Oxford. After this, 
he preached for some time at Fenny-Compton, in War- 
wickshire, and from thence was called to Cannons Ashby, 
in Northamptonshire, where he was patronized- by sir Eras- 
mus Dryden ; but here again he was silenced, in conse- 
quence of a complaint made by bishop Neale to king 
Jarnes, who commanded archbishop Abbot to pronounce 
that sentence. During this suspension of his public ser- 
vices, he appears to have written his Commentary on the 
Decalogue and Proverbs, which he published in conjunc- 
tion with one Robert Cleaver, probably another silenced 
puritan, of whom we can find no account. At length, by 
the interest of the family of Knightley, of Northampton- 
shire, after the death of king James, he was presented in 
1624, to the living of Fawesley, in that county. Here he 
recommended himself as before, not more by his earnest 
and affectionate services in the pulpit, than by his charity 
und hospitality, and particularly by his frequent visits and 
advice ; which last he delivered in a manner peculiarly 
striking. A great many of his sayings became almost pro- 
verbial, and remained so for above a century, being, as 
may yet be remembered, frequently printed in a small 
tract, or on a broad sheet, and suspended in every cottage. 
On the commencement of the rebellion he suffered con- 
siderably, his house being plundered, as the house of a 
puritan, although he was a decided enemy to the pro- 
ceedings of the republicans. When they were about to 
abolish the order of bishops, &c. Dr. Brownrig sent to Mr. 
Dod, for his opinion, who answered, that "he had been 
scandalized with the proud and tyrannical practises of the 
Marian bishops; but now, after more than sixty years' ex- 
perience of many protestant bishops, tbt't had been worthy 
preachers, learned and orthodox writers, great champions 
for the protestant cause, he wished all his friends not to 
fee any impediment to them, and exhorted all men not to 
take up arms against the king; which was his doctrine, he 
said, upon the fifth commandment, and he would never 
depart from it." He died in August, 1645, at the very 
advanced age of ninety-seven, and was buried on the I9th 
of that month, at Favvesl-ey, in Northamptonshire. Fuller 
says, " with him the Old Puritan seemed to expire, and 
iu his grave to be interred. Humble, meek, patient, 

D O D. 145 

charitable as in his censures of, so in his alms to others. 
Would I could truly say but half so much of the next ge- 
neration !" " He was," says the same author, " a passive 
nonconformist, not loving any one the worse for difference 
in judgment about ceremonies, but all the better for their 
unity of affections in grace and goodness. He used to 
retrench some hot spirits when inveighing against bishops, 
telling them how God under that government had given a 
marvellous increase to the gospel, and that godly men 
might comfortably comport therewith, under which learning 
and religion had so manifest an improvement." He was 
an excellent scholar, particularly in the Hebrew language, 
which he taught to the celebrated John Gregory, of Christ- 
church, Oxford. The no less celebrated Dr. Wilkins was 
his grandson, and born in his house at Fawesley, in 1614, 
a date which seems to interfere with that given above as 
the date of Mr. Dod's presentation to Fawesley, which we 
have taken from the register in Bridges's Northampton- 
shire, but he might probably have resided there previous 
to the living becoming vacant. Of his works we know 
only that which conferred on him the name of the Deca- 
logist, " A plain and familiar Exposition of the Ten Com- 
mandments," London, 1606, 4to ; and " A plain and 
familiar Exposition" of certain chapters of the Book of 
Proverbs, 1606, 4to, published at different times; and 
the prefaces signed by Dod and Cleaver. There are 
some original letters by Dod in the British Museum, 
(Ayscough, No. 4275), addressed to lady Vere. They con- 
sist chiefly of pious exhortations respecting the confused 
state of public affairs. In one of them, dated Dec. 20, 
1642, he says, he is "not far off ninety-five years old,'* 
which has enabled us to ascertain his age, hitherto incor- 
rectly given by his biographers. 1 

DOD ART (DENIS), doctor regent of the faculty of 
medicine at Paris, where he was born in 1634, was edu- 
cated not only in the learned languages, but in painting, 
music, and other elegant accomplishments, and exhibited 
early such traits of genius and learning, that Guy Patin, 
not in general very lavish of praise, considered him as 
one of the most learned men of his time. In a letter to a 

' Clark's Lives of Eminent Divines. Lloyd's Memoirs, fol. Fuller's Worthies. 
Fuller's Church History, book XI. p. 219. Wood's Fasti. Plume's Life of 
Bishop Racket, p. xxv. Cole's MS Athense in Urit. Mu. Hawkins's Life of 
Johnson, p. 541. Granger. 


146 DODART. 

friend, he called him " Monstrnm sine Vitio," a charac- 
ter which Adrian Turnebus applied to Scaliger; and in 
another letter, Patin redoubles his praise of young Dodart, 
Having in 1660 taken his degree of doctor, he soon at- 
tained to distinction in his profession, being the following, 
year called to attend the princess dowager of Conti, and 
the princes, her children ; and some time after he was ap- 
pointed physician to the king, Louis XIV. In 1673 he 
was made a member of the academy of sciences, and in 
compliance with their wishes, he wrote a preface to the 
" Memoires pour servir a 1'Histoire de Flantes," published 
by the academy, in 1676, which Chamberlayne in his 
Lives of the Academicians strangely mistakes for " Me- 
moirs to serve for the History of France !" and gravely 
argues upon his fitness for the work. Dodart employed 
some labour in making chemical analyses of plants, with 
the view of acquiring a more intimate knovvlege of their 
medical virtues, agreeably to the opinions that then pre- 
vailed, but which further experience has shewn not to be 
well founded. He pursued his statical experiments, to 
find the proportion that perspiration bears to the other ex- 
cretions, for more than thirty years. The results first ap- 
peared in 1699, in the Memoirs of the academy, and 
were afterwards published separately, under the title of 
" Medicina Statica Gallica." In the course of those ex- 
periments, he found that during the Lent in one year, he 
had lost in weight eight pounds five ounces : returning to 
his ordinary way of living, he recovered what he had lost 
in a very short time. He once purposed writing a history 
of music, but only finished a memoir on the voice, which 
is published among the Memoirs of the Academy. He was 
of a grave disposition, Fontenelle says, pious and abste- 
mius ; and his death, which, happened Nov. 5th, 1707, 
was much regretted. 

His son, CLAUDE- JOHN- BAPTISTE DODART, following in 
the steps of his father, was made M. D. in 1688, and in 
1718 was appointed first physician to Louis XV. The 
only work in which he was concerned, was an edition of 
" Pomet's History of Drugs," with some useful notes. 
He died at Paris, in 1730. 1 

DODD (CHARLES), a Roman catholic historian, deserves 
a fuller memorial than can now be recovered. All we 

1 Moreri. Rees's Cycloptedia. 

D O D D. 147 

know of him is derived from Mr. Berrington, who informs 
us that he was a clergyman of the Roman church, resided 
at Harvington in Worcestershire, and died there about the 
year 1745. His virtues and talents were eminent, and his 
labours in the range of literature were incessant and mani- 
fold. The work that has principally given celebrity to his 
name is a " Church History of England," 1737 1742, 3 
vols. folio, with the place of Brussels, but evidently from 
the type, &c. printed in England. Having had repeated 
occasion to consult it, we are ready to acknowledge 
our obligations for information derived from this history, 
which cost the author the labour of thirty years ; and 
we agree with Mr. Berrington, that it contains much cu- 
rious matter, collected with great assiduity, and many ori- 
ginal records. The author's style, when the subject ad- 
mits expression, is pure and unincumbered, his narration 
easy, and his reflections just and liberal, at least as much 
so as can be expected from an undisguised zeal for a cer- 
tain train of opinions, and certain views of history. His 
materials are perhaps not well arranged, and he was him- 
self, we are told, so dissatisfied, as, with his own hand, to 
copy this voluminous work into two or three different forms. 
This history remained for many years almost unknown, 
and we can remember when it was sold almost at the price 
of waste-paper. Its worth is now better ascertained, and 
the last copy offered for sale, belonging to the marquis 
Tenvnshend's library, was sold for ten guineas. 1 

DODD (DR. WILLIAM), an ingenious divine, of unfor- 
tunate memory, was born in 1729, at Bourne in Lincoln- 
shire ; of which place his father, of the same names, was 
many years vicar. After being educated at a private 
school in classical learning, he was admitted a sizar of 
Clare-hall in Cambridge in 1745, where he gave early 
proofs of parts and scholarship, and so early as in 1747 
began to publish little pieces of poetry. In this year he 
published (without his name) "A Pastoral on the Distem- 
per among the horned cattle;" in 174y, "The African 
prince, now in England, to Zara at his father's court," and 
" Zara's answer;" in 1750, " A day in Vacation at Col- 
lege," a mock-heroic poem in blank verse ; abridgments of 
Grotius " De jure belli et pacis," and of Clarke on the 

1 Herrington's Preface to the Memoirs of Panzaci. where Dodd's share in 
that work is acknowledged, 

1 2 

148 D O D D. 

being and attributes of God, with sir Jeffrey Gilbert's Ab- 
stract of Locke on the human understanding, all inscribed 
to Dr. Keene, then vice-chancellor of the university, and 
afterwards bishop of Ely, under the title " Synopsis com- 
pendiaria Librorum H. Gfotii de jure belli et pacis, S. 
Clarkii de Dei existentia et attributes, et J. Lockii de in- 
tellectu humano." He published also, while at Cam- 
bridge, " A new Book of the Dunciad, occasioned by Mr. 
Warburton's edition of the Dunciad complete," in which 
"Warburton is made the hero. About the same time he 
published proposals for a translation, by subscription, of the 
Hymns of Callimaehus, the fragments of Orpheus, &c. 
from the Greek ; and wrote a tragedy, with choruses, 
called " The Syracusan." He continued to make frequent 
publications in this light way, in which there were always 
marks of sprightliness and ingenuity ; but at the same time 
imbibed that taste for expence and dissipation which finally 
proved his ruin. In January 1750 he took the degree of 
13. A. with reputation ; and that of master in 1757. Before 
he was in orders he had begun and finished his selection of 
4< The Beauties of Shakspeare," which he published soon 
after in 2 vols. 12mo, and, at the conclusion of the pre- 
face, tells us, as if resigning all pursuits of the profane 
kind, that " better and more important things henceforth 
demanded his attention :'' nevertheless, in 1755, he pub- 
lished his translation of the hymns of Callimachus, in Eng- 
lish verse ; in the preface to which he was assisted by Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Home, bishop of Norwich. Happy would 
it have been, had he remained longer in the friendship of 
that excellent man, whom, however, he soon disgusted by 
his vanity and unbecoming conduct. His " Callimachus" 
was dedicated to the duke of Newcastle, by tile recom- 
mendation of Dr. Keene, bishop of Chester ; who, having 
conceived a good opinion of Dodd at the university, was 
desirous of bringing him forward into the world. 

In 1753 he received orders ; and, being now settled in 
London, soon became a very popular and celebrated 
preacher. He obtained several lectureships ; that of 
West- Ham and Bow, that of St. James Garlickhithe, and 
that of St. Olave Hart-street; and was appointed to preacli 
a course of lady Moyer's lectures : and he advanced his 
theological character greatly, by an almost uninterrupted 
publication of sermons and tracts of piety. And farther to 
keep up the profession of sanctity, and increase bis popu- 

D O D D. 149 

larky, he was very zealous in promoting and assisting at 
charitable institutions, and distinguished himself much in. 
regard to the Magdalen hospital, which was opened in 
August 1758: he became preacher at the chapel of this 
charity, for which he was allowed yearly I OO/. But, not- 
withstanding his apparent attention to spiritual concerns, 
he was much more in earnest, and indeed in earnest only 
in cultivating his temporal interests ; but all his expedients 
were not successful, and his subservient flattery was some- 
times seen through. In 1759 he published in 2 vols. 12mo, 
bishop Hall's Meditations, and dedicated them to Miss 
Talbot, who lived in the family of archbishop Seeker; and, 
on the honour the marquis of Granby acquired in Ger- 
many, addressed an ode to the marchioness. His dedica- 
tion to Miss Talbot was too extravagant a piece of flattery 
not to miss its aim, and gave such offence to the archbishop, 
that, after a warm epistolary expostulation, his grace in- 
sisted on the sheet being cancelled in all the remaining 

Dr. Squire, who in 1760 was made bishop of St. David's, 
had published the year before a work entitled " Indiffer- 
ence for Religion inexcusable :" on the appearance of 
which, Dodd wrote a sonnet, and addressed it to the 
author, who was so well pleased with this mark of his at- 
tention, that in 1761 he made him his chaplain, and in 
1763 procured for him a prebend of Brecon. He also 
egregiously flattered this prelate in '* The Public Ledger," 
in which he then wrote : and about the same time he is 
supposed to have defended the measures of administra- 
tion, in some political pieces. From 1760 to 1767 he su- 
perintended and contributed largely to " The Christian's 
Magazine," for which he received from the proprietors 
100/. yearly. By all these employments and contrivances 
he earned money enough to support a man of moderate 
expences ; but a very considerable fortune would have 
been too small for the luxurious style of living in which he 
delighted to indulge, and which in him may have been 
reckoned original, as he never lived in any situation where 
he could have acquired the habit. 

Still, however, he preserved theological appearances ; 
and he now meditated a design of publishing a large com- 
mentary on the Bible. In order to give the greater e"clat 
to this undertaking, and draw the public attention upon it, 
it was, announced, that lord Masham presented hiiu with 

150 D O D D. 

MSS. of Mr. Locke, found in his lordship's library at 
Gates*; and that he had helps also from MSS. of lord 
Clarendon, Dr. Watcrland, Gilbert West, and other cele- 
brated men. He began to publish this commentary, 
1765, in weekly and monthly numbers; and continued to 
publish it regularly till it was completed in 3 vols. folio. 
It was dedicated to his patron bishop Squire, who died in 
May the year following, 1766 ; and was lamented (we be- 
lieve very sincerely) by our commentator, in a funeral ser- 
mon dedicated to his widow. This year he took the de- 
gree of LL. D. at Cambridge, having been made a chap- 
lain to the king some time before. His next publication 
was a volume of his poems, in 8vo. In 1769 he published 
a translation from the French, of " Sermons preached be- 
fore Lewis XV. during his minority, by Massillon, bishop 
of Clermont." They were called " Sermons on the duties 
of the great," and inscribed to the prince of Wales. In 
1771 he published "Sermons to Young Men," 3 vols. 
12mo. These he dedicated to his pupils Charles Ernst 
and Philip Stanhope, now earl of Chesterfield, he having 
become tutor to the latter, by the recommendation of 
bishop Squire. 

In 1772 he was presented to the living of HocklifTe in 
Bedf^rd&uire: but such a preferment was of little avail in 
supplying his wants. The habits of expence had gained 
an irresistible ascendancy over him : he was vain ; he was 
pompous ; which persons emerging from low situations in 
life are apt to be ; and thus became involved and sinking 
under debts. To relieve himself, he was tempted to a 
step which ruined him for ever with those who had not be- 
fore seen through his character; and this was, to procure 
by indirect means the rectory of St. George's, Hanover- 
square. On the preferment of Dr. Moss to the see of Bath 
and Wells, in 1774, that rectory fell to the disposal of the 
crown ; on which, Dodd caused an anonymous letter to be 
sent to lady Apsley, offering the sum of 3000/. if by her 
means he could be presented to the living : the letter was 
immediately communicated to the chancellor; and, after 
being traced to the sender, laid before the king. His 
name was ordered to be struck out of the list of chaplains ; 
the press abounded with satire and invective ; he was 
abused and ridiculed in the papers of the day; and, to 

* See the life of Chillingwortb, where this matter is more fully explained. 

D O D D. 151 

crown the whole, the transaction became a subject of en- 
tertainment, in one of Foote's performances at the Hay- 
market. All the answer he made was a short letter in the 
newspapers, requesting the public to suspend their opi- 
nions, and promising an elucidation of the affair, which 
never appeared. 

Stung with shame, if not remorse, he decamped for a 
season ; and went to his pupil then at Geneva, who added 
to Hocklitfe the living of Winge in Buckinghamshire: but 
his extravagance continued undiminished, and drove him 
to schemes which covered him with infamy. He now be- 
came the editor of a newspaper, and is said to have at- 
tempted a disengagement from his debts by a commission 
of bankruptcy, in which, however, he failed. From this 
period every step led to complete his ruin. In the sum- 
mer of 1776 he went to France ; and, as if he had a mind 
to wanton in folly, paraded in a phaeton at the races on 
the plains of Sablons, tricked out in all the foppery of 
French attire. He returned in the beginning of winter, 
and proceeded to exercise his function with the same for- 
mality and affected earnestness as formerly} particularly at 
the Magdalen chapel, where his last sermon was preached, 
Feb. 2, 1777*. Two days after this, he signed a bond, 
which he had forged as from his pupil lord Chesterfield, 
for the sum of 4-00/. and, upon the credit of it, obtained a 
considerable sum of money : but detection instantly fol- 
lowing, he was committed to prison, tried and convicted at 
the Old Bailey, Feb. 24, and executed at Tyburn, June 
27, where he exhibited every appearance of penitence. 
The unusual distance between the pronouncing and exe- 
cuting of his sentence was owing to a doubt for some time, 
respecting the admissibility of an evidence, whose testi- 
mony had been made use of to convict him. 

Before concluding this part of his history, we shall enu- 
merate such of his publications as remain unnoticed. These 
were, " An Elegy on the death of the Prince of Wales ;" 
" The Sisters, or the History of Lucy and Caroline Sanson," 
2 vols. 12mo, a work very unfriendly to morals; several 
occasional Sermons; three on "The Wisdom and Good- 
ness of God in the Vegetable Creation," preached before 
the Apothecaries' Company ; " Thoughts on the glorious 

* It is said that his text was taken actions, and every one could see theit 
from Deut. ch. xxviii. verses C5 anil tendency, CKCept himself, 
6. There was a fatality in all his 

152 D O D D. 

Epiphany of our Lord Jesus Christ," a poem, 1758; 
" Sermons on the Parables and Miracles;" " Account of 
the Rise, Progress, &c. of the Magdalen Charity ;" " A 
Familiar Explanation of the Poetical Works of Milton," 
1762 ; " Reflections on Death," 1763; " Comfort for the 
Afflicted under every affliction, with suitable devotions,'* 
1764, 12mo; " The Visitor," a collection of essays ori- 
ginally printed in the Public Ledger, 1766, 2 vols. 12mo ; 
an edition of what is called " Locke's Common- place book 
to the Bible," 4to ; and in 1776 he issued proposals for a 
History of Free- Masonry, to be comprized in 2 vols. 4to ; 
and had projected an edition of Shakspeare, from which 
he had great expectations. But of all his works the most 
curious are, his " Thoughts in Prison, in five parts, viz. the 
Imprisonment, the Retrospect, public Punishment, the 
Trial, Futurity :" to which are added, his speech in court 
before sentence was pronounced on him ; his last prayer, 
written the night before his death ; the convict's address 
to his unhappy brethren, and other miscellaneous pieces, 
some of which were written for him by Dr. Johnson. Pre- 
fixed to the MS. is the ensuing note by himself : " April 
23, 1777. I began these thoughts merely from the im- 
pression of my mind, without plan, purpose, or motive, 
more than the situation and state of my soul. I continued 
them on a thoughtful and regular plan : and I have been 
enabled wonderfully in a state, which in better days I 
should have supposed would have destroyed all power of 
reflection to bring them nearly to a conclusion. I dedi- 
cate them to God, and to the reflecting serious amongst my 
fellow-creatures; and I bless the Almighty for the ability to 
go through them, amidst the terrors of this dire place, and 
the bitter anguish of my disconsolate mind. The thinking 
will easily pardon all inaccuracies, as I am neither able nor 
willing to read over these melancholy lines with a curious 
and critical eye. They are imperfect, but the language of 
the heart ; and, had I time and inclination, might and 

should be improved. But W. D." 

This wretched man was married so early as April 1751, 
even before he was in orders, or had any certain means of 
supporting himself; but his wife, " though largely endow- 
ed with personal attractions, was certainly deficient in 
those of birth and fortune." She survived to the year 1784. 
Dr. Dodd exhibits the most awful instance known in our 
days of the miserable consequences of indulging habits of 

D O D D. 153 

gaiety and expence in a profession to which the world looks 
for a more edifying example. His life, by his own con- 
fession, was for many years fearfully erroneous. But the 
most remarkable part of his history was the uncommon in- 
terest excited in the public mind, and the numerous peti- 
tions presented to the throne in his favour. Even the 
talents of Dr. Johnson were engaged to give a fair colour- 
ing to his case, and to combine with public sympathy a 
high opinion of the talents of which the world was about 
to be deprived. For this purpose the pen of that eminent 
writer was employed in writing those papers and docu- 
ments which, to be any thing, ought to have been written 
by Dodd himself, but which, being immediately known to 
be Johnson's, could only be considered as a part of that 
literary quackery which Dodd had so often practised. Dr. 
Johnson appears indeed in this instance to have been more 
swayed by popular judgment, than he would perhaps have 
been willing to allow. The cry was, the honour of the 
clergy ; but if the honour of the clergy was tarnished, it 
was by Dodd's crime, and not his punishment ; for his life 
had been so long a disgrace to his cloth, that he had de- 
prived himself of the sympathy which attaches to the first 
deviation from rectitude, and few criminals could have had 
less claim to such a display of popular feeling. l 

son of a gentleman of fortune in Dorsetshire*, was born 
in 1691, and appears to have been educated at Oxford. 
In 1715 he was elected member of parliament for Win- 
chelsea, and was soon after appointed envoy-extraordinary 
at the court of Spain, in which capacity he signed the 
treaty of Madrid, and remained there until 1717. In 
1720, by the death of his uncle George Dodington of 
Eastbury in Dorsetshire, he came into possession of a very 
large estate in that county, on which he built a magnificent 

1 Memoirs prefixed to his " Thoughts in Prison." Historical Memoirs of 
his Life and Writings, 1777, Svo, written by the late Isaac Reed. Jones's Life of 
Home, p. 54. Gent. Mag. LX. 1010, 1066, 1077, where are some feeble at- 
tempts to prove him a penitent. Boswell's Life of Johnson,. 

* It has usually been said that he who, by that right became possessed 
was the son of an apothecary ; but a of the estate and magnificent house at 
correspondent in the British Critic for Kastbury, after the death of lord Mel- 
Feb. 1809, gives the following account combe. The other married an Irish 
of the family. There were two heiresses fortune-hunter of the name of Bulib, 
in Somersetshire of the name of Dod- and the offspring of this marriage was 
insrton; one was married into the fa- the subject of the present article. 
.Judy of the marquis of Buckingham, 

154 D O D I N G T O N. 

seat at the expence of 140,000/. which was often the resi- 
dence of the first writers of the times, of Thomson, Young, 
Pitt, Lyttelton, &c. and the beauties of which have been 
frequently celebrated by them. On this great accession of 
property, he took the surname of Dodington. In 1721 he 
was appointed lord lieutenant of the county of Somerset ; 
in 1724 was constituted a lord of the treasury, and obtained 
the lucrative o trice of clerk of the peils in Ireland. While 
he was lord of the treasury, Thomson dedicated the first 
edition of his " Summer" to him, in 1727; but this dedi- 
cation, of the flattery of which Thomson became probably 
ashamed, was never reprinted. 

At this period Dodington closely connected himself with 
sir Robert Walpole, and in 1726 published a poetical 
epistle addressed to that minister, which is remarkable only 
for its servility, and which he afterwards, changing the 
name, addressed to lord Bute. In 1734 he was elected 
member for Weymouth, and in 1737 he took a very de- 
cided part in the contest between George II. and the 
prince of Wales, in the question about the augmentation 
of his allowance, and a jointure for the princess. This 
transaction forms one of the best parts of his " Diary," 
lately published. At this time he appears to have acted 
with some coolness towards sir Robert Walpole, in conse- 
quence of which he was, in 1740, dismissed from his seat 
in the treasury, and joined the ranks of opposition ; but 
although his new friends succeeded in procuring the dis- 
missal of the Walpole administration, Dodington was pro- 
bably disappointed, since he became principally concerned 
in that opposition which brought about the downfall of this 
new administration. On their succession to power in 1745, 
he was made treasurer of the navy, and sworn of the privy- 
council, but his versatility would not permit him to remain 
steady to this party. In March 1749, the prince of Wales 
offered him a full return to his favour, and the principal 
direction of his affairs, to which Dodington agreed, and 
resigned his office of treasurer of the navy. He now fan- 
cied himself at the head of a formidable band, whom he 
was about to muster and train, when almost immediately 
an opposition was formed against him in the prince's 
household, and, as he informs us, he foresaw there was 
no prospect of " doing any good." He continued, how- 
ever, in the household until the prince's death, which put 
an end to the hopes of all his highness's dependents. 

D O D I N G T O N. 155 

For some time, Mr. Dodington, although desirous of re- 
gaining his influence at court, found all his efforts unsuc- 
cessful ; hut at length, on the sudden change which took 
place in 1755, he accepted his former post of treasurer of 
the navy under the duke of Newcastle, which he retained 
until, another change taking place the following year, he 
was again left alone, and gave up all hopes of establishing 
himself at court during that reign. On the accession of his 
present majesty he was very early received into the con- 
fidence of lord Bute, and in 1761 was advanced to the 
peerage by the title of lord Melcombe, yet he attained no 
ostensible post, nor indeed did he long survive his baronial 
honours, as he died at his house at Hammersmith, July 
28, 1762. 

Lord Melcombe is allowed to have been generous, mag- 
nificent, and convivial, but more respected as a private 
gentleman than as a politician. In the one character he 
was free, easy, and engaging ; in the other intriguing, 
close, and reserved. His reigning passion was to be well 
at court, and to this object he sacrificed every circumstance 
of his life. Lord Orford says of him that he was " osten- 
tatious in his person, houses, and furniture, and wanted in 
his expences the taste he never wanted in his conversation. 
Pope and Churchill treated him more severely than he de- 
served, a fate that may attend a man of the greatest wit, 
when his parts are more suited to society than to compo- 
sition. The verse remains, the bon-mols and sallies are 
forgotten." He was handsome, and of a striking figure, 
but in his latter days was probably singular in his dress. 
Churchill ridicules his wig, and Hogarth has introduced it 
in one of his " orders of periwigs." His patronage of 
learned men descended from Young, Thomson, and Glover, 
to the meaner political hirelings who frequented the prince's 
court. And among his intimate friends, besides Young, 
Thomson, and Glover, were Fielding, Bentley, Voltaire, 
Lyttelton, lord Chesterfield, lord Peterborough, Dr. Gre- 
gory Sharpe, &c. and among his lower associates, Ralph, 
Paul Whitehead, and a Dr. Thomson, a physician with- 
out practice or manners, served to add to the hilarity 
of his table. Most of his biographers have reported that 
he was a single man, but he certainly was married, as in 
his letters he frequently speaks of Mrs. Dodington, whose 
heart was placed in an urn at the top of an obelisk which 
he erected at Hammersmith. When she died we kuovr 

Io6 D O D I N G T O N. 

not, but as she left no family, he is reported to have used 
some singular expedients tor procuring au heir, which were 
as unsuccessful as immoral and foolish. He bequeathed 
his whole property, a few legacies excepted, to the late 
Thomas Wyndhajn, esq. of Hammersmith. The mansion 
which he built at Eastbury came, as already observed in 
the note, to the marquis of Buckingham, and was taken 
down a few years ago. Part of the offices were left stand- 
ing, and have been converted into a very convenient house 
by J. Wedgewood, esq. who purchased the estate of the 
marquis of Buckingham. His villa at Hammersmith became 
a few years ago the property of the margrave of Anspach. 

Lord Melcombe has some literary claims. Two of his 
Memorials to the court of Spain may be seen in the Histo- 
rical Register for 1716, p. 205 207, &c. He was con- 
cerned in writing the " Remembrancer," an anti-minis- 
terial paper, published in 1744; and was the avowed 
Author of " Occasional observations on a double- titled 
paper about the clear produceof the Civil List Revenue, 
from Midsummer 1727 to Midsummer 1761." A pamphlet 
on the " Expedition to Rochefort" has also been ascribed 
to him. His poetical efforts, some of which have been 
admired, were, " An Epistle to sir Robert Walpole, writ- 
ten on his birth-day, Aug. 26," printed in Dodsley's Col- 
lection, and afterwards, as we have mentioned, addressed, 
mutatis mutandis, to lord Bute; " An Epistle from John 
More, apothecary in Abchurch lane, to lord Carteret, upon 
the treaty of Worms ;" " Verses in his eating-room at 
Hammersmith ;" " Verses to Mrs. Stubbs ;" " Verses writ- 
ten a little before his death to Dr. Young ;" some " Love 
Verses," and other poetry unpublished, and most of which, 
it is said, is too indelicate for publication ; " An Elegy on 
the Death of queen Caroline" is printed in Coxe's Life of 
Walpole. But he will long be best known by his cele- 
brated " Diary," published in 1784 by Henry Penruddock 
Wyndham, esq. On a publication so generally read, our 
remarks may be spared. The public owe much to the 
editor for thus " unveiling the mysterious intrigues of a 
court, and for exposing the latent causes of opposition." 
The whole proves, that while this publication reflects " some 
degree of honour on lord Melcombe's abilities, it show* 
his political conduct to have been wholly directed by the 
base motives of avarice, vanity, and selfishness." l 

1 Diary, as above, the best edition of which is that of 1809, with a copiou$ 

D O D D R I D G E. 157 

DODDRIDGE (Sin JOHN), an eminent English lawyer, 
the son of Richard Doddridge, of a Devonshire family, 
was born at Barnstaple in 1555. In 1572 he was entered 
of Exeter college, Oxford, where he studied four years; 
after which he was removed to the Middle Temple, Lon- 
don, where he became a great proficient in the law, and 
a noted counsellor. In the forty-fifth year of the reign of 
queen Elizabeth he was Lent reader of that house ; and on 
the 20th of January, 1603-4, he was called to the degree 
of serjeant-at-law, at which time he had the honour of 
being appointed serjeant to Henry prince of Wales. From 
this employment he was raised, in the succeeding year, to 
be solicitor-general to the king, and on the 25th of June 
1607, he was constituted his majesty's principal serjeant- 
at-law, and was knighted on the fifth of July following. In 
February 1612-13, he was created M. A. at his chambers 
in Serjeants Inn by the vice-chancellor, the two proctors, 
and five other members of the university of Oxford. This 
peculiar honour was conferred upon him in gratitude for 
the great service he had done to the university in several 
law-suits depending between the city of Oxford and the 
university. On the 22d of April 1013, he was appointed 
one of the judges of the court of king's bench, in which, 
office he continued till his death. In this station he 
appears to have conducted himself with great integrity as 
well as ability. However, in April, 162, he and the 
other judges of the court were called upon to assign their 
reasons in the house of lords, for having given judgment 
against admitting five gentlemen to bail, who had been 
imprisoned for refusing the loan which had lately been 
demanded by the crown. Sir Nicholas Hyde, lord chief 
justice, sir John Doddridge, Mr. Justice Jones, and Mr. 
Justice Whitlocke, each of them spoke upon the occasion, 
and made the best defence which the nature of the case 
would admit. If they were guilty of a mistake, which 
cannot now reasonably be doubted, they seem to have 
been led into it in the sincerity of their hearts, from the 
notions they entertained of regal power, and probably 
from their perceiving the drift of parliament in these pro- 
ceedings. Sir John Doddridge, in his speech, asserts the, 

index. Faulkner's Hist, of Fulham. Park's Royal and Noble Authors. Cum- 
berland's Life. Some account of his uncle, Knight's Life ofColet. Hawkins'* 
Life of Johnson. Dodsley's, Pcareh's, and NiclioU's Poems. Bowles's edition 
of Pope's \Yoiks, Louoj^r's Common-place li^ok, vol. 1. Cose's Life of 


purity of his own character in the following terms: " It is 
no more fit for a judge to decline to give an account of his 
doings than for a Christian of his faith. God knoweth I 
have endeavoured always to keep a good conscience; for 
a troubled one who can bear? 1 have now sat in this court 
fifteen years, and I should know something. Surely, if I 
had gone in a mill so long, dust would cleave to my clothes. 
I am old, and have one foot in the grave ; therefore I will 
look to the better part as near as 1 can. But omnia haberc 
in memoria, et in nullo errarc, divinum potius est quain 
human um." He died Sept. 13, 1628, in the seventy-third 
year of his age, and was buried in the ambulatory before 
the door of the library, formerly called Lady Mary's Cha- 
pel, in the cathedral church of Exeter. Within that 
library is a very sumptuous monument erected to his me- 
mory, containing his figure and that of his wife, cut in 
alabaster, under a stately arch supported by marble pillars. 
This learned judge, by his happy education, accompanied 
with excellent natural parts and unremitted industry, be- 
came so general a scholar, that it was said of him, that it 
was difficult to determine whether he were the better 
artist, divine, civil or common lawyer. Among his other 
studies, he was a great lover of antiquities, and attained 
to such an eminence of knowledge and skill in that depart- 
ment of literature, that he was regarded as one of the 
ablest members of the famous society of antiquaries, which 
may be said to have begun in 1571, but which more par- 
ticularly flourished from 1590 to 1614. Rewrote, I. "The 
Lawyer's Light; or, due direction for the study of the 
Law," London, 1629, 4to. 2. " A complete Parson, or a 
description of advowsons and church livings, delivered in 
several readings, in an inn of chancery called the New 
Inn," printed 1602, 1603, 1630, 4to. 3. " The History 
of the ancient and modern estate of the principality of 
Wales, duchy of Cornwall, and earldom of Chester," 1630, 
4to. 4. " The English Lawyer, a treatise describing a me- 
thod for the managing of the Laws of this Land, and ex- 
pressing the best qualities requisite in the student, prac- 
tiser, judges, &c." London, 1631, 4to. 5. " Opinion 
touching the antiquity, power, order, state, manner, per- 
sons, and proceedings, of the High Courts of Parliament 
in England," London, 1658, 8vo. 6. " A Treatise of 
particular Estates," London, 1677, duodecimo, printed 
at the end of the fourth edition of William Noy's Works, 

D O D D R I D G E. 159 

entitled, " The Ground and Maxims of the Law." 7. "A 
true representation of forepassed Parliaments to the view 
of the present times and posterity." This still remains in 
manuscript. Sir John Doddridge also enlarged a book 
called "The Magazine of Honour," London, 1642. 7'he 
same book was afterwards published under his name by the 
title of " The Law of Nobility and Peerage," Lond. 16S7, 
1658, Svo. In the Collection of curious Discourses, writ- 
ten by eminent antiquaries, are two dissertations by our 
judge ; one of which is on the dimensions of the land of 
England, and the other on the office and duty of heralds 
in this country. Mr. Bridgman, in his " Legal Biblio- 
graphy," informs us that many valuable works have been 
attributed to sir John Doddridge, which in their title-pages 
have borne the names of others. He mentions particularly 
Sheppard's " Law of Common Assurances touching Deeds 
in general," and " Wentworth's office and dutie of Exe- 
cutors;" both which are said to have been written by 
Doddridge. 1 

DODDRIDGE (PHILIP), an eminent dissenting divine, 
great-grand-nephew to the preceding, was the son of the 
nonconformist rector of Shepperton in Middlesex, and 
was born in London, June 26th, 1702. At his birth he 
was so weakly that he was regarded as dead ; but by atten- 
tion and care he recovered some degree of strength. His 
constitution, however, was always feeble, and probably 
rendered more so by the assiduity with which he prosecuted 
his studies and public services. To his pious parents he 
was indebted for early instruction in religion, and for those 
salutary impressions which were never erased from his 
mind. His classical education commenced in London, but 
being left an orphan in his thirteenth year, he was removed 
to a private school at St. Alban's, where he had the hap- 
piness of commencing an acquaintance with Mr. (afterwards 
Dr.) Samuel Clark, the dissenting minister of the place; 
and having lost his whole patrimony after his father's death, 
the protection of this friend enabled him to pursue the 
course of his studies. In 17 IS he left St. Alban's, and 
retired to the house of his sister, the wife of Mr. John 
Nettleton, a dissenting minister at Ongar, in Essex, and 
while deliberating on the course of life which he should 

1 Alh. Ox. vol. I. Hearne's Discourses, vol. If. p. 432, &c. Print's ' 
Worthies of Dftvon. Puller's Worthies. Biog. Brit, note <>u the Life of Or. 
, at tlie liejjin-j'.ng. Bridgfflau's Le^ai 


pursue, he received offers of encouragement and support 
from the duchess of Bedford, if he chose to be educated 
in one of the universities for the church of England ; but 
could not conscientiously comply with the terms of con- 
formity. Others advised him to devote himself to the pro- 
fession of the law ; but before he had finally determined, 
he received a letter from Mr. Clark, with generous offers 
of assistance, if he chose the ministry among the dissenters. 
These offers he thankfully accepted ; and after continuing 
for some months at St. Alban's in the house of his benefac- 
tor, he was placed, in October 1719, under the tuition of 
the reverend John Jennings, who kept an academy for the 
education of nonconformist ministers at Kibworth in Lei- 
cestershire. Here he paid particular attention to classical 
literature, and cultivated an acquaintance with the Greek 
writers, and also with the best authors of his own country. 
In 1722, having obtained an ample testimonial from a 
committee of ministers, by whom he was examined, he 
became a preacher at Kibworth, which he preferred, be- 
cause it was an obscure village, and the congregation was 
small, so that he could pursue his studies with little inter- 
ruption. During his residence at this place, from June 
1723 to October 1725, he is said to have excelled as a 
preacher. At first he paid particular attention to his com- 
positions, and thus acquired a habit of delivering his senti- 
ments usually with judgment, and always with ease and 
freedom of language, when he was afterwards, by a multi- 
plicity of engagements, reduced to the necessity of extem- 
pore speaking. In 1725, he removed to Market-Har- 
borough, to enjoy the conversation and advice of Mr, 
Some, the pastor of the congregation in that place ; and 
after the year 1727, when he was chosen assistant to Mr. 
Some, he preached alternately at Kibworth and Market- 
Harborough. He received several invitations from con- 
gregations much more numerous than these ; but he de- 
termined to adhere to the plan, which he had adopted, of 
pursuing his schemes of improvement in a more private 
residence. When he left the academy, his tutor, Mr. Jen- 
nings, not long before his death, which happened in 1723, 
advised him to keep in view the improvement of the course 
of lectures on which he had attended ; and this advice he 
assiduously regarded during his retirement at Kibworth. 
Mr. Jennings foresaw, that, in case of his own death, Mr. 
Doddridge was the most likely of any of his pupils to com- 

D O D D R I D G E. 161 

plete the schemes which lie had formed, and to undertake 
the conduct of a theological academy. Mr. Doddridge's 
qualifications for the office of tutor were generally known 
and approved, in consequence of a plan for conducting the 
preparatory studies of young persons intended for the mi- 
nistry, which he had drawn up at the desire of a friend, 
whose death prevented his carrying it into effect. This 
plan was shewn to Dr. Watts, who had then no personal 
acquaintance with the author ; but he was so much pleased 
with it, that he concurred with others in the opinion, that 
the person who had drawn it up was best qualified for exe- 
cuting it. Accordingly he was unanimously solicited to 
undertake the arduous office; and after some hesitation, 
and with a very great degree of diffidence, he consented 
to undertake it. Availing himself of all the information 
and assistance which he could obtain from conversation and 
correspondence with his numerous friends, he opened his 
academy at Midsummer, in 1729, at Market- Harborongh. 
Having continued in this situation for a few months, he was 
invited by a congregation at Northampton ; and he removed 
thither in December 1729 ; and in March of the following 
year, he was ordained according to the mode usually prac- 
tised among dissenters. In this place he engaged, in a 
very high degree, the love and attachment of his congre- 
gation ; and he observes, in his last will, " that he had 
spent the most delightful hours of his life in assisting the 
devotions of as seuious, as grateful, and as deserving a 
people, as perhaps any minister had ever the happiness to 

In 1730, Mr. Doddridge entered into the matrimonial 
relation, with a lady who possessed every qualification 
that could conduce to his happiness, and who survived him. 
many years. At the first removal of the academy to North- 
ampton, the number of students was small; but it increased 
every year; so that, in 1734, it became necessary to have- 
a stated assistant, to whom the care of some of the junior 
pupils was committed. The number of students was, one 
year with another, thirty-four. The system of education 
being liberal, many received instruction in his academy, 
who were members of the established church. And in the 
course of the twenty years, during which Mr. Doddridg 
presided over it, he acquired high reputation both as a. 
preacher, tutor, and author. Of his detached works, con- 
sisting of tracts and sermons, it would be unnecessary ta 


162 D O D D R I D G E. 

give a particular list, as they are now published in a col- 
lection of his works. The most popular of them was his 
" Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul," which has 
gone through numerous editions, and been translated into 
the Dutch, German, Danish, and French languages ; and 
the most useful is his " Family Expositor," in 6 vols. 4to, 
which has lately risen in reputation, and been often re- 
printed in 6 vols. 8vo. His " Course of Lectures," pub- 
lished after his death by the rev. Samuel Clark, 1763, 4to, is 
also a work of great utility, and was republished in 1794, 
2 vols. Svo, by Dr. Kippis, with very extensive and valu- 
able additions. Dr. Dodd ridge also wrote some hymns, 
and though inferior to those of Dr. Watts, he gave at least 
one evidence of his poetical taste and powers, in the ex- 
cellent lines which he wrote on the motto to the arms of 
his family, ll dum vivimus vivamus," which are highly 
commended by Dr. Johnson, and represented as containing 
one of the finest epigrams in the English language. 

" Live, while you live," the epicure would say, 
" And seize the pleasures of the present day." 
" Live, while you live," the sacred preacher cries, 
" And give to God each moment as it flies :" 
Lord, in my views let both united be, 
I live in pleasure, when I live to thee. 

From the course of Dr. Doddridge's life, and the multi- 
plicity of his labours, his application must have been in- 
cessant, and with little time for exercise and recreation. 
His constitution was always feeble, and his friends depre- 
cated the injurious effect? of his unintermitting assiduity and 
exertion. By degrees, however, his delicate frame was so 
impaired, that it could not bear the attack of disease. In 
December 1750, he went to St. Alban's to preach the fu- 
neral sermon of his friend Dr. Clark, and in the course of 
his journey he caught a cold, which brought on a pulmo- 
nary complaint, that resisted every remedy. But not- 
withstanding the advice and remonstrances of those who 
apprehended his death, and wished to prolong his useful- 
ness, he would not decline or diminish the employments 
in the academy, and with his congregation, in which he* 
took great delight. At length he was obliged to submit; 
and to withdraw from all public services to the house of 
his friend Mr. Orton, at Shrewsbury. Notwithstanding 
some relief which his recess from business afforded him, 
his disorder gained ground ; and his medical friends ad- 

D O D D R I D G E. 163 

vised him to make trial of the Bristol waters. The phy- 
sicians of this place afforded him little hope of lasting 
benefit ; and he received their report of his case with 
Christian fortitude and resignation. As the last resort in 
his case, he was advised to pass the winter in a warmer 
climate ; and at length he was prevailed upon to go to 
Lisbon, where he met with every attention which friend- 
ship and medical skill could afford him. But his case was 
hopeless. Arriving at Lisbon on the 13th of October, the 
rainy season came on, and prevented his deriving any be- 
nefit from air and exercise, and in a few days he was seized 
with a colliquative diarrhoea, which rapidly exhausted his 
remaining strength. He preserved, however, to the last 
the same calmness, vigour, and joy of mind, which he 
had felt and expressed through the whole of his dis- 
ease. The only anxiety he seemed to feel was occasioned 
by the situation in which Mrs. Doddridge would be left 
upon his removal. To his children, his congregation, and 
his friends in general, he desired to be remembered in the 
most affectionate manner ; nor did he forget a single per- 
son, not even his servant, in the effusions of his benevo- 
lence. Many devout sentiments and aspirations were 
uttered by him on the last day but one preceding that of 
his death. At length, his release took place on the 26th 
of October, O. S. about 3 o'clock in the morning ; and 
though he died in a foreign land, and in a certain sense 
among strangers, his decease was embalmed with many 
tears, nor was he molested, in his last moments, by the 
officious zeal of any of the priests of the church of Rome. 
His body was opened, and his lungs were found to be in 
a very ulcerated state. His remains were deposited in the 
most respectful manner in the burying-ground belonging 
to the British factory at Lisbon. His congregation erected 
in his meeting-house a handsome monument to his me- 
mory, on which is an inscription drawn up by his much 
esteemed and ingenious friend, Gilbert West, esq. Dr. 
Doddridge left four children, one son and three daughters, 
and his widow survived him more than forty years. His fu- 
neral sermon was preached by Mr. Orton from I Cor. xv. 54; 
and it was extensively circulated under the title of " The 
Christian's triumph over death." His character stands high 
among the dissenters, no man with equal powers and equal 
popularity having appeared among them in the course of 
last century, Dr. Watts excepied. Dr. Doddridge was 
M 2 


an indefatigable student, and his mind was furnished with 
.a rich stock of various learning. His acquaintance with 
books, ancient and modern, was very extensive ; and if 
not a profound scholar, he was sufficiently acquainted with 
the learned languages to make a considerable figure as a 
critic and commentator. To history, ecclesiastical as well 
as civil, he had paid no small degree of attention ; and 
\vhile from his disposition he was led to cultivate a taste 
for polite literature in general, more than for the abstruser 
parts of science, he was far from being a stranger to ma- 
thematical and philosophical studies. But the favourite 
object of his pursuit, and that in which his chief excel- 
lence lay, was divinity, taking that word in its largest 
sense. As a preacher, Dr. Doddriclge was much esteemed 
and very popular. But his biographers have had some 
difficulty in vindicating him from the charge of being what 
is called a trimmer, that is, accommodating his discourses 
to congregations of different sentiments ; nor do we think 
they have succeeded in proving him exempt from the ap- 
pearance at least of inconsistency, or obsequious timidity. 
We are informed, however, that his piety was ardent, un- 
affected, and cheerful, and particularly displayed in ihe 
resignation and serenity with which he bore his affliction. 
His moral conduct was not only irreproachable, but in 
every respect exemplary. To his piety he joined the 
warmest benevolence towards his fellow- creatures, which 
was manifested in the most active exertions for their wel- 
fare within the compass of his abilities or influence. His 
private manners were polite, affable, and engaging; which 
rendered him the delight of those who had the happii. 
of his acquaintance. No man exercised more candour and 
moderation towards those who differed from him in reli- 
gious opinions. Of these qualities there are abundant 
proofs in the extensive correspondence he carried on with 
many eminent divines in the establishment, and of other 

His reputation was such, and the respect of persons of 
all parties and denominations for his various excellent qua- 
lities was so great, that in the close of his life, and in the 
scene of his last decline, all seemed to vie in testifying 
their solicitude for his recovery, and their wishes for his 
obtaining every accommodation that would render his mind 
and his circumstances easy. During his stay at Bristol, 
previously to his voyage to Lisbon, he received very par- 

D O D D R I D G E. 165 

ticular expressions of regard from a clergyman of the es- 
tablished church. When Dr. Doddridge undesignedly 
threw out a hint of the principal reason which caused him 
to demur about the voyage, and that was the expence of 
it, this gentleman was both generous and active in pro- 
moting a subscription to defray the charges of his voyage. 
Nathaniel Neal, esq. an eminent Solicitor in London, was 
also very zealous in the management of this business, which 
lie conducted with such success as to be able to inform the 
doctor, that instead of selling what our author had in the 

* O 

funds, he should be able through the benevolence of 
friends, to add something to it, after the expence of the 
voyage was defrayed. As Mrs. Doddridge forfeited a con- 
siderable annuity, to which as a widow she would have 
been entitled, by her husband's dying abroad, a subscrip- 
tion was opened for her, chiefly in London, and in a great 
measure under the direction of Mr. Neal, by means of 
which a sum was raised, which was more than equaj to the 
annuity that had been forfeited. 1 

DODOENS, or DODON^US .(REMEERT), a learned 
physician and botanist, of a West Friesland family of good 
repute, was born at Mechlin, in 1517. He studied me- 
dicine at Louvaine, and afterwards visited the celebrated 
universities of France and Italy, and to his medical know- 
ledge added an acquaintance with the classics and polite 
literature. On his return from Italy, his reputation pro- 
cured him the honour of being appointee! physician to the 
emperors Maximilian II. and Rodolph II. Having been 
obliged during the civil wars of his time to quit the im- 
perial court, in order to take care of his property at Mech- 
lin and Antwerp, he resided awhile at Cologne, from, 
whence he was persuaded to return to Antwerp ; but soon 
afterwards he became professor of physic in the newly- 
founded university of Leyden, with an ample stipend. 
This took place in 1582, and he sustained the credit of his 
appointment by his lectures and various writings, till death 
put a period to his labours in March 1585, in the sixty- 
eighth year of his age. It appears by his epitaph at Ley- 
den, that he left a son of his own name behind him. 

l Life by Kippis, in the Biog. Brit, a most prolix and disproportioned article, 
judiciously abridged in the Cyclopaedia. Much information may be derived 
from Orion's Life. Letters to and from Dr. Doddridge, 1790, 8vo. Orion's 
Letters, 2 vols. 12mo. Palmer's Letters to Dissenting Ministers, 2 vols. 

166 D O D O E N S. 

Dodoens is recorded to have excelled in a knowledge 
of the history of his own country, and especially in genea- 
logical inquiries, as well as in medicine. His chief fame 
at present rests on his botanical publications, particularly 
his " Pemptades," or 30 books of the history of plants, in 
1 vol. folio, published at Antwerp in 1583, and again in 
1612 and 1616. This is still a book of general reference 
on account of the wooden cuts, which are numerous and 
expressive. Hailer reckons it " a good and useful work, 
though not of the first rate." The author had previously 
published some lesser works in 8vo, as " Frugum Histona," 
printed at Antwerp, in 1552, including the various kinds 
of corn and pulse, with their virtues and qualities, often 
copied, as Hailer remarks, literally from aneient authors, 
who perhaps do not always speak of the same plants. This 
work, likewise, is illustrated by wooden cuts. His " Her- 
barium Belgicum" first appeared in the German language 
in 1553, and again in 1557; which last Ci us ius translated 
into French. From the French edition " Henry Lyte, 
esquyer" composed his Herbrl, which is pretty nearly a 
translation of the whole. It was published in 1578, and 
went through several subsequent editions. This work, in 
its various languages and editions, is accompanied by 
wooden cuts, very inferior, for the most part, to those in 
the above-mentioned " Pemptades." Halier records an 
epitome of Dodoens by William Kam, printed at Lon- 
don, in 1606, 4to, under the title of " Little Dodoen." 
This we have never seen. 

Dodoens published two 8vo volumes of " Imagines" 
or wooden cuts of plants, with a few remarks, which went 
through several impressions, but are now seldom used, 
being superseded by his " Pemptades." Some of the best 
of these cuts were employed in his " Florum et Coronaria- 
rum Odoratarumque nonnullarum Herbarum Historia," 8vo, 
published at Antwerp, in 1569; an elegant little volume, 
resembling the 8vo editions of Clusius ; but all these 
figures are reprinted in the " Pemptades." Hailer speaks 
with praise of the figures in his work on purging and poi- 
sonous herbs, barks and roots, Antwerp, 1574, Svo, and 
mentions a little book on the Vine, &c. without cuts, neither 
of which has come under our inspection. 1 

' Moreri.-r-Rees's Cyclopaedia. Niceron, vol. XXXVIII. Fieheri Thea- 
trucn, foppen Bibl. fcelg. Hailer Bibl. BoU 

D O D S L E Y. 167 

DODSLEY (ROBERT), an English poet and miscella- 
neous writer, was born at Mansfield, in Nottinghamshire, 
in 1703. His father is said to have kept the tree-school 
at Mansfield, a situation in which it is natural to suppose 
he could have bestowed some education on his children, 
yet it is not easy to reconcile this with the servile track of 
life into which they were obliged to enter. He is described 
as a little deformed man, who, after having a large family 
by his first wife, married at the age of seventy-five a young 
girl of only seventeen years, by whom he had a child. Of 
his sons, A Ivory lived many years, and died in the service 
of the late sir George Saville ; Isaac was for some time 
gardener to Mr. Allen, of Prior-park, and afterwards to 
lord Weymouth, at Long-leat. In these two families he 
spent fifty-two years of his life ; and has the credit of 
being the projector of some of the beautiful plantations at 
both those seats. He retired from Long-leat at the age 
of seventy-eight, and died about three years after. There 
was a third, John, whose name with that of Alvory, and of 
the father, is among the subscribers to our poet's first 
publication. James, who was twenty-two years younger 
than Robert, will come to be mentioned hereafter ; when 
he was taken into partnership. How he passed the pre- 
ceding part of his time is not known. Of Robert, nothing 
is now remembered in his native town, but a traditional 
story, that he was put apprentice to a stocking-weaver of 
that place, and that, being almost starved, he ran away, 
and was hired by a lady as her footman : this lady, it is 
added, observing that he employed his leisure hours in 
reading, gave him every encouragement; and soon after 
he wrote an entertainment, which was shewn to Pope and 
others. Part of this story is probable, but too much of his 
history is crowded into it. His first service was not that 
of a lady, nor was the entertainment (The Toy-shop) his 
first production. 

Although he was probably not in many stations of the 
menial kind, it is certain that he was once footman to 
Charles Dartiquenave, (or, as spelt by Swift, Dartineuf,) 
esq. paymaster of the works, and the Darty who is noticed 
by Pope, 

" Each mortal has his pleasure ; none deny, 
Scarsdala his bottle, Darty his ham-pye." 

His gluttony, which was long proverbial, suggested to 
lord Lyttelton to introduce him, in his Dialogues of the 

168 D O D S L E Y. 

Pead, holding a conversation with Apicius. The story of 
the Ham-pye, Dr. Wartoii assures us, was confirmed by 
Dodsley, who knew Dartineuf, and, as he candidly owned, 
had waited on him at dinner ; or, as he said more explicitly 
to Dr. Johnson, " v*as his footman." He served after- 
xvards, in the same humble station, in the family of the hon. 
Mrs. Lowther, where his conduct procured him respect, 
and his abilities, distinction. Several of his smaller poems 
were written while in this family, and being shewn to his 
mistress and her visitors, he was encouraged to publish 
them by a very liberal subscription, including about two 
hundred names of considerable note. His volume had the 
very appropriate title of " The Muse in Livery ; or, The 
Footman's Miscellany," a thin 8vo, published in 1732. 
In his preface he alludes very feelingly to the many disad- 
vantages of his humble condition ; and in an emblematical 
frontispiece is a figure intended to represent himself, the 
right foot chained to despair, the right hand chained by 
poverty to misery, folly, and ignorance, the left hand 
winged, and endeavouring in vaiu to reach happiness, virtue, 
and knowledge. 

The volume contains the " Epistle to Stephen Duck ;" 
" Kitty," a pastoral ; " The Petition ;" " Rome's pardon," 
under the title of " The Devil is a Dunce ;" " Religion," 
a simile ; " The Epithalamium," called here, an Enter- 
tainment designed for the Wedding of governor Lowther 
and miss Pennington ; and the " Advice," which were 
reprinted in his volume of Trifles." 

His next attempt was more successful than the publica- 
tion or' his poems, and, considering the disadvantages of a 
life of servitude, more extraordinary ; he wrote a dramatic 
piece, entitled " The Toy-shop," the style of which dis- 
covers an improvement which to those who had just read 
" The Muse in Livery," must have appeared wonderful. 
This the author determined to submit to Pope in manu- 
script. He tells us he had a great regard for that poet, be- 
fore he had the honour of being known to him, and " it 
was a great mortification to him that he used to think him- 
self too inconsiderable ever to merit his notice or esteem,,. 
However, some time after I had wrote the Toy-shop, 
hoping there was something in it which might recommend 
me to him in a moral capacity, at least, though not in a 
poetical one, I sent it to him, and desired his opinion of 
it ; expressing some doubt, that though I designed it for the 

D D !S L Y. 169 

stage, yet, unless its novelty would recommend it, I was 
afraid it would not bear a publi^ representation, and there- 
fore had not offered it to the actors." 

Pope's answer to this application may appear in this 
place without impropriety, as it has escaped the collectors 
of his letter-;, and exhibits his kindness to unprotected ge- 
nius in a very favourable light. 

" SIR, Feb. 5, 1732-3. 

I was very willing to read your piece, and do freely tell 
you, I like it, as far as my particular judgment goes. 
Whether it has action enough to please the stage, I 
doubt ; but .the morality and satire ought to be relished 
by the reader. I will do more than you ask me ; I will 
recommend it to Mr. Rich. If he can join it to any 
play, with suitable representations, to make it an en- 
tertainment, I believe he will give you a benefit night; 
and I sincerely wish it may be turned any way to your ad- 
vantage, or that I could show you my friendship in any 
instance. I am, &c." 

Pope accordingly recommended it to Mr. Rich, and 
ever after bestowed his " favour and acquaintance" on the 
author. The hint of this excellent satire, for it scarcely 
deserves the name of drama, was taken from Randolph's 
" M use's Looking-glass." It was acted at Covent-garden 
theatre in 1735, and met with great success; but was yet 
more popular, when printed, being indeed much better 
calculated for the closet than the stage. There is an ease 
and elegance in the style which raise our opinion of Dods- 
fey's natural talents ; and so many circumstances of public 
and private absurdities are brought together, as to afford 
decisive proof that he had a mind far above his situation, 
and that with habits of attentive observation of life and 
manners, he cherished the justest moral feelings. Such 
was his situation, however, that for some time he was sup- 
posed to be only the nominal author of the " Toy-shop ;" 
but when he asserted his claim, he became more noticed, 
and the theatre more easily accessible to his future dra- 
matic attempts. The profits of his volume of poems, and 
the Toy-shop, enabled him to set up in business, and 
with much judgment he chose that of a bookseller, which 
liis friends might promote, and which might afford him 
leisure and opportunity to cultivate his talents. At what 
time he quitted service is not known, but he commenced 
the bookselling trade at a shop in Pall Mall, in 1735, and 

170 D O D S L E Y. 

by Pope's friendly interest, and his own humble and pru- 
dent behaviour, soon drew into his little premises such a 
society of men of genius, taste, and rank, as have seldom 
met. Many of these he afterwards had the honour to 
unite together in more than one scheme of literary part- 

In the mean time, the success of his first dramatic piece 
encouraged him to attempt another better adapted to stage 
rules. This was his farce of " The King and the Miller of 
Mansfield," the plot of which is founded on a traditional 
story in the reign of Henry II. It was performed in 
1736-7, and with applause scarcely inferior to that of the 
" Toy-shop." In 1737-8, he produced " Sir John Cockle 
at Court," intended as a sequel to the King and the Miller, 
but it had the usual fate of sequels, to suffer by compari- 
son. His next dramatic performance was " The Blind 
Beggar of Bethnal-green," a ballad farce, acted in 1741, 
but with little success. The songs, however, are not un- 
favourable specimens of lyric simplicity. 

Almost from the commencement of trade, Dodsley be- 
came a speculator in various literary undertakings, either 
original or compiled. So rapid was his success, that be- 
fore he had been three years in business, he became a 
purchaser of copyrights ; and it is among the most striking 
of those occurrences which diversify the lives of men of 
literary eminence, that, in 1738, the truly illustrious Dr. 
Samuel Johnson was glad to sell his first original publica- 
tion to humble Robert Dodsley, for the small sum of ten 
guineas. We find by Mr. Boswell's very interesting ac- 
count of this transaction, that Dodsley was the first to dis- 
cover the merits of Johnson's " London," and was desirous 
to purchase an article of which as a tradesman he had not 
miscalculated the value. But before this time Dodsley's 
shop must have been in considerable reputation, as in 
April 1737 he published Pope's " Second Epistle of the 
Second Book of Horace," and in the following month 
Pope assigned over to him the sole property of his " Let- 
ters," and afterwards that of vols. V. and VI. of his Works, 
and some of his detached pieces. Not long after, Young and 
Akenside published their works at his shop, and as early as 
March 1738-9, he became a partner with some of his 
brethren in the copyright of established authors*. 

* About this time he had the mis- house of lords by publishing Paul 
fartuae to incur the displeasure of the Whitehead's satire entitled " MSmiei a." 


The first of his literary schemes was a periodical journal, 
which appears to have escaped the researches of his bio- 
graphers, entitled " The Public Register, or Weekly 
Magazine," begun Jan. 3, 1741, each number of which 
consisted of sixteen 4to pages, handsomely printed, and 
was sold for three-pence. Although Dodsley appears to 
have lived on friendly terms with Cave, the printer, who 
referred Johnson to him as a lit publisher of the " Lon- 
don," yet this Register was undoubtedly one of the many 
attempts made at that time to rival me uncommon and 
much envied success of the Gentleman's Magazine, and 
like them was soon obliged to yield to the superior popu- 
larity of that valuable miscellany. Dodsley and Cave 
abused one another a little, as rival projectors, but were 
probably reconciled when the cause was removed. The 
contents of Dodsley's " Public Register" were original 
letters and essays in prose and verse ; records of literature; 
the substance of the parliamentary debates, with news fo- 
reign and domestic, and advertisements relating to books. 
The original essays were contributed by his mends, and 
many of them probably by himself. It proceeded as far 
as the twenty-fourth number, when the editor thought 
proper to stop. He urges in his farewell address, " the 
additional expense he was at in stamping it, and the un- 
generous usage he met with from one ot the proprietors of 
u certain monthly pamphlet, who prevailed with most of the 
common newspapers not to advertise it." In 1745, he 
wrote a little poetical piece called " Rex et Pontifcx," 
which he meant as an attempt to introduce a new species 
of ^pantomime upon the stage. It was not, however, re- 
ceived by any of the theatres, and probably was con- 
sidered only as a political effusion for a temporary purpose. 
In 1746, he projected another periodical work, entitled 
" The Museum, or the Literary and Historical Register," 
published every fortnight, in an 8vo size. Of this con- 
cern he had only a fourth share, the rest being the pro- 
perty of Mess. Longman, Shewell, Hitch, and Rivington. 
It extended to three volumes, and contains a greater va- 

Bt-n Victor was partly the means of with so much effect, that Dodsley was 

pavjug him from the worst consequences discharged on paying his fees, which 

of this affair, by requesting the earl came " to seventy odd pounds; a to- 

of Essex (one of those libelled in the lerable sum," Victor adds, " tor one 

poem) to present an humble petition week's scurvy lodging in the Butcher- 

Dodsley, whicb his lordship did row." Victor's Letters, vol. I. 

172 D O D S L E Y. 

riety of original essays of real merit than any similar un- 
dertaking within our memory, nor will this be doubted, 
when it is added that among the contributors were Spence, 
Horace Walpole, the two Wartons, Akenside, Lowth, 
Smart, Gilbert Cooper, William Whitehead, Merrick, and 
Campbell. This last wrote those political papers which he 
afterwards collected, enlarged, and published under the 
title of " The Present State of Europe." 

In 1748 our author published a work of yet greater po- 
pularity and acknowledged value in the instruction of youth, 
feis " Preceptor," to which some of the parties just men- 
tioned contributed. Dr. Johnson furnished the Preface, 
and " The Vision of Theodore the Hermit." In the be 
ginning of the following year, Dodsley purchased John- 
son's " Vanity of Human Wishes," for the small sum of 
fifteen guineas, but Johnson reserved the right of printing 
one edition. It is a better proof of Dodsley's enterprising 
Spirit that he was the first who suggested the scheme of 
the English Dictionary, upon which Dr. Johnson was at 
this time employed ; and is supposed to have procured 
some hints from Pope, among whose friends a scheme of 
this kind had been long entertained. Pope, however, did 
not live to see the excellent Prospectus which Johnson 
published in 1747. In 1748, Dodsley collected together 
in one volume his dramatic pieces, under the modest title 
of " Trifles." On the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, he wrote 
the " Triumph of Peace," a masque, which was set to 
music by Dr. Arne, and performed at Drury-lane in 
1748-9. In 1750 he published a small volume, unlike 
any of his former attempts, entitled " The CEconomy of 
Human Life, translated from an Indian manuscript, writ- 
ten by an ancient Bramin ; to which is prefixed, an ac- 
count of the manner in which the said manuscript was 
discovered. In a letter from an English Gentleman, now 
residing in China, to the earl of*****." Whether from 
modesty, fear, or merely a trick of trade, Dodsley affected 
to be only the publisher of this work, and persisted in his dis- 
guise for some time. Conjecture gave it to the earl of 
Chesterfield, and not quite so absurdly as Mrs. Teresa 
Constantia Phillips complimented that nobleman on being 
author of the " Whole Duty of Man." Chesterfield had 
a friendship for Dodsley, and would not contradict a report 
which rendered the sale of the " OEconomy" both rapid. 

D O D S L E Y. 173 

and extensive. The critics, however, in the Monthly 
Keview, and Gentleman's Magazine, were not to be de- 

It would be unnecessary to say much on the merit of a 
piece which is so well known. During its early popularity, 
it occasioned many imitations, the principal of which were, 
"The Second part of the QEconomy of Human Life;" 
" The CEconomy of Female Life ;" " The (Economy of 
the Sexes ;" and " The GEconomy of a Winter's Day," an 
humourous burlesque. Dodsley's " CEconomy," however, 
outlived these temporary efforts, and continued to be 
praised and read as the production of lord Chesterfield. 
The real author, although he might secretly appropriate 
this praise to himself, was perhaps not very well pleased to 
find that he seldom was suspected to have deserved it. 
His next production appears to have occupied bis thoughts 
and leisure hours for a considerable time. This was a 
poem, intended to be comprized in three books, treating 
of agriculture, commerce, and arts. Of these, by way of 
experiment, he published the first, under the general titld 
of " Public Virtue," in 1754; but it did not meet with 
such encouragement as to induce him to complete his de- 
sign. It is written in blank verse, to which his ear was 
not very well attuned ; but with many imperfections, this 
poem has likewise many beauties. He appears to have 
contemplated rural scenery with the eye of a poet. In the 
didactic part, he fails as others have failed before him, who 
wished to convey mechanical instruction with solemn pomp, 
and would invoke the heroic muse to tell what an unlettered 
farmer knows better. To console himself for the cool re- 
ception of this work, he told Dr. Johnson that " Public 
Virtue was not a subject to interest the age." 

About this time, he established, in conjunction with 
Moore, a periodical paper, entitled " The World," a name 
which Dodsley is allowed to have suggested after the other 
partners had perplexed themselves in vain for a proper one. 
Lord Lyttelton, although no contributor himself, used his 
influence with his friends for that purpose, and Dodsley 
procured papers from many of his friends and customers. 
One paper only, No. 32, is acknowledged to come from 
his own pen. By undertaking to pay Moore a stipulated 
sum for each paper, whether contributed by that writer, 
or sent by volunteers, J)odsley secured to himself the 
copyright, and was amply repaid not only by its sale in. 

171 D O D S L E Y. 

single numbers, but by the many editions printed in vo- 
lumes. When it was concluded in 1756, he obtained per- 
mission of the principal writers to insert their names, which 
gave it an additional interest with the public. A few chose, 
at that time-, to remain concealed, who have since been 
discovered, and some are yet unknown. Chesterfield and 
Horace Walpole were known at the time of pu ihcation. 

In 1758, Dodsiey wrote "Melpomene, or the Regions 
of Terror and Pity," an ode, but concealed his being the 
author, and employed Mrs. Cooper as his publisher. The 
consequence was that this ode, in which it is universally 
acknowledged that there are many sublime passages, was 
attributed to some promising young man, whom years and 
cultivation would lead to a high rank among poets. Mary 
Cooper, who was also the publisher of the World, lived 
in Paternoster- row, and appears to have been frequently 
employed in this capacity by Dodsiey and others, when 
they did not choose that their names should appear to the 
first edition of any work. 

In the same yen-, Dodsiey produced his tragedy of 
" Cleone," at Covent-garden theatre. This is said to have 
been rejected by Garrick with some degree of contempt, 
principally because there was not a character in it adapted 
to the display of his talents ; and when it was performed 
for the first time at the rival theatre, he endeavoured to 
diminish its attraction by appearing the same night in a 
new character at Drury-lane. The efforts of jealousy are 
sometimes so ridiculous, as to make it difficult to be be- 
lieved that they are seriously intended. But notwith- 
standing this malicious opposition, Cleone was played with 
great success for numv nights, although the company at 
Covent- garden, with the exception of Mrs. Bellamy, were 
in no reputation as tragedians. How powerfully the author 
has contrived to excite the passions of terror and pity, was 
lately seen, when this tragedy was revived by Mrs. Siddons. 
Its effect was so painful, and indignation at the villainy of 
Glanville and Ragozin approached so near to abhorrence, 
that the play could not be endured. There are, indeed, 
in this piece, many highly-wrought scenes, and the mad- 
ness of Cleone deserves to rank ^mong the most pathetic 
attempts to convey an idea of the ruins of an amiable and 
innocent mind. For Garrick's opinion we can have little 
respect, and perhaps he was not sincere in Diving it. The 
prologue to Cleone was written by MehnoUi, and the epi- 

D O D S L E Y. 175 

logue by Shenstone. Dodsley omitted about thirty lines 
of the latter, and substituted twelve or fourteen of his own, 
but restored the epilogue as originally written, in the 
fourth edition, at which it arrived in less than a year. 
Such was the avidity of the public, occasioned probably in 
a great measure by the opposition given to the perform- 
ance of the play, that two thousand copies were sold on 
the first day of publication. Pope, when very young, had 
attempted a tragedy on the same subject, which he after- 
wards burnt, as he informed Dodsley, when the latter sent 
him his Cleone, in its first state, requesting his advice. 
Pope encouraged him to bring it out, but wished he would 
extend the plan to the accustomed number of five acts. 
Dodsley acted with su r iicient caution in keeping his piece 
rather more than " ni:ie years," and then submitted it to 
lord Chesterfield and other friends, who encouraged him to 
offer it to the sta^e, and supported it when produced. 
Dr. Johnson was likewise among those who praised its 
pathetic effect, and declared that " if Otway had written 
it, no other of his pieces would have been remembered." 
Dodsley, to whom this was told, said very justly, that "it 
was too much." 

This was an important year (176S) to our author in an- 
other respect. He now published the first volume of the 
*' Annual Register," projected in concert with the illus- 
trious Edmund Burke, who is supposed to have contributed 
very liberally to its success. This work was in all its de- 
partments so ably conducted, that although he printed a 
large impression, he and his successor were frequently 
obliged to reprint the early volumes. Its value as an use- 
ful and convenient record of public affairs was so univer- 
sally felt, that every inquirer into the history of his country 
must wish it had been begun sooner. Dodsley, however, 
did not live to enjoy its highest state of popularity ; but 
some years after his death it became irregular in i,ts times 
of publication, and the general disappointment which such 
neglect occasioned, gave rise, in 17 HO, to another work of 
the same kind, under the name of the New Annual Regis- 
ter. This for many years was a powerful rival, until the 
unhappy sera of the French revolution, when the principles 
adopted in the New Register gave disgust to those who 
had been accustomed to the Old, and the mind, if not the 
hand of Burke appearing again in the latter, it resumed 
and still maintains its former reputation, under the manage- 


merit of Messrs. Rivington, who succeeded the late James 
Dodsley in the property. 

In 1760, our author published his " Select Fables of Esop 
and other Fabulists," in three books, which added very 
considerably to his reputation, although he was more in- 
debted than has been generally supposed to his learned 
customers, many of whom seem to have taken a pleasure 
in promoting all his schemes. The Essay on Fable, pre- 
fixed to this collection, is ascribed to Dodsley by the author 
of his life in the Biographia. Dodsley probably drew the 
outline of the essay, but Shenstone produced it in the shape 
we now find it. 

When, after selling two thousand copies of this excel- 
lent collection, within a few months, Dodsiey was pre- 
paring a new edition, Shenstone informs us that Mr. Spence 
offered to write the life afresh ; and Spence, Burke, Lowth, 
and Melmoth, advised him to discard Italics. Such parti- 
culars may appear so uninteresting as to require an apo- 
logy, but they add something to the history of books, which, 
is a study of importance as well as of pleasure, and they 
show the very high respect in which our author was held. 
Here we have Shenstone, Spence, Burke, Lowth, and Mel- 
moth clubbing their opinions to promote his interest, by 
improving the merit of a work, which, however unjustly, 
many persons of their established character would have 
thought beneath their notice*. 

On the death of Shenstone, in the beginning of the 
year 1763, Dodsley endeavoured to repay the debt of 
gratitude, by publishing a very beautiful edition of the 
works of that poet, to which he prefixed a short account 
of his life and writings, a character written with much 
affection, a description of the Leasowes, c. He had now 
retired from the active part of his business, having realized 
a considerable fortune, and was succeeded by his brother 
James, whom he had previously admitted into partnership, 

* Among other of Dodsley's publi- in 6 vols. Svo, the last edition of which 
cations, may be enumerated his " Fu- was edited by Mr. Isaac Reeu in 17S'2, 
gitive Pieces," in two volumes, writ- with biographical notes ; and his col- 
ten by Speuce, lord Whitworth, Burke, lection of" Oltl Plays," a second edi- 
Clubbe, Hay, Cooper, Hill, and others ; tion of which was published in 17SO by 
' London ami its Environs," 6 vols. the same editor. During- the publica- 
8vo, in which he was assisted by Ho- tion of his Poems in separate volumes 
race Walpole, who procured the lists he solicited and obtained original 
of paintings j "England Illustrated," pieces from most of bis literary friends. 
2 vols. 4to. His collection of " Poems," See Hull's Select Letters, />wi/A. 

D O D S L E Y. . 177 

and who continued the business until hi's death in 1797, 
but without his brother's spirit or intelligence. 

During the latter years of our author's life, he was much 
afflicted with the gout, and at length fell a martyr to it, 
while upon a visit to his learned and useful friend the rev. 
Joseph Spence at Durham. This event happened Sep- 
tember 25, 1764, in the sixty-first year of his age. He 
was interred in the abbey church-yard of that city^ with a 
homely tribute to his memory on his tomb-stone. 

In 1772, a second volume of his works was published, 
under the title of " Miscellanies," viz. Cleone, Melpo- 
mene, Agriculture, and the CEconomy of Human Life. 
Two of his prose pieces, yet unnoticed, were inserted in 
the later editions of his first volume ; the " Chronicle of 
the Kings of England," in imitation of the language of 
Scripture, and an ironical Sermon, in which the right of 
mankind to do what they will is asserted. Neither of these 
has contributed much to his reputation. 

After the incidental notices taken of his different writings 
in this sketch of his life, little remains to be added as to 
their general character. As a poet, if poets are classed by 
rigorous examination, he will not be able to maintain a 
very elevated rank. His " Agriculture" was probably in- 
tended as the concentration of his powers, but the subject 
had not been for many years of town-life very familiar to 
him, and had he been more conversant in rural ceconomy, 
he could not give dignity to terms and precepts which are 
neither intelligible nor just when translated from the 
homely language of the farm and the cottage. Commerce 
and the Arts, had he pursued his plan, were more capable 
of poetical illustration, but it may be doubted whether they 
were not as much above his powers, as the other is beneath 
the flights of the heroic muse. The " Art of Preaching'* 
shows that he had not studied Pope's versification in vain. 
It is not, however, so strictly an imitation of Horace's Art 
of Poetry, which probably he could not read, as of Pope's 
manner of modernizing satire. It teaches no art, but that 
which is despicable, the art of casting unmerited obloquy 
on the clergy. 

Upon the whole, the general merit of his productions, 
and the connexions he formed with many of the most emi- 
nent literary characters of his time, have given a consider- 
able popularity to the name of Dodsley ; and his personal 
character was excellent. Although flattered for his early 


178 D O V S L E Y. 

productions, and in a situation where flattery is most dan- 
gerous, he did not yield to the suggestions of vanity, nor 
considered his patrons as bound to raise him to independ- 
ence, or as deserving to be insulted, if they refused to 
arrogant indolence what they willingly granted to honest 
industry. With the fair profits of his first pieces, he en- 
tered into business, and while he sought only such encou- 
ragement as his assiduity might merit, he endeavoured to 
cultivate his mind by useful, if not profound erudition. 
His whole life, indeed, affords an important lesson. With- 
out exemption from some of the more harmless artifices of 
trade, he preserved the strictest integrity in all his deal- 
ings, both with his brethren, and with such authors as con- 
fided to him the publication of their works ; and he became 
a very considerable partner in those large undertakings 
which have done so much credit to the booksellers of 

In his more private character, Dodsley was a pleasing 
and intelligent companion. Few men had lived on more 
easy terms with authors of high rank, as well as genius ; 
and his conversation abounded in that species of informa- 
tion which, unfortunately for biographers, is generally lost 
with those by whom it has been communicated. By his 
letters, some of which we have seen, he appears to have 
written with ease and familiar pleasantry, and the general 
style of his writings affords no reason to remember that he 
was deprived of the advantages of educatios. So much 
may application, even with limited powers, effect, while 
those who trust to inspiration only, too frequently are con- 
tent to excite wonder, and dispense with industry, mis-, 
taking the bounty-money of fame for its regular pay. l 

DODSON (MICHAEL), an English barrister, was the 
son of the Rev. John Dodson, M. A. a dissenting minister 
of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, and of Elizabeth, one of 
the daughters of Mr. Foster, an attorney-at-law of the 
same place. He was born at Marlborough on the 20th or 
21st Sept. 1732, and educated partly under the care of his 
father, and partly at the grammar-school of that town ; and 
under the direction of his maternal uncle, sir Michael 
Foster, he was brought up to the profession of the law. 
After being admitted of the Middle Temple, London, Au- 
gust 31, 1754, he practised many years with considerable 

t Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810. Biog. Brit. 

D O D S O N. 179 

reputation, as a special pleader. His natural modesty and 
cliffiJence discouraged him from attending the courts, and 
therefore he did not proceed to be called to the bar till 
July 4, 1783. This measure contributed, as was intended, 
more to the diminution than to the increase of professional 
business. He was appointed one of the commissioners of 
bankrupts in 1770, during the chancellorship of lord Cam- 
den, and was continued in that situation till the time of 
his death. On December 31, 1778, Mr. Dodson married 
miss Elizabeth Hawkes, his cousin-german, and eldest 
daughter of Mr. Hawkes, of Marlborough. He enjoyed a 
life of uninterrupted good health, and indeed little altera- 
tion was observeable in his strength or general habits till 
nearly the last year of his life. It was not till the month 
of October 1799, that he began more sensibly to feel the 
effect of disease; and, after a confinement to his room of 
about a fortnight, he died of a dropsy in his chest, at his 
house in Boswell-court, Carey-street, London, on the 13th 
of November of that year ; and was buried in Bunhill- 
fields the 21st of the same month. Mr. Dodson's legal 
knowledge and discrimination were deservedly estimated 
by those to whom he was known, and who had occasion to 
confer with him upon questions of law. He was deliberate 
in forming his opinion, and diffident in delivering it, but 
always clear in the principles and reasons on which it was 
founded. His general acquaintance with the laws, and 
veneration for the constitution of his country, evinced his 
extensive acquaintance with the principles of jurispru- 
dence, and his regard for the permanence of the liberties 
of Britain. In 1762, Mr. Justice Foster published his 
book, entitled, " A Report of some proceedings on the 
commission for the trial of the Rebels in the year 1746, in 
the county of Surrey ; and of other crown cases ; to which 
are added, Discourses upon a few branches of the Crown 
Law." This work will be to him, said Mr. Dodson, " mo- 
numeutum aere perennius." The impression being large, 
and a pirated edition being made in Ireland, a new edition, 
was not soon wanted in England ; but in 1776 Mr. Dodson 
published a second edition with some improvements, and 
with remarks in his preface on some objections made by 
Mr. Barrington in his " Observations on the more ancient 
Statutes." In 1792 he published a third edition, with 
an appendix, containing three new cases, which the au- 
thor had intended to insert in the first edition, and had 

180 D O D S O N. 

caused to be transcribed for that purpose. In 1795 Mr. 
Dobson drew up a life of his truly learned and venerable 
uncle sir Michael Faster, which was to have formed a part 
of the sixth volume of the new edition of the Biographia 
Britannica. It has since been printed separately in 1811, 
Svo. But the public are in possession of more ample 
documents of Mr. Dodson's deep research and critical judg- 
ment in biblical literature, than in legal disquisitions. He 
had very attentively and dispassionately examined th 
evidences of revelation, and was firmly convinced of the 
truth of its pretensions. He was zealous for the true and 
rational interpretation of its scriptures, because he was 
strongly persuaded of the great influence such interpreta- 
tion would have on its reception in the world, and on the 
consequent happiness of mankind. But having a turn for 
biblical criticism, and having embraced the principles of 
the Unitarians, he published many papers in a work en- 
titled " Commentaries and Essays," written by the mem- 
bers of a small " Society for promoting the knowledge of 
the Scriptures." Mr. Dodson was a very early member of 
this society, not only communicating some papers of his 
own, but conducting through the press some of the contri- 
butions of others. In 1790 he laid before the public, as 
the result of many years' study, " New translation of Isaiah, 
with notes supplementary to those of Dr. Lowth, late 
bishop of London, and containing remarks on many parts 
of his Translation and Notes, by a Layman." In this he 
has taken more freedoms than can be justified by the prin- 
ciples of sound criticism ; which drew forth an able answer 
from the pen of Dr. Sturges, in " Short remarks on a new 
Translation of Isaiah," Svo. To this Mr. Dodson replied, 
with urbanity and candour, in " A Letter to the Rev. Dr. 
Sturges, &c." Svo, 179 1. 1 

DODSWORTH (ROGER), an eminent antiquary, the 
son of Matthew Dodsworth, registrar of York cathedral, 
and chancellor to archbishop Matthews, was born July 
24, 1585, at Newton Grange, in the parish of St. Oswald, 
in Rydale, Yorkshire. He died in August 1654; and was 
buried at Rufrord, Lancashire. He was a man " of won- 
derful industry, but less judgment ; always collecting and 
transcribing, but never published any thing." Such is 

Biographical Memoir privately circulated by Dr. Disney. Preface to tbe 
frvo edition of the Life of sir Michael Foster. 


the report of him by Wood ; who in the first part of it, 
Mr. Gough observes, drew his own character. " One can- 
not approach the borders of this county," adds this topo- 
grapher, in his account of Yorkshire, " without paying 
tribute to the memory of that indefatigable collector of its 
antiquities, Roger Dodsworth, who undertook and exe- 
cuted a work, which, to the antiquaries of the present 
age, would have been the stone of Tydides." One hun- 
dred and twenty-two volumes of his own writing, besides 
original MSS. which he had obtained from several hands, 
making all together 162 volumes folio, now lodged in 
the Bodleian library, are lasting memorials what this county 
owes to him, as the two volumes of the Monasticon 
(which, though published under his and Dugdale's names 
conjointly, were both collected and written totally by him) 
will immortalize that extensive industry which has laid the 
whole kingdom under obligation. The patronage of ge- 
Beral Fairfax (whose regard to our antiquities, which the 
rage of his party was so bitter against, should cover his 
faults from the eyes of antiquaries) preserved this treasure, 
and bequeathed it to the library where it is now lodged. 
Fairfax preserved also the fine windows of York cathedral ; 
and when St. Mary's tower, in which were lodged innu- 
merable records, both public and private, relating to the 
northern parts, was blown up during the siege of York, 
he gave money to the soldiers who could save any scattered 
papers, many of which are now at Oxford ; though Dods- 
worth had transcribed and abridged the greatest part be- 
fore. Thomas Tomson, at the hazard of his life, saved 
out of the rubbish such as were legible ; which, after pass- 
ing through several hands, became the property of Dr. 
John Burton, of York, being 1868, in thirty bundles. 
Wallis says they are in the cathedral library. Fairfax 
allowed Dodsworth a yearly salary to preserve the inscrip- 
tions in churches. 

Fairfax died in 1671 ; his nephew, Henry Fairfax, dean 
of Norwich, gave Roger Doclsworth's 162 volumes of col- 
lections to the university of Oxford ; but the MSS. were 
not brought thither till 1673, and then in wet weather, 
when Wood with much difficulty obtained leave of the 
vice-chancellor to have them brought into the muniment- 
room in the school-tower, and was a month drying them 
on the leads. Many transcripts from them are in various 
collections, particularly the British museum, where are 


also many of Dodsworth's letters. Hearne, in a transport 
of antiquarian enthusiasm, " blesses God that he was 
pleased, out of his infinite goodness and mercy, to raise 
vp so pious and diligent a person, that should, by his 
blessing, so effectually discover and preserve such a noble 
treasure of antiquities as is contained in these volumes : 
most of them written with his own hand, and the genealo- 
gical tables, and the notes on them, done with that exqui- 
site care and judgment, that I cannot but think otherwise 
of this eminent person than the author of the ' Athenae 
Oxonienses.' For it plainly appears to me, that his 
judgment and sagacity were equal to his diligence; and I 
see no reason to doubt, but that if he had lived to write 
the Antiquities of Yorkshire (as he once designed), it would 
have appeared in a very pleasing and entertaining method, 
and in a proper and elegant style, and set out with all other 
becoming advantages." 1 

DODWELL (HENRY), a very learned writer, was born 
in the parish of St. Warburgh in Dublin, towards the latter 
end of October 1641, and baptized November 4th. His 
father, who was in the army, had an estate at Connaught, 
but it being seized by the Irish rebels, he came, with his 
wife and child, to England in 1648, to obtain some assist- 
ance among their relations. After some stay in London, 
they went to York, and placed their son in the free-school 
of that city, where he continued five years, and laid the 
foundation of his extensive learning. His father, after 
having settled him with his mother at York, went to Ire- 
land, to look after his estate, but died of the plague at 
Waterford : and his mother, going thither for the same 
purpose, fell into a consumption, of which she died, in 
her brother sir Henry Slingsby's house. Being thus de- 
prived of his parents, Mr. Doduell was reduced to such 
streights that he had not money enough to buy pen, ink, 
and paper ; and suffered very much for want of his board 
being regularly paid*. Thus he continued till 1654, 
when his uncle, Mr. Henry Dodvvell, rector of Newbourn 

* In this more liberal age it will iise of charcoal, instead of pen and 
Scarcely be credited that this youth ink, which he had not money to pur- 
was forced to use such pape< as yeung chase; and then, when h^ came to 
gentlewomen had covered their work school, to borrow pen and ink of his 
with, and thrown away as no longer fit school-fellows to tit his exercises for 
for their use, he having no other to his master's sight. 
write his exercises on ; and to make 

i Cough's Topography, vol. 1. Archaeologia, vol. I. 

D O D W E L L. 

and Hemley in Suffolk, sent for him, discharged his debts, 
and assisted him in his studies. With him he remained 
about a year, and then went to Dublin, where he was at 
school for a year longer. In 1656 he was admitted into 
Trinity-college in that city, of which he was successively 
chosen scholar and fellow. But in 1666 he quitted his fel- 
lowship, in order to avoid going into holy orders, for by 
the statutes of that college, the fellows are obliged to take 
orders when they are masters of arts of three years stand- 
ing. The learned bishop Jer. Taylor offered to use his in- 
terest to procure a dispensation of the statute, but Mr, 
Dodwell refused to accept of it, lest it should be construed 
into a precedent injurious afterwards to the college. The 
reasons given for his declining the ministerial function 
were, 1. The great weight of that office, and the severe 
account which the ministers of Christ have to give to their 
Lord and Master. 2. His natural bashfulness, and humble 
opinion, and diffidence of himself; though he was, un- 
questionably, very well qualified in point of learning. 
3. That he thought he could do more service to religion, 
and the church, by his writings, whilst he continued a lay- 
man, than if he took orders; for then the usual objections 
made against clergymen's writings on those subjects, viz. 
" That they plead their own cause, and are biassed by 
self-interest," would be entirely removed. 

Mr. Dodwell came the same year to England, and re- 
sjded at Oxford for the sake of the public library. Thence 
he returned to his native country, and in 1672 published, 
at Dublin, in 8vo, a posthumous treatise of his late learned 
tutor John Steam, M. D. to which he put a preface of his 
own. He entitled this book, " De Obstinatione : Opus 
posthumum Pietatem Chrisdano-Stoicam scholastico more 
suadens :" and his own preface, " prolegomena Apologe- 
tica, de usu Dogmatum Philosophicorum," &c. in which 
he apologizes for his tutor ; who, by quoting so often and 
setting a high value upon the writings and maxims of 
the heathen philosophers, might seem to depreciate the 
Holy Scriptures. Mr. Dodwell therefore premises first, 
that the author's design in that work is only to recommend 
moral duties, and enforce the practice of them by the au- 
thority of the ancient philosophers ; and that he does not 
meddle with the great mysteries of Christianity, which are 
discoverable only by divine revelation. His second work 
was, " Two letters of advice. 1. For the Susception of 

184 D O D W E L L. 

Holy Orders. 2. For Studies Theological, especially such 
as are rational." To the second edition of which, in 
1681, was added, " A Discourse concerning the Phoeni- 
cian History of Sanchoniathon," in which he considers 
Philo-Byblius as the author of that history. In 1673, he 
wrote a preface, without his name, to " An introduction 
to a Devout Life," by Francis de Sales, the last bishop 
and prince of Geneva ; which was published at Dublin, in 
English, this same year, in 12mo. He came over again 
to England in 1674, and settled in London ; where he be- 
came acquainted with several learned men ; particularly, 
in 1675, with Dr. William Lloyd, afterwards successively 
bishop of St. Asaph, Litchfield and Coventry, and Wor- 
cester *. With that eminent divine he contracted so great 
a friendship and intimacy, that he attended him to Holland, 
xvhen he was appointed chaplain to the princess of Orange. 
He was also with him at Salisbury, when he kept his resi- 
dence there as canon of that church ; and spent afterwards 
a good deal of time with him at St. Asaph. In 1675 he pub- 
lished " Some Considerations of present Concernment ; 
how far the Romanists may be trusted by princes of ano- 
ther persuasion," in 8vo, levelled against the persons con- 
cerned in the Irish remonstrance, which occasioned a kind 
of schism among the Irish Roman catholics. The year 
following he published " Two short Discourses against the 
Romanists. 1. An Account of the fundamental Principle 
of Popery, and of the insufficiency of the proofs which 
they have for it. 2. An Answer to six Queries proposed 
to a gentlewoman of the Church of England, by an emis- 
sary of the Church of Rome," 12mo, but reprinted in 
1688, 4to, with " A new preface relating to the bishop of 
Meaux, and other modern complainers of misrepresenta- 
tion." In 1679, he published, in 4to, <{ Separation of 
Churches from episcopal government, as practised by the 
present non-conformists, proved schismatical, from such 
principles as are least controverted, and do withal most 
popularly explain the sinfulness and mischief of schism." 
This, being animadverted upon by R. Baxter, was vindi- 
cated, in 1681, by Mr. Dodwell, in " A Reply to Mr. 
Baxter's pretended confutation of a book, entitled. Sepa- 

* Mr. Dodwell, when in London, concerning matters of literature. Many 

used daily to frequent a coffee-bouse of his countryim-n resorted to the same 

near Temple-bar, where he was willing coffee-house, ;>u i regularly saw him 

to answer all who asked his opiuiou home every night. 

D O D W E L L. 185 

fration of Churches," &c. To which were added, " Three 
Letters to Mr. Baxter, written in 1673, concerning the 
Possibility of Discipline under a Diocesan Government,'* 
&c. 8vo. In 1682 came out his " Dissertations on St. Cy- 
prian," composed at the reqviest of Dr. Fell, bishop of Ox- 
ford, when he was about to publish his edition of that 
father. They were printed in the same size, but reprinted 
at Oxford in 1684, Svo, under the title " Dissertationes 
Cyprianse." The eleventh dissertation, in which he en- 
deavours to lessen the number of the early Christian mar- 
tyrs, brought upon him the censure of bishop Burnet, and 
not altogether unjustly. The year following, he published 
" A Discovirse concerning the One Altar, and the One 
Priesthood, insisted on by the ancients in the disputes 
against Schism *," Lond. Svo. In 1684, a dissertation of 
his on a passage of Lactantius, was inserted in the new 
edition of that author at Oxford, by Thomas Spark, in 
Svo. His treatise " Of the Priesthood of Laicks," ap- 
peared in 1686, in Svo. The title was " De jure Laico- 
rum," &c. It was written in answer to a book published 
by William Baxter, the antiquary, and entitled " Anti- 
Dodwellism, being two curious tracts formerly written by 
H. Grotius, concerning a solution of the question, whether 
the eucharist may be administered in the absence of, or 
want of pastors." About the same time he was preparing 
for the press the posthumous works of the learned Dr. John 
Pearson, bishop of Chester, Lond. 1688, 4to. He pub- 
lished also, ." Dissertations on Irenseus," 1689, Svo. On 
the 2d of April, 1688, he was elected, by the university 
of Oxford, Camden's professor of history, without any ap- 

* Before Mr. JDodwell committed this Dr. Tillotson, after the revolution, had 

book to the press, he brought it to Dr. consented to be archbishop of Canter- 

Tillotson, and desired his judgment bury, before he was consecrated to (he 

concerning it. The doctor freely ex- see, Mr. Dodwell wrote him a letter to 

pressed his dislike of it; and told the dissuade him from being the aggressor 

author, that though his work was writ- in the new-designed schism, and in 

ten with such great accuracy and close erecting another altar against that of 

dependence of one proposition upon the deprived fathers and brethren, 

another, as that it seemed to be little " If," says he, " their places be not 

less thnn demonstration, " so that vacant, the new consecration must, by 

(added Tillotson) I can hardly tell you, the nature of the spiritual monarchy, 

where it is, that you break the chain ; be null, invalid, and schismatical. 1 ' 

yet I am sure, that it is broken some- He affirmed, likewise, that such as 

where: for such and such particulars were concerned in this practice, cut 

are so palpably false, that I wonder themselves off from the communion of 

you do not perceive the absurdity of which they were before members ; as 

them ; they are so gross, and grate so did all others who joined with them. 
much upon the inward sense." When 

186 D O D W E L L. 

plication of his own, and when he was at a great distance 
from Oxford ; and the 21st of May was incorporated mas- 
ter of arts in that university. But this beneficial and cre- 
ditable employment of professor he did not enjoy long ; 
being deprived of it in November, 1691, for refusing to 
take the oaths of allegiance to king William and queen 
Mary. When their majesties had suspended those bishops 
who would not acknowledge their authority, Mr. Dodwell 
published " A cautionary discourse of Schism, with a 
particular regard to the case of the bishops, who are sus- 
pended for refusing to take the new oath," London, 8vo. 
And when those bishops were actually deprived, and others 
put in their sees, he joined the former, looking upon the 
new bishops, and their adherents, as schismatics. He 
wrote likewise " A Vindication of the deprived Bishops :" 
and " A Defence of the same," 1692, 4to, being an an- 
swer to Dr. Hody's " Unreasonableness of Separation," &c. 
After having lost his professorship, he continued for some 
time in Oxford, and then retired to Cookham, a village 
near Maidenhead, about an equal distance between Ox- 
ford and London ; and therefore convenient to maintain a 
correspondence in each place, and to consult friends and 
books, as he should have occasion. While he lived there, 
he became acquainted with Mr. Francis Cherry of Shottes- 
brooke, a person of great learning and virtue, for the sake 
of whose conversation he removed to Shottesbrooke, where 
he chiefly spent the remainder of his days. In 1692, he 
published his Camdenian lectures read at Oxford ; and, in 
1694, " An Invitation to Gentlemen to acquaint themselves 
with ancient History ;" being a preface to Degory Whear's 
" Method of reading history," translated into English by 
Mr. Bohun. About this time having lost one or more of 
the Dodwells, his kinsmen, whom he designed for his 
heirs, he married on the 24th of June, 1694, in the 52d 
year ot bis age, a person, in whose father's house at Cook- 
ham he had boarded several times, and by her had ten 
children *. In 1696 he drew up the annals of Thucydides 

* The reason of his marrying late in Ware's works, was as follows: be had 
life wa<- the offfr.ce he t ok ai some of a sood estate in Ireland, the profits of 
his relatuni*, who di<1 not pay him a wlvch he gave to his next kinsman, re- 
certain pittance which h~ had agieetl sevv.n^ uu'y ;\ Miiall part for his owa 
with them should be transmitted to snb-istenve. But upon his marriage 
him jeat'v out of ihe f"itn -T In- po>- he took t;ie whole to himself ; his kins- 
sessed. Tht- tact, as Mated by Mr. nian having raised a fair fortune out of 
Harris, iu his edition of sir James the estate, while be enjoyed it* 

D O D W E L L. 137 

and Xenophon, to accompany the editions of those two 
authors by Dr. John Hudson and Mr. Edward Wells. Hav- 
ing likewise compiled the annals of Velleius Paterculus, 
and of Quintilian, and Statius, he published them altoge- 
ther in 1698, in one volume, 8vo. About the same time 
he wrote an account of tUe lesser Geographers, published 
by Dr. Hudson; and "A Treatise concerning the law- 
fulness of instrumental music in holy offices :" occasioned by 
an organ being set up at Tiverton in 1696 : with some other 
things on chronology, inserted in " Grabe's Spicilegium." 
In 1701, he published his account of the Greek and Roman 
cycles, which was the most elaborate of all his pieces, and 
seems to have been the work of the greatest part of his 
life. The same year was published a letter of his, inserted 
in Richardson's " Canon of the New Testament," &c. 
concerning Mr. Toland's disingenuous treatment of him. 
The year following appeared " A Discourse [of his] con- 
cerning the obligation to marry within the true commu- 
nion, following from their style of being called a Holy 
Seed ;" and " An Apology for the philosophical writings 
of Cicero," against the objections of Mr. Petit; prefixed 
to Tally's five books De Finibus, or, of Moral Ends, trans- 
lated into English by Samuel Parker, gent, as also the 
annals of Thucydides and Xenophon, Oxoa. 4to. In 1703 
he published " A Letter concerning the Immortality of the 
Soul, against Mr. Henry Layton's Hypothesis," 4to ; and, 
" A Letter to Dr. Tillotson about Schism," 8vo, written 
in 1691. .The year following came out, his " Chronology 
of DionX'Sius Halicarnasseus," in the Oxford edition of 
that historian by Dr. Hudson, folio ; his " Two Disserta- 
tions on the age of Phalaris and Pythagoras," occasioned 
by the dispute between Bentley and Boyle ; and his " Ad- 
monition to Foreigners, concerning the late Schism in 
England." This, which was written in Latin, regarded 
the deprivation of the nonjuring bishops. When the bill 
for preventing occasional conformity was depending in 
parliament, he wrote a treatise, entitled, " Occasional 
Communion fundamentally destructive of the discipline of 
the primitive catholic Church, and contrary to the doc- 
trine of the latest Scriptures concerning Church Commu- 
nion ;" London, 1705, 8vo. About the same time, ob- 
serving that the deprived bishops were reduced to a small 
number, he wrote, " A Case in View considered : in a 
Discourse, ^proving that (in case our present in valid ly de- 
prived fathers shall leave all their sees vacant, either by 

188 D O D W E L L. 

death or resignation) we shall not then be obliged to keep 
up our separation from those bishops, who are as yet in- 
volved in the guilt of the present unhappy schism," Lond. 
1705, 8vo. Some time after, he published " A farther 
prospect of the Case in View, in answer to some new ob- 
jections not then considered," Lond. 1707, 8vo. Hitherto 
Mr. Dodwell had acted in such a manner as had procured 
him the applause of all, excepting such as disliked the non- 
jurors ; but, about this time, he published some opinions 
that drew upon him almost universal censure. For, in 
order to exalt the powers and dignity of the priesthood, in 
that one communion, which he imagined to be the pecu- 
Hum of God, and to which he had joined himself, he en- 
deavoured to prove, with his usual perplexity of learning, 
that the doctrine of the soul's natural mortality was the 
true and original doctrine ; and that immortality was only 
at baptism conferred upon the soul, by the gift of God, 
through the hands of one set of regularly-ordained clergy. 
In support of this opinion, he wrote " An Epistolary Dis- 
course, proving, from the scriptures and the first fathers, 
that the soul is a principle naturally mortal ; but immor- 
talized actually by the pleasure of God, to punishment, or 
to reward, by its union with the divine baptismal spirit. 
Wherein is proved, that none have the power of giving 
this divine immortalizing spirit, since the apostles, but 
only the bishops," Lond. 1706, 8vo. At the end of the 
preface to the reader is a- dissertation, to prove " that 
Sacerdotal Absolution is necessary for the Remission of 
Sins, even of those who are truly penitent." This dis- 
course being attacked by several persons, particularly Chis- 
hull, Clarke, Norris, and Mills afterwards bishop of Wa- 
terford, our author endeavoured to vindicate himself in the 
three following pieces : 1. " A Preliminary Defence of the 
Epistolary Discourse, concerning the distinction between 
Soul and Spirit : in two parts. I. Against the charge of 
favouring Impiety. II. Against the charge of favouring 
Heresy," Lond. 1707, 8vo. 2. " The Scripture account 
of the Eternal Rewards or Punishments of all that hear of 
the Gospel, without an immortality necessarily resulting 
from the nature of the souls themselves that are con- 
cerned in those rewards or punishments. Shewing particu- 
larlv, I- How much of this account was discovered by the 
best philosophers. II. How far the accounts of those phi- 
losophers were corrected, and improved, by the Hellenis- 
tical Jews, assisted by the Revelations of the Old Testa- 

D O D W E L L. 139 

ment. III. How far the discoveries fore-mentioned were 
improved by the revelations of the Gospel. Wherein the 
testimonies also of S. Irenaens and Tertullian are occa- 
sionally considered," Lond. 1708, 8vo. And, 3. "An 
Explication of a famous passage in the Dialogue of S. 
Justin Martyr with Tryphon, concerning the immortality 
of human souls. With an Appendix, consisting of a let- 
ter to the rev. Mr. John Norris, of Bemerton ; and an ex- 
postulation relating to the late insults of Mr. Clarke and 
Mr. Chishull," Lond. 1708, 8vo. Upon the death of Dr. 
William Lloyd, the deprived bishop of Norwich, on the 
first of January 1710-11, Mr. Dodwell, with some other 
friends, wrote to Dr. Thomas Kenn, of Bath and Wells, 
the only surviving deprived bishop, to know, whether he 
challenged their subjection ? He returned for answer, 
that he did not : and signified his desire that the breach 
might be closed by their joining with the bishops possessed 
of their sees ; giving his reasons for it. Accordingly, Mr. 
Dodwell, and several of his friends, joined in communion 
with them. But others refusing this, Mr. Dodwell was 
exceedingly concerned, and wrote, " The case in view 
now in fact. Proving, that the continuance of a separate 
communion, without substitutes in any of the late invalidly- 
deprived sees, since the death of William late lord bishop 
of Norwich, is schismatical. With an Appendix, proving, 
that our late invalidly-deprived fathers had no right to sub- 
stitute successors, who might legitimate the separation, 
after that the schism had been concluded by the decease 
of the last survivor of those same fathers," Lond. 1711, 
8vo. Our author wrote some few other things, besides 
what have been already mentioned *. At length, after a 

Namely, 1. " Dissertatioad Frag- don, 1711, 8ro. 3. " Julii Vitalis Epi- 

mentum quoddam T. Livii," extant taphium, cum notis Henrici Dodwelli, 

among archbishop Laud's MSS, in the et commentario G. Musgrave. Acce- 

Bodleian library. Mr. Dodwell like- dit Dodwelli Epistola ad cl. Goezhim 

wise settled the times of the actions re- de Piiteolana & BajanS. Inscription!- 

lated by that author, by the years ab bus." Iscas Dunmoniorum & Londini, 

Urbe Cond. according to Ihe Varronian 171 1, 8vo. This epitaph of Julius Vi- 

account, set at the top of each page, talis, on which Mr. Dodwell wrote notes, 

At the request of a gentleman in was found at Bath, and published by 

the Isle of Man,, who had desired his Mr. Hearne at the end of his edi ion of 

thoughts on this point, " Whether the King Alfred's Lite by sir John Svelrnan, 

church of England had just reasons, 8vo. The letter lo Mr. Goetz, profes- 

when she reformed, to lay aside the SOT at Leipsic, was written by Mr. 

se of incense, which was practised in Dodwell in ITOO, beinj an explanation 

all churches before our quarrel with of an inscription on MemoniusCalistus, 

the church of Rome?" he wrote, in found at Puteoli. and on another found 

1709, 2. " A Discourse concerning the at Bairn. 4. " De jei.ate & patriA 

V*e of Incense in Dirine Offices," Lon- Dionysii Periejetas. Priuted hi the 

190 D O D W E L L. 

very studious and ascetic course of life, he died at Shot- 
tesbrooke the 7th of June 1711, in the seventieth year of 
his age ; and was buried in the chancel of the church there, 
where a monument is erected to him. Mr. Dodwell, as to 
his person, was of a small but well-proportioned stature, 
of a sanguine and fair complexion, of a grave and serious, 
but a comely, pleasant countenance: of a piercing eye, of 
a solid judgment, and ready apprehension. He naturally 
enjoyed so strong and vigorous a constitution of body, that 
he knew not, by his own experience, what the head-ach 
was. His industry was prodigious, as appears by the many 
books he published. He was extremely frugal of his time, 
and indefatigable in his studies, by which means he be- 
came acquainted with almost all authors, both sacred and 
profane, ancient and modern. He studied, not for his own 
benefit only, but also for that of others : for he was gene- 
rously communicative, and always ready to assist others in 
worthy undertakings ; very zealous to promote learning, 
and though learned almost beyond any one o.f his age, yet 
(what is very uncommon) of singular humility and modesty. 
Accordingly he was courted and admired by the most emi- 
nent men abroad, who bestow the highest encomiums upon 
him, on all occasions. It must, however, be owned, that, 
as he conversed more with books than men, his style is, 
for that reason, obscure and intricate, and full of digres- 

Oxford edition of that author in 1710, wherein he showed, that airtiyj-arro does 
8vo. 5. " De Parma Equestri Wood- not signify his being strangled with 
wardiana Disserta'.io," &c. ; on the grief, as Grotius and Dr. Hammond 
ancient Roman shield, formerly in Dr. understood it, but that he hanged him- 
Woodward's possession, whereon was self. It was never printed : nor the 
represented the sacking of Rome by following, which was left unfinished, 
the Gauls. This dissertation, which 8. " A Dissertation concerning the Time 
Mr. Dodwell was prevented by death of the Greek translation of the Old 
from finishing, was published by Hearne Testament by the LXX." 9. "ADis- 
in 8vo, Oxon 17 13, but brought Hearne sertstioa concerning the Laws of Na- 
into a dispute with the university, ow- hire and Nations ;" in which the author 
i:ig to some supposed reflections on proposed to shew, that these lows w< re 
the jurors, and he was ordered to sup- not the result of reason, but laws de- 
press the work. After, however, he livered by God to Adam, or Noah, and 
had cancelled the preliminary niafer, were transmitted to us by tradition. 
the publicatiou was suffered to go on. 10. He designed to publish " The 
Mr. Dodwell supposes this Roman Epistle of St. Barnabas," with a lite- 
shield to have been made about the ral translation, and notes ; having ever 
time of Nero. 6. Four letters, which since the year 1691, wrote " Prolego- 
passed between the right reverend the mena" to it ; but it was left, imperfect. 
lord bishop of Sarum, and Mr. Henry 11. Lastly, He began to s. tile the- 
Dodwell, were printed from the origi- time and order in which Tertullion 
nals, Lond. 1713, 12mo. v^ro'e each of his books, on which he 

Mr. Dodwell wrote likewise, 7. A made but very little progress. 
Tract concerning the Death of 

D O D W E L L. 191. 

sions : for he often complained to his friends, that he was 
not able to comprise his thoughts in few words. With re- 
gard to his moral character, he was a person of great 
sobriety and temperance ; of exemplary charity, notwith- 
standing the narrowness of his fortune ; of strict piety ; a 
great lover of the clergy, and a zealous member of the 
church of England. His failings may be discovered even 
from the titles of his works. His judgment bore very little 
proportion to his learning, and for want of this very neces- 
sary ingredient in controversy, he often unintentionally 
injured the cause he meant to support. But while his 
theological paradoxes are forgot, his critical works will still 
support his reputation. Speaking of his " Annales Quin- 
tilianse," Gibbon says, Dodwell's learning was immense ; 
" in this part of history especially (that of the upper em- 
pire) the most minute fact or passage could not escape 
him ; and his skill in employing them is equal to his learn- 
ing." Gibbon adds the general opinion that " the worst 
of this author is his method and style ; the one perplexed 
beyond imagination, the other negligent to a degree of 

Of Mr. Dodwell's ten children, six survived him ; four 
daughters, and two sons, Henry and William. HENIIY was 
brought up to the law, and became sceptical in his princi- 
ples. In 1742, he published a pamphlet, entitled " Chris- 
tianity not founded upon Argument," which, under the 
cover of zeal for religion, was an attack upon revelation. 
It was written with ingenuity and subtlety ; excited great 
attention for a time ; and was answered effectually by Dr. 
Doddridge, Leland, and other able and learned men. This 
Mr. Henry Dodwell took a very active part in the society 
for the encouragement of arts, manufactures, and com- 
merce, during the early period of that society ; and is said 
to have been a polite, humane, and benevolent man. Mr, 
Dodwell's son William will require a separate article. 1 

DODWELL (WILLIAM), was born at Shottesbrooke, in 
Berkshire, June 17, 1709, and was educated at Trinity 
college, Oxford, where he took the degree of master of 
arts, on the 8th of June, 1732. In the course of his life, 
he obtained several considerable preferments. He was 
rector of Shottesbrooke, and vicar of Bucklesbury and of 

1 Life by Brokesby, 1715, 8vo. Biog. Brit. Gibbon's Life, vol. II. p. 55. 
Birch's Life ofTiliotson. Mosh?irn's History. Wood's Fasti, vol. II. Letters 
vriUen ly Eminent Person*. 1813, 3 vols. 8vo. 

192 D O D W ELL. 

White- Waltham. Dr. Sherlock, when bishop of Salisbury, 
gave him a prebendal stall in that cathedral, and he after- 
wards became a canon of the same church. Bishop Thomas 
promoted him to the archdeaconry of Berks. The prin- 
cipal works by which he was distinguished, were, "A Free 
Answer to Dr. Middleton's Free Enquiry," published in 
1749; and "A full and final Reply to Mr. Toll's " De- 
fence of Dr. Middleton," which appeared in 1751. Both 
these works were written with temper, as well as with learn- 
ing. Our author was judged to have performed such good 
service to the cause of religion by his answer to Dr. Mid- 
dleton, that the university of Oxford conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor in divinity by diploma, in full convo- 
cation on Feb. 23, 1749-50. He published also, "Two 
Sermons on the eternity of future punishment, in answer 
to Whiston ; with a Preface," Oxford, 1743; "Visitation 
Sermon on the desireableness of the Christian Faith, pub- 
lished at the request of bishop Sherlock," Oxford, 1741 ; 
" Two Sermons on a rational faith," Oxford, 1745 ; " Ser- 
mon on the practical influence of the doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity," Oxford, 1715; " Dissertation on Jepthah's Vow, 
occasioned by Romaine's Sermon on that subject," London, 
1745 ; "Practical Discourses (14) on moral subjects, vol.1." 
London, 1748. A Dedication to his patron Arthur Van- 
ittart, esq. of Shottesbrooke, precedes a masterly preface 
of considerable length, stating the great duties of morality, 
c. ; " Vol. II. London, 1749, containing 14 more;" and 
preceded by a Dedication to bishop Sherlock, whose " un- 
solicited testimony of favour" to him laid him " under 
personal obligations. Such a testimony from such a patron, 
and the obliging manner of conferring it, added much to the 
value of the favour itself." " Assize Sermon on Human 
Laws," Oxford, 1750 ; " Sermon on St. Paul's Wish," Ox- 
ford, 1752; "Two Sermons on Superstition," Oxford, 1754; 
" Assize Sermon on the equal and impartial discharge of 
Justice," Oxford, 1756 ; " Letter to the Author of Con- 
siderations on the Act to prevent Clandestine Marriages; 
with a Postscript occasioned by Stebbing's Enquiry into 
the annulling Causes," &c. London, 1755. This Letter 
*' by a Country Clergyman" was known, at the time, as 
Dr. DodwelPs; "Two Sermons on the Doctrine of the 
Divine Visitation by Earthquakes," Oxford, 1756; " As- 
size Sermon on the False Witness, Oxford, 1758; "Ser- 
mon at the Meeting of the Charity Schools," London, 1758 ; 

D O D W E L L. 193 

" Two Sermons on a particular Providence," Oxford, 
1760 ; " Sermon before the Sons of the Clergy," London, 
1760; "Charge to the Clergy of the archdeaconry of 
Berks," London, 1764-; "Sermon at the Consecration of 
Bishop Moss, in 1766," London, 1767; "The Sick Man's 
Companion ; or the Clergyman's Assistant in visiting the 
Sick; with a Dissertation on Prayer," London, 1767; 
" The Prayer, on laying the foundation stone of the Salis- 
bury infirmary, subjoined to dean Greene's Infirmary Ser- 
mon," Salisbury, 1767; " Infirmary Sermon," Salisbury, 
1768. In 1302, the eldest son of our author permitted 
the " Three Charges on the Athanasian Creed," in conse- 
quence of the request of some Oxford friends, to see the 
light. They were accordingly printed at the university 
press; and contributed, as the author expresses himself in 
his second page, " to obviate all real mistakes, to silence 
all wilful misrepresentations, to remove prejudices, to con- 
firm the faith of others, and to vindicate our own sincerity 
in the profession of it :" and it was considered by him as 
" not unseasonable or unuseful to review and justify that 
which is called the Athanasian Creed ; not, we well know, 
as composed by him whose name it bears, but as explain- 
ing the doctrine which he so strenuously maintained." 

Dr. Dodwell died Oct. 21, 1785, with the character, 
which his publications amply justify, of an orthodox, dili- 
gent, and learned divine. * 

DOES (JACOB VANDER), first of this family of artists, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1623, and after having been a 
disciple of N. Moyart, travelled to Rome, and formed him- 
self on the manner of Bamboccio. He excelled in land- 
scapes and animals. His temper was melancholy and aus- 
tere, so that he incurred the displeasure of all his acquaint- 
ance, and was deserted by them. He died at Amsterdam 
iu 1673. His tone is dark, but his composition has dig- 
nity, his figures are well designed, and touched with spirit, 
and his animals, especially the sheep, are painted with equal 
truth and delicacy. The etchings of this master from 
compositions of his own, ornamented with animals, are ex- 
ecuteJ in a slight, free, masterly style. 2 

DOES (JAt OB VANDER), the son of the former, was 
born at Amsterdam in 165k He was successively a dis- 

1 Biog. Brit. Nichols's Bowyer. Gent. Mag. see Index. 
- Argenville, vol.111, who, however, confounds the first two artists of this 
family. Descarnps, vol. Hi. Pilkiugton and Strutt. 


194 DOE S. 

ciple of Karel du Jarclin, Netscher, and Gerard Laires^fc 
He was a very ready designer, and possessed a lively ima- 
gination and good invention ; but the impetuosity of his 
temper was such, that he destroyed his compositions, if 
his pictures did not please him in the progress of their 
execution ; nor could the interposition and remonstrances 
of his best friends avail for their preservation. His death, 
in 1693, at the age of 39 years, prevented his acquiring 
that fortune and high reputation, which the fame of his 
abilities and performances gave him reason to expect. l 

DOES (SiMON VANDER), brother to the preceding, was 
born at Amsterdam in 16.53. Having learned the art of 
painting from his father, and pursuing the same style and 
manner in the choice of the same subjects, he travelled to 
Friesland and to England, and afterwards settled at the 
Hague. Notwithstanding the difficulties in which the ex- 
travagance of a dissolute wife involved him, and the de- 
pression of circumstances and spirits which they occa- 
sioned, he persevered in the exercise of his profession. On 
some occasions he painted portraits, resembling in their 
touch and colouring those of the old Netscher ; but though 
his works were much admired and sought after, he fell into 
great poverty, and died in 1717 at the age of 64 years. 
The works of this artist are peculiarly pleasing; and though 
his figures want elegance, and his colouring inclines to the 
yellow and light brown, yet his cattle are so correct, his 
touch so free and easy, his distances and the forms of his 
trees so agreeable, his colouring so transparent and deli- 
cate, and his pastoral subjects distinguished by so much 
nature and simplicity of rural life, that his works have been 
very highly esteemed, and have been sold for very large 
prices. This artist has etched some few small landscapes, 
with animal;!, from his own compositions. 2 

DOGGET (THOMAS), an author and an actor, was born 
in Castle-street, Dublin, in the latter end of the seven- 
teenth century, and made his first theatrical attempt on the- 
stage of that metropolis ; but not meeting with encourage- 
ment suitable to his merit, he came over to England, and 
entered himself in a travelling company, but from thence 
very soon was removed to London, and established in 
Drury-lane and Lincoln's-inn-fields theatres, where he 

1 Argenville, vol. Ill, Dcscamps, vol. III. Pilkiogton and Strutt. 

D O G G E T. 195 

was universally liked in every character he performed, but 
in none more than those of Fondlewife in the " Old Ba- 
chelor," and Ben in " Love for Love," which Mr. Con- 
greve, with whom he was a very great favourite, wrote in 
some measure with a view to his manner of acting. 

In a few years after he removed to Drury-lane theatre, 
where he became joint manager with Wilks and Gibber, in 
which situation he continued, till, on a disgust he took, in 
the year 1712, at Mr. Booth's being forced on him as a 
sharer in the management, he threw up his part in the 
property of the theatre, though it was looked on to have 
been worth 1000/. per annum. He had, however, by his 
frugality, saved a competent fortune to render him easy 
for the remainder of his life, with which he retired from 
the hurry of business in the very meridian of his reputa- 
tion. As an actor he had great merit, and his contempo- 
rary, Gibber, informs us that he was the most an original, 
and the strictest observer of nature, of any actor of his 
time. His manner, though borrowed from none, frequently 
served for a model to many ; and he possessed that pecu- 
liar art which so very few performers are masters of, viz. 
the arriving at the perfectly ridiculous, without stepping 
into the least impropriety to attain it. And so extremely 
careful and skilful was he in the dressing of his characters 
to the greatest exactness of propriety, that the least article 
of what he wore seemed in some measure to speak and 
mark the different humour he presented. 

Dogget died at Eltham in Kent, Sept. 22, 1721, and 
was interred there. In his political principles he was, in 
the words of sir Richard Steele, a " whig up to the head 
and ears ;" and so strictly was he attached to the interests 
of the house of Hanover, that he never let slip any occa- 
sion that presented itself of demonstrating his sentiments 
in that respect. The year after George I. came to the 
throne, this actor gave a waterman's coat and silver badge, 
to be rowed for by six watermen, on the 1st day of August, 
being the anniversary of that king's accession to the throne ; 
and at his death bequeathed a certain sum of money, the 
interest of which was to be appropriated annually, forever, 
to the purchase of a like coat and badge, to be rowed for 
in honour of the day. This ceremony still continues to be 
performed every year on the 1st of August, the claimants, 
according to the rules of the match, setting out on a signal 
given at that time of the tide when the current is strongest 

O 2 

196 D O G G E T. 

against them, and rowing from the Old Swan near London- 
bridge to the White Swan at Chelsea. 

As a writer, Dogget has left behind him only one comedy, 
which has not been performed in its original state for many 
years, entitled " The Country Wake, 1696," 4to. It has 
been altered, however, into a ballad farce, which fre- 
quently makes its appearance under the title of " Flora ; 
or, Hob in the Well." l 

DOGI1ERTY (THOMAS), an eminent special pleader 
and law writer, was born in Ireland, and educated at a 
country school. He came to England early in life, with 
an able capacity and habits of industry, but without any 
direct prospect of employment, or choice of profession. 
He became, however, clerk to the late Mr. Bower, a very 
profound lawyer, where, with assiduous study, he acquired 
a knowledge of special pleading, and the law connected 
with that abstruse science; and such was his diligence, that 
in a comparatively short time, he accumulated a collection 
of precedents and notes that appeared to his employer an 
effort of great labour and ingenuity. After having been 
many years with Mr. Bower, the latter advised him to com- 
mence special pleader, and in this branch of the profession 
he soon acquired great reputation ; his drafts, which were 
generally the work of his own hand, being admired as 
models of accuracy. They were formed according to the 
neat and concise system of Mr. Bower, and his great friend 
and patron sir Joseph Yates, many of whose books, notes, 
and precedents, as well as those of sir Thomas Davenport, 
Mr. Dogherty possessed. This intense application, how- 
ever, greatly impaired his health, which was visibly on the 
decline for many months before his decease. This event 
took place at his chambers in Clifford's-inn, Sept. 29, 1805, 
and deprived the profession of a man of great private 
worth, modest and unassuming manners, independent mind, 
and strict honour and probity. Mr. Dogherty was the 
author and editor of some valuable works on criminal law. 
He published a new edition of the "Crown Circuit Com- 
panion;" and an original composition, in 1786, "The 
Crown Circuit Assistant," which is a most useful supple- 
ment to the former. In 1 800 he edited a new edition of 
Hale's " Historia Placitorum Coronse," in 2 vols. 8vo, 
with an abridgment of the statutes relating to felonies, 

1 Biog. Dram. Cibber's Apology. 

D O G H E R T Y. 197 

continued to that date, and with notes and references. 
His common-place and office-books, still in manuscript, 
are said to be highly valuable. l 

DOLBEN (JOHN), archbishop of York, was a prelate 
of considerable worth, abilities, and eminence, in the reigns 
of Charles II. and James II. a man who, to the courage and 
fidelity which had first deserved a military reward, united 
all those talents and qualifications which could justify his 
subsequent advancement to the honours of the church. 
He was born at Stanwick, in Northamptonshire, March 20, 
1625, being the fifth in descent from William Dolben of 
Denbighshire ; and descended from an ancient family of 
that name, settled at Segrayd, in the same county. Dr. 
William Dolben, the father of the archbishop, was at that 
time rector of Stanwick, and of Benefield, to both of which 
he was instituted in one day ; and prebendary of Lincoln, 
through the interest of the lord keeper Williams, whose 
niece Elizabeth Williams he had married. Few marriages 
have been more fortunate in their issue : besides the sub- 
ject of the present article, their second son William proved 
highly eminent in the profession to which he was educated. 
He became recorder of London, received the honour of 
knighthood, and in 1678 was appointed one of the judges 
in the court of common pleas. In 1683 he was removed 
from that situation, very highly to his honour, being the 
only judge that gave his opinion against the legality of dis- 
solving corporations by quo warranto. His rank was justly 
restored by king William; who, in 1689, appointed him a 
judge of the king's bench ; and in that station he remained 
till his death, which happened in 1693, the 65th year of 
his age. He was buried in the Temple church, and left a 
character of high estimation for strict integrity, and the 
most penetrating discernment. Dr. William Dolben, how- 
ever, neither lived to see the eminence of his sons, nor to 
complete his own career of advancement ; for he died in, 
1631, when his eldest son John was only six years old, 
being himself nominated, at the time, for the succession to 
a vacant bishopric*, but his death produced an affecting tes- 
timony to his merit, of no small value in the moral estimate 

* The compiler of the " Baronetage" not then vacant : it was probably Ban- 
names Gloucester as the see to which gor, to which his relation, David DoU 
he was to have succeeded ; but this ben, was then appointed, 
must be an error, as Gloucester was 

Gent. Mag. vol. LXXV 

198 DOLBEN. 

of honours. This was conferred by his parishioners of 
&tan\vick, by whom he was so sincerely beloved, that ou 
his falling ill at London of the sickness which proved fatal 
to him, they plowed and sowed his glebe lands at their 
own expence, that his widow might have the benefit of the 
crop ; which she accordingly received after his decease : 
an anecdote more felt and valued by his family than any 
thing that usually adorns the page of the biographer. 

John Dolben, afterwards archbishop, was educated at 
Westminster-school, where he was admitted a king's 
scholar in 1636 ; and in 1640 was elected to Christ church, 
Oxford, where he was admitted, in the same year, a stu- 
dent on queen Elizabeth's foundation. It has been thought 
worthy of remark, as a strong instance of hereditary attach- 
ment to those seminaries, that he was the second in order, 
of six succeeding generations, which have passed through 
the same steps of education, and it has been remarked 
that since his time, Westminster-school has rarely been 
without a Dolben. 

When the civil wars broke out, Mr. Dolben took arms 
for the royal cause in the garrison at Oxford, and served as 
an ensign in the unfortunate battle of Marston-Moor, in 
1644, where he received a dangerous wound in the shoulder 
from a musquet-ball ; but in the defence of York, soon 
after, he received a severer wound of the same kind in the 
thigh ; which broke the bone, and confined him twelve 
months to his bed. In the course of his military service 
he was advanced to the rank of captain, and, according to 
Wood, of major. In 1646, when there appeared no longer 
any hope of serving the king's cause by arms, when Ox- 
ford and his other garrisons were surrendered, and himself 
in the hands of his enemies, Mr. Dolben retired again to 
his college, and renewed his studies ; a sense of duty had 
made him an active soldier; inclination and natural abili- 
ties rendered him at all times a successful student. In 
1647 he took the degree of master of arts, and remained 
at college till ejected by the parliamentarian visitors in 
1648. In the interval between this period and the year 
1656, when he entered into holy orders, we have no ac- 
count of him ; but it is most probable that his time was, 
in general, studiously employed, and especially from the 
moment when he took up that design. From 1657, when 
he married Catharine daughter of Ralph, elder brother of 
archbishop Sheldon, to the time of the king's restoration, 

DOLBEN. 199 

he lived in Oxford, at the bouse of his father-in-law, in 
St. Aldate's parish ; and throughout that interval, in con- 
junction with Dr. Fell and Dr. Allestree, constantly per- 
formed divine service and administered the sacraments, 
according to the Liturgy of the church of England, to the 
great comfort of the royalists then resident in Oxford, par- 
ticularly the students ejected in 1648, who formed a re- 
gular and pretty numerous congregation*. The house 
appropriated to this sacred purpose was then the residence 
of Dr. Thomas Willis, the celebrated physician, and is yet 
.standing, opposite to Merton college. The attachment of 
Mr. Dolben to what he considered as the right cause had 
before been active and courageous ; it was now firm and 
unwearied, with equal merit, and with better success. 

When the regal government was restored, for the sake 
of which Mr. Dolben had so often hazarded his life, his 
zeal for the cause and sufferings in it were not forgotten 
by the king f. In that very year, 1660, he took his de- 
gree of D. D. on being appointed a canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford. In the same year he was also presented to the 
rectory of Newington-cum-Britwell, in Oxfordshire, in the 
gift of the archbishop of Canterbury. His preferments 
and honours now succeeded each other rapidly ; the time 
of trial was past, and the time of reward had arrived. In 
1661 he became a prebendary of St. Paul's (the prebend of 
Cadington major), and was one of those who signed the 
revised Liturgy, which passed the house of convocation 
December iiotb, in that year. In 1662 he was appointed 
archdeacon of London, and presented to the vicarage of 
St. Giles's, Cripplegate; but resigned both a short time 
after, with his other parochial preferment, on being in- 
stalled dean of Westminster. He was chosen prolocutor 
of the lower house of convocation in 1664, and soon after 
became clerk of the closet to- the king. In 1666 he was 
consecrated bishop of Rochester, and allowed to hold the 
deanery of Westminster in commendam. In 1675 he was 

* In the mansion of the Dolben fa- Ham Dolben to the society of Christ 

mily in Northamptonshire is a fine church. Oxford, an<1 is placed in their 

painting- by sir Peter I.ely, grounded hall. Chalmers's History of Oxford, 

upon the abo?e circumstance. In this p. 312. 

piece Dr. Fell, Dr. Dolben, and Dr. f When the regicides were con- 
Allestree, are represented in thrir <;a- deinned, Dr. Dolbeu and Dr. Barwiek 
uouical habits, as joining in the liturgy were appointed to visit some of them in 
of the church. A copy of this picture pn-s->n. .See an account of this iu Bar- 
lias lately been presented by sir WiU wick's Life, p< l iy;>, &c. 

200 D O L B E N. 

appointed lord high almoner ; an office, says Wood, which 
he discharged with such justice and integrity as was for 
the great benefit of the poor. It would betray great ig- 
norance of the ways of courts to suppose, that in all these 
steps he was not in part indebted to the interference and 
interest of archbishop Sheldon ; yet where merit is conspi- 
cuous, the effect of patronage is greatly facilitated, which 
appears to have been the case in the instance now be- 
fore us. 

Translation to the see of York was the final gradation of 
his honours, and enjoyed only for a short time, as between 
the last advancement and his death something less than 
three years intervened. He was translated to York in 
August 1683*, and then became, by an unusual transition, 
the ecclesiastical governor of that place which he had 
formerly assisted in defending by military force. His acti- 
vity was not yet exhausted, though exerted in a different 
way ; he diligently contributed to the good administration 
of the service in his cathedral, and in 1685 made a new 
regulation of archbishop Grindal's order of preachers, and 
appointed a weekly celebration of the holy sacrament : and 
was, in all respects, as his epitaph expresses it, an exam- 
ple both to the flock and to the pastors under him. The 
death of archbishop Dolben was occasioned, not by natural 
decay, but by criminal neglect. At an inn on the North 
road he was suffered by the proprietors to sleep in a room 
where the infection of the small-pox remained ; he there 
caught the disorder, which being of a virulent kind, and 
attended with lethargy, put an end to his life at Bishop- 
thorp, on the 1 1th of April 1686, in the sixty-second year 
of his age, after a confinement to his bed of only four days. 
The body of the archbishop was deposited in the cathedral 
at York, where a handsome monument, with a very copious 
inscription, records his merits, and the principal circum- 
stances of his life. 

Anthony Wood says of archbishop Dolben, that " he 
was a man of a free, generous, and noble disposition, and 
of a natural, bold, and happy eloquence." The latter 
circumstance is confirmed by the testimony of his epitaph j 

* Burnet, in speaking of his transla- indeed he prored a much better a rch- 

tion to York, characterizes him a* " a bishop than he had been a bishop." 

man of more spirit than discretion, and Some part of this character redounds 

an excellent preacher, but of a free to the konour of archbishop Dolben, 

conversation, which laid him open to and some part, perhaps our readers 

much censure in a vicious court. And will think, is not rery intelligible. 

D O L B N. 201 

and by another, which we shall presently cite at large. 
The former, by the following instances of his liberality at 
the different places with which he was connected. The 
pulpit at Stanwick is inscribed as his gift when bishop of 
Rochester. He contributed one hundred pounds to the 
rebuilding of St. Paul's cathedral, and two hundred and 
fifty to the repairs of Christ Church, Oxford. He rebuilt 
part of the episcopal palace at Bromley ; and, when dean 
of Westminster, influenced the chapter to assign an equal 
share with their own, in the dividends of fines, to the 
repairs and support of that venerable church. At York he 
gave one hundred and ninety-five ounces of plate for the 
use of the cathedral. 

But the fullest account of his person, talents, and cha- 
racter, was drawn up by his friend sir William Trumbull, 
and is still extant in his own hand-writing ; which, as it 
proceeds from a person who had the fullest knowledge of 
him, and is certainly authentic, we shall preserve in the 
original words. " He was an extraordinary comely per- 
son, though grown too fat ; of an open countenance, a 
lively piercing eye, and a majestic presence. He hated 
flattery, and guarded himself with all possible care against 
the least insinuation of any thing of that nature, how well 
soever he deserved : he had admirable natural parts, and 
great acquired ones; for whatever he read he made his 
own, and improved it. He had such an happy genius, 
and such an admirable elocution, that his extempore 
preaching was beyond not only most of other men's ela- 
borate performances, but (I was going to say) even his 
own. I have been credibly informed, that in Westminster- 
abbey a preacher falling ill after he had named his text, 
and proposed the heads of his intended discourse, the 
bishop went up into the pulpit, took the same text, fol- 
lowed the same method, and, I believe, discoursed much 
better on each head than the other would have done. 

" In the judgment he made of other men, he always 
preferred the good temper of their minds above all other 
qualities they were masters of: and it was this single 
opinion he had of my integrity, which made him the 
worthiest friend to me I ever knew. 1 have had the honour 
to converse with many of the most eminent men at home 
and abroad, but I never yet met with one that in all respects 
equalled him. He bad a large and generous soul, and a 
courage that nothing was too hard for : when he was 

202 D O L B E N. 

basely calumniated, he supported himself by the only true 
heroism, if I may so phrase it; I mean by exalted Chris- 
tianity, and by turning all the slander of his enemies into 
the best use of studying and knowing himself, and keeping 
a constant guard and watch upon his words and actions, 
practising ever after (though hardly to be discovered, un- 
less by nice and long observers), a strict course of life, 
and a constant mortification. 

" Not any of the bishop's bench, I may say not all of 
them, had that interest and authority in the house of lords 
which he had. He had easily mastered all the forms of 
proceeding. He had studied much of our laws, especially 
those of the parliament, and was not to be brow-beat or 
daunted by the arrogance or titles of any courtier or fa- 
vourite. His presence of mind and readiness of elocution, 
accompanied with good breeding and an inimitable wit, 
gave him a greater superiority than any other lord could 
pretend to from his dignity of office. I wish I had a talent 
suitable to the love and esteem I have for this great and 
good rnan, to enlarge more upon this subject ; and, when 
I think of his death, 1 cannot forbear dropping some tears, 
for myself as well as for the public ; for in him we lost the 
greatest abilities, the usefullest conversation, the faith- 
tuliest friendship, and one who had a mind that practised 
the best virtues itself, and a wit that was best able to re- 
commend them to others, as Dr. Sprat expresses it in his 
Life of Mr. Cowley." 

As an author, not much remains to testify his abilities. 
It is said by Wood, that he was not very careful to print 
his sermons, though they much deserved publication : and, 
in fact, only three are known to be extant. 1. " A Sermon 
preached before the king at Whitehall, on Good Friday, 
March 24, 1664." The text from John xix. part of ver. 
19. 2. " A Sermon on Psal. liv. ver. 6 and 7," on a day of 
thanksgiving for a naval victory; namely, June 20, 1665. 
3. Another on a similar occasion in 1666, the text from 
Psal. xviii. 1, 2, 3. Both these were also preached before 
the king. They are all printed in quarto. 

The wife of archbishop Dolben (by whom he had three 
children, Gilbert and John, and a daughter Catharine, 
who died an infant), survived him till 1706, when she died 
at Fir.edon, in Northamptonshire, in her eightieth year. 
His eldest son, Gilbert, who furnished Dryden with the 
various editions of Virgil, when about to translate thus 

D O L B E N. 203 

poet, was afterwards created a baronet by queen Anne, 
and for many years represented the city of Peterborough 
in parliament. He was appointed a justice of the common 
pleas in Ireland by William III. and held that office for 
twenty years. He died in 1722. The probity and worth 
of the present representatives of this family are well 
known. * 

DOLCE (CARLO, or CARLINO), a very eminent artist, 
was born at Florence in 1616, and was a disciple of Jacopo 
Vignali. His first attempt was a whole figure of St. John, 
pointed when he was only eleven years of age, which 
received extraordinary approbation ; and afterwards he 
painted the portrait of his mother, which gained him such 
general applause as placed him in the highest rank of 
merit. From that time his new and delicate style procured 
him great employment in Florence, and other cities of 
Italy, as much, or even more than he was able to execute. 
This great master was particularly fond of painting sacred 
subjects, although he sometimes painted portraits. His 
works are easily distinguished ; not so much by any supe- 
riority to other renowned artists in design or force, as by a 
peculiar delicacy with which he perfected all his composi- 
tions; by a pleasing tint of colour, improved by a judicious 
management of the chiaroscuro, which gave his figures a 
surprising relief; by the graceful airs of his heads; and 
by a placid repose diffused over the whole. His pencil 
was tender, his touch inexpressibly neat, and his colouring 
transparent ; though it ought to be observed, that he has 
often been censured for the excessive labour bestowed on 
his pictures and carnations, that have more the appearance 
of ivory than the look of flesh. In his manner of working- 
he was remarkably slow ; and it is reported of him that hi.s 
brain was affected by having seen Luca Giordano dispatch 
more business in four or five hours, than he could have 
done in so many months. In the Palazzo Corsini, at 
Florence, there is a picture of St. Sebastian painted by 
Carlino Dolce, half figures of the natural size. It is ex- 
tremely correct in the design, and beautifully coloured; 
but it is rather too much laboured in regard to the finish- 
ing, and hath somewhat of the ivory look in the rlesh 
colour. In the Palazzo Ricardi is another picture of his, 

1 Biog. Brit. Le Neve's Lives of the Archbishops, vol. II. Wood's Athena;, 
vol. 11, Wood's Annals, and Colleges and Halls. 

204 DOLCE. 

representing the Four Evangelists ; the figures are as large 
as life, at half length ; and it is a lovely performance ; nor 
does there appear in it that excessive high finishing for 
which he is censured. The two best figures are St. Mat- 
thew and St. John ; but the latter is superior to all ; it is 
excellent in the design, the character admirable, and the 
whole well executed. There is also a fine picture by him 
in the Pembroke collection at Wilton, of which the sub- 
ject is the Virgin ; it is ornamented with flowers, and those 
were painted by Mario da Fieri. This artist died at Flo- 
rence in 1686. His daughter Agnese Dolce was taught 
painting by him, and strove to imitate him, which, how- 
ever, she did best by furnishing copies from his numerous 
pictures. Sir Robert Strange, who had a fine St. Margaret 
by Carlo, observes, that however perfect, and however 
studied his pictures are, it must be allowed that he la- 
boured more to please the eye than to enrich the under- 
standing by conveying to it great or noble ideas. l 

DOLCE (LEWIS), a most laborious Italian writer, was 
born at Venice in 1508. His family was one of the most 
ancient in the republic, but reduced in circumstances. 
Lewis remained the whole of his life in his native city, 
occupied in his numerous literary undertakings, which 
procured him some personal esteem, but little reputation 
or wealth. Perhaps his best employment was that of cor-, 
rector of the press to the celebrated printer Gabriel Gio- 
lito, whose editions are so much admired for the beauties 
of type and paper, and yet with the advantage of Dolce's 
attention, are not so correct as could be wished. As an 
original author, Dolce embraced the whole circle of polite 
literature and science, being a grammarian, rhetorician, 
orator, historian, philosopher, editor, translator, and com- 
mentator ; and as a poet, he wrote tragedies, comedies, 
epics, lyrics, and satires. All that can be called events 
in his life, were some literary squabbles, particularly with 
Ruscelli, who was likewise a corrector of Giolito's press. 
He died of a dropsical complaint in 1569, according to 
Apostolo Zeno, and, according to Tiraboschi, in 1566. 
Baillet, unlike most critics, says he was one of the best 
writers of his age. His style is flowing, pure, and elegant; 
but he was forced by hunger to spin out his works, and to 
neglect that frequent revisal which is so necessary to the 

1 Pilkington. Sir R. Strange's Catalogue. 

DOLCE. 205 

finishing of a piece. Of his numerous works, a list of 
which may be seen in Niceron, or Moreri, the following 
are in some reputation : 1. " Dialogo della pittura, intito- 
lato I'Aretino," Venice, 1557, 8vo. This work was re- 
printed, with the French on the opposite page, at Florence, 
1735. 2. " Cinque priini canti del Sacripante," Vinegia^ 
1535, 8vo. 3. " Primaleone," 1562, 4to. 4. " Achilles; 1 * 
and " Jineas," 1570, 4to. 5. " La prima imprese del 
conte Orlando," 1572, 4to. 6. Poems in different col- 
lections, among others in that of Berni. And the Lives of 
Charles V. and Ferdinand the First. l 

DOLET (STEPHEN), a voluminous French writer, who 
was burnt for his religious opinions at Paris, was born at 
Orleans about 1509, of a good family. Some have re- 
ported that he was the natural son of Francis I. but this 
does not agree with the age of that monarch, who was 
born in 1494. Dolet began his studies at Orleans, and 
was sent to continue them at Paris when twelve years old. 
He applied with particular diligence to the belles lettres, 
and to rhetoric under Nicholas Berauld. His taste for 
these studies induced him to go to Padua, where he re- 
mained for three years, and made great progress under the 
instructions of Simon de Villa Nova, with whom he con- 
tracted an intimate friendship, and not only dedicated 
some of his poetical pieces to him, but on his death in 
1530, composed some pieces to his memory, and wrote 
his epitaph. After the death of this friend, he intended to 
have returned to France, but John de Langeac, the Vene- 
tian ambassador, engaged him as his secretary. During 
his residence at Venice, he received some instructions from 
Baptiste F,griatio, who commented on Lucretius and Ci- 
cero's Offices, and he became enamoured of a young lady 
whose charms and death he has celebrated in his Latin 
poems. On his return to France with the ambassador, he 
pursued his study of Cicero, who became his favourite 
author ; and he began to make collections for his com- 
mentaries on the Latin language. His friends having 
about this time advised him to study law, as a profession, 
he went to Toulouse, and divided his time between law arid 
the belles lettres. Toulouse was then famous for law 
studies, and as it was frequented by students of all nations, 

i Tirabochi. -Ginguene Hist. Lit. d'lta'ie. JTceron, vol. XXXII. Moren, 
Saxii Onomast. 

206 D O L E T. 

each had its little society, and its orator or president. 
The French scholars chose Doiet into this office, and he, 
with the rashness which adhered to him all his life, com- 
menced hy a harangue in which he praised the French at 
the expence of the Toulousians, wliom he accused of ig- 
norance and barbarism, because the parliament of Toulouse 
wished to prohibit these societies. This was answered by 
Peter Pinache, to whom JJolet replied with such aggravated 
contempt for the Toulousians, that in 1533 he was im- 
prisoned for a month, and then banished from the city. 
Some think he harboured Lutheran opinions, which was 
the cause of his imprisonment and banishment, but there 
is not much in his writings to justify this supposition, 
except his occasional sneers at ecclesiastics. As soon, 
however, as he reached Lyons, he took his revenge by 
publishing his harangues against the Touloiuians, with 
some satirical verses on those whom he considered as the 
most active promoters of his disgrace ; and that he might 
have something to plead against the consequences of such 
publications, he pretended that they had been stolen from 
him and given to the press without his knowledge. The 
verses were, however, inserted in the collection of his 
Latin poems printed in 1538. 

After residing for some time at Lyons, Dolet came to 
Paris in October 1534, and published some new works; 
and was about to have returned to Lyons in 1536, but was 
obliged to abscond for a time, having killed a person who 
had attacked him. Ke then came to Paris, ami presented 
himself to Francis I. who received him graciously, and 
granted him a pardon, by which he was enabled to return 
to Lyons. All these incidents he has introduced in his 
poems. It appears to have been on his return to Lyons at 
this time that he commenced the business of printer, and the 
first work which came from his press in 1538, was the four 
books of his Latin poems. He also married about the 
same time, and had a son, Claude, born to him in 1539. 
whose birth he celebrates in a Latin poem printed the same 
year. From some parts of his poems in his " Second 
Enfer," it would appear that the imprisonment we have 
mentioned, was not all he suffered, and that he was im- 
prisoned twice at Lyons, and once at Paris, before that 
final imprisonment which ended in his death. For all these 
we are unable to account; his being confined at Paris 
appears to have been for his religious opinions, but after 

D O L E T. 207 

fifteen months he was released by the interest of Peter 
Castellanus, or Du Chatel, then bishop of Tulles. He 
was not, however, long at large, being arrested at Lyons, 
Jan. 1, 1544, from which he contrived to make his escape, 
and took refuge in Piemont, when he wrote the nine 
epistles which form his " Deuxieme Enfer." We are not 
told whether he ever returned to Lyons publicly, but only 
that he was again apprehended in 1545, and condemned 
to be burnt as a heretic, or rather as an atheist, which 
sentence was executed at Paris, Aug. 3, 1516. On this 
occasion it is said by some that he made profession of die 
catholic faith by invoking the saints ; but others doubt this 
fact. Whether pursuant to his sentence, or as a remission 
of the most horrible part of it, we know not, but he was 
first strangled, and then burnt. Authors diii'er much as to 
the real cause of his death ; some attributing it to the fre- 
quent attacks he had made on the superstitions and licen- 
tious lives of the ecclesiastics; others to his being a heretic, 
or Lutheran ; and others to his impiety, or atheism. Jor- 
tin, in his Life of Erasmus, and in his " Tracts," contends 
for the latter, and seems disinclined to do justice to Dolec 
in any respect. Dolet certainly had the art of making 
enemies; he was presumptuous, indiscreet, and violent in 
his resentments, but we have no direct proof of the cause 
for which he suffered. On one occasion a solemn censure 
was pronounced against him by the assembly of divines at 
Paris, for having inserted the following words in a transla- 
tion of Plato VAxiochus, from the Latin version into I'Yench : 
" Apres la mort tu tie seras rien clu tout," and this is said 
to have produced his condemnation ; but, barbarous as the 
times then were, we should be inclined to doubt whether 
the persecutors would have condemned a man or' acknow- 
ledged learning and genius for a single expression, and 
that merely a translation. On the other hand, we know 
not how to admit Dolet among the protestant martyrs, as 
Calvin, and others who lived at the time, and must have 
known his character, represent him as a man of no religion. 
Dolet contributed not a little to the restoration of classi- 
cal literature in France, and particularly to the reformation 
of the Latin style, to which he, had applied most of his 
attention. He appears to have known little of Greek lite- 
rature but through the medium of translations, and his 
own Latin style is by some thought very laboured, and 
composed of expressions and. half sentences, a sort of 

208 D O L E T. 

cento, borrowed from bis favourite Cicero and otber 
authors. He wrote much, considering that his life was 
short, and much of it spent in vexatious removals and in 
active employments. His works are: l."S. Doleti ora- 
tiones diue in Tholosam ; ejusdem epistolarum hbri duo ; 
ejusdem canninum libri duo; ad eundem epistolarum ami-*' 
corum liber," 8vo, without date, but most probably in 
1534, when he had been driven from Toulouse and was at 
Lyons, as mentioned above. 2. " Dialogus de imitutione 
Ciceroniana, adversus Desiderium Erasmum pro Christo- 
phoro Longolio," Lyons, 1535, 4to. This was an attack 
on Erasmus in defence of Longolius, in which he had been 
partly anticipated by Scaliger in his " O ratio pro Cicerone 
contra Erasmum." 3. " Commentariorum linguce Latinse 
tomi duo," Lyons, 1536 and 1588, fol. This is a kind of 
Latin dictionary, in the manner of a common-place book, 
and evidently a work of great labour. He began it in his 
sixteenth year. An abridgment of it was published at 
Basil in 1537, 8vo. 4. " De re navali liber ad Lazarum 
Bayfium," Lyons, 1537, 4to, and inserted by Gronovius in 
vol. XL of his Greek antiquities. 5. " S. Doleti Galli 
Aurelii Carminum libri quatuor," printed by himself at 
Lyons, 1538, 4to. Dolet's Latin verses have been too 
much undervalued by Jortin and others. 6. " Genethliacon 
Claudii Doleti, Stephani Doleti nlii; liber vitae communi 
in primis utilis et necessarius; autore patre, Lugduni, apud 
eundem Doletum," 1539, 4to. A French translation was 
printed by the author in the same year. 7. " Formulas 
Latinarum locutionum illustriorum in tres partes divisae," 
Lyons, 1539, folio, and with additions by Sturmius and 
Susannasus, Strasburgh, 1596, 4to. 8. " Francisci Va- 
lesii, Gallorum regis, fata, ubi rein omnem celebriorem a 
Gallis gestam noscas, ab anno 1513 ad annum 1539," Ly- 
ons, 1539, 4to. This which is in Latin verse, was trans- 
lated by the author into French prose, and printed in 1540, 
4to, 1543, 8vo, and Paris, 1546, 8vo. 9. " Observationes 
in Terentii Andriam et Eunuchum," Lyons, 1540, 8vo. 
10. " La maniere de bien trad u ire d'une langue en une 
autre ; de la ponctuation Francoise, &c." Lyons, 1540, 
8vo. 11. " Liber de imitatione Ciceroniana adversus Flo- 
ridum Sabinum ; Responsio ad convitia ejusdem Sabini; 
Epigrammata in eundem," Lyons, 1540, 4to. Dolet was 
unfortunately not content with arguing with his antagonists, 
but more frequently exasperated them by his sarcastic 

D O L E T. 209 

attacks. 12. " Libri tres de legato, de immunitate legato- 
rum, et de Joannis Langiachi Lemovicensis episcopi Le- 
gationibus," Lyons, 1541, 4to. 13. " Les epitres et evan- 
giles des cinquante-deux dimanches, &,c. avec brieve ex- 
position," Lyons, 1541, 8vo. 14. A translation of Eras- 
mus's " Miles Christianus," Lyons, 1542, 16mo. 15, 
" Claudii Cotersei Turonensis de jure et privilegiismilitum 
libri tres, et de officio imperatoris liber unus," Lyons, 
1539, folio. 16. " On Confession," translated from Eras- 
mus, ibid. 1542, 16mo. 17. ** Discotirs contenant le seul 
et vrai moyen, par lequel un serviteur favorise et constitue" 
au service d'un prince, peut conserver sa felicite eternelle 
et temporelle, &c." Lyons, 1542, 8vo. 18. " Exhortation, 
a la lecture des saintes lettres," ibid. 1542, 16rno. 19. " La 
paraphrase de Jean Campensis sur les psalmes de David, 
&c. faite Frangoise," ibid. 1542. 20. " Bref discours de 
la republique Franchise, desirant la lecture des livres de 
la sainte ecriture lui etre loisible en sa langue vulgaire," 
in verse, Lyons, 1544, 16mo. 21. A translation of Plato's 
Axiochus and Hipparchus, Lyons, 1544, I6mo. This was 
addressed to Francis I. in a prose epistle, in which the 
author promises a translation of all the works of Plato, ac- 
cuses his country of ingratitude, and supplicates the king 
to permit him to return to Lyons, being now imprisoned. 
22. " Second Enfer d'Etienne Dolet," in French verse, 
Lyons, 1544, 8vo. This consists of nine poetical letters 
addressed to Francis I. the duke of Orleans, the duchess 
d'Estampes, the queen of Navarre, the cardinal Lorraine, 
cardinal Tournon, the parliament of Paris, the judges of 
Lyons, and his friends. The whole is a defence of the 
conduct for which he was imprisoned at Lyons in the be- 
ginning of 1544. He had written a first " Enfer," con- 
sisting of memorials respecting his imprisonment at Paris, 
and was about to have published it when he was arrested 
at Lyons, but it never appeared. Besides these, he pub- 
lished translations into French of Cicero's Tusculan Ques- 
tions and his Familiar Epistles, which went through several 
editions. Almost all Dolet's works are scarce, owing to 

* O 

their having been burnt by sentence of the divines of 
Paris, whose decisions on them may be seen in D'Ar- 
gentre's " Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus." In 
1779, M. Nee, a bookseller at Paris, published a curious 
Life of Dolet, 8vo, by an anonymous author, which we 

210 D O L L O N D. 

have not seen, but many additional particulars to our 
sketch may be found in our authorities. ' 

DOLLOND (JOHN), an eminent optician, and the 
inventor of the achromatic telescope, was born in Spital- 
fields, June 10, 1706. His parents were French protes- 
tants, and at the time of the revocation of the edict of 
Nantz, in 1685, resided in Normandy, but in what par- 
ticular part cannot now be ascertained. M. de Lalande 
does not believe the name to be of French origin ; but, 
however this may be, the family were compelled soon after 
this period to seek refuge in England, in order to avoid 
persecution, and to preserve their religion. The fate 
of this family was not a solitary case ; fifty thousand persons 
pursued the same measures, and we may date from this 
period the rise of several arts and manufactures, which have 
become highly beneficial to this country. An establish- 
ment was given to these refugees, by the wise policy of 
our government, in Spitalfields, and particular encourage- 
ment granted to the silk manufactory. 

The first years of Mr. Doliond's life were employed at 
the loom ; but, being of a very studious and philosophic 
turn of mind, his leisure hours were engaged in mathe- 
matical pursuits; and though by the death of his father, 
which happened in his infancy, his education gave way to 
the necessities of his family, yet at the age of fifteen, be- 
fore he had an opportunity of seeing works of science or 
elementary treatises, he amused himself by constructing 
sun-dials, drawing geometrical schemes, and solving pro- 
- blems. An early marriage and an increasing family afford- 
ed him little opportunity of pursuing his favourite studies : 
but such are the powers of the human mind when called 
into action, that difficulties, which appear to the casual 
observer insurmountable, yield and retire before perse- 
verance and genius ; even under the pressure of a close 
application to business for the support of his family, he 
found time, by abridging the hours of his rest, to extend 
his mathematical knowledge, and made a considerable 
proficiency in optics and astronomy, to which he now 
principally devoted his attention, having, in the earlier 

1 Moreri. Niceron, vol. XXI. Gen. Diet Baillet Jngemens. Clement 
Bib!. Curieuse. Joitin's Erasmus. Maittaire's Annales Typographic!, vol. IV. 
Tliree letters in the Gent. Mag. vol. LXI. LX1II. and'LXIV. Saxii Ono- 

D O L L O N D. 211 

stages of his life, prepared himself for the higher parts qjf 
those subjects by a perfect knowledge of algebra and 

Soon after this, without abating from the ardour of his 
other literary pursuits, or relaxing from the labours of his 
profession, he began to study anatomy, and likewise to 
read divinity ; and finding the knowledge of Latin and 
Greek indispensably necessary towards attaining those ends, 
he applied himself diligently, and was soon able to trans- 
late the Greek Testament into Latin ; and as he admired 
the power and wisdom of the Creator in the mechanism of 
the human frame, so he adored his goodness displayed in 
his revealed word. It might from hence be concluded that 
his sabbath was devoted to retired reading and philoso- 
phical objects ; but he was not content with private devo- 
tion, as he was always an advocate for social worship, and 
with his family regularly attended the public service of the 
French protestant church, and occasionally heard Benson 
and Lardner, whom he respected as men, and admired as 
preachers. In his appearance he was grave, and the 
strong lines of his face were marked with deep thought 
and reflection ; but in his intercourse with his family and 
friends, he was cheerful and affectionate; and his lan- 
guage and sentiments are distinctly recollected as always 
making a strong impression on the minds of those with 
whom he conversed. His memory was extrordinarily re- 
tentive ; an.d amidst the variety of his reading, he could 
recollect and quote the most important passages of every 
book which he had at any time perused. 

He designed his eldest son, Peter Dollond, for the 
same business with himself; and for several years they 
carried on their manufactures together in Spital -fields; but 
the employment neither suited the expectations nor dis- 
position of the son, who, having received much information 
upon mathematical and philosophical subjects from the in- 
struction of his father, and observing the great value which 
was set upon his father's knowledge in the theory of optics 
by professional men, determined to apply that knowledge 
to the benefit of himself and his family ; and, accordingly, 
under the directions of his father, commenced optician. 
Success, though under the most unfavourable circumstances, 
attended every effort; and in 1752, John Dollond, em- 
bracing the opportunity of pursuing a profession congenial 
with his mind, and without neglecting the rule* of pr.u- 

P 2 

212 D O L L O N D. 

dence towards his family, joined his son, and in conse- 
quence of his theoretical knowledge, soon became a pro- 
ficient in the practical parts of optics. 

His first attention was directed to improve the combina- 
tion of the eye-glasses of refracting telescopes ; and having 
succeeded in his system of four eye-glasses, he proceeded 
one step further, and produced telescopes furnished with 
five eye-glasses, which considerably surpassed the former ; 
and of which he gave a particular account in a paper pre- 
sented to the royal society, and which was read on March 
1, 1753, and printed in the " Philosophical Transactions,'* 
vol. XLV1II. Soon after this he made a very useful im- 
provement in Mr. Savery's micrometer ; for, instead of 
employing two entire eye-glasses, as Mr. Savery and M. 
Bouguer had done (see BOUGUER), he vised only one glass 
cut into two equal parts, one of them sliding or moving 
laterally by the other. This was considered to be a great 
improvement, as the micrometer could now be applied to 
the reflecting telescope with much advantage, and which 
Mr. James Short immediately did. An account of the 
same was given to the royal society, in two papers, which 
were afterwards printed in the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," vol. XLVIII. This kind of micrometer was after- 
wards applied by Mr. Peter Dollond to the achromatic te- 
lescope, as appears by a letter of his to Mr. Short, which 
was read in the royal society Feb. 7, 1765. 

Mr. Dollond's celebrity in optics became now universal ; 
and the friendship and protection of the most eminent men 
of science, tiattered and encouraged his pursuits. To 
enumerate the persons, both at home and abroad, who 
distinguished him by their correspondence, or cultivated 
his acquaintance, however honourable to his memory, 
would be only an empty praise. Yet among those who 
held the highest place in his esteem as men of worth and 
learning, may be mentioned, Mr. Thomas Simpson, master 
of the royal academy at Woolwich ; Mr. Harris, assny- 
master at the Tower, who was at that time engaged in 
writing and publishing his " Treatise on Optics;" the rev. 
Dr. Bradley, then astronomer royal; the rev. William 
Ludlam, of St. John's college, Cambridge ; and Mr. John 
Canton, a most ingenious man, and celebrated not less. 
for his knowledge in natural philosophy, than for his neat 
and accurate manner of making philosophical experiments. 
To this catalogue of the philosophical names of those days, 


xve may add that of the late venerable astronomer-royal, 
the rev. Dr. Maskelyne, whose labours have so eminently 
benefited the science of astronomy. 

Surrounded by these enlightened men, in a state of mind 
prepared for the severest investigation of philosophic truths, 
and in circumstances favourable to liberal inquiry, Mr. 
Dollond engaged in the discussion of a subject, which at 
that time not only interested this country, but all Europe. 
Sir Isaac Newton had declared, in his Treatise on Optics, 
p. 112, " That all refracting substances diverged the pris- 
matic colours in a constant proportion to their mean re- 
fraction," and drew this conclusion, " that refraction could 
not be produced without colour," and consequently, " that 
no improvement could be expected in the refracting tele- 
scope." No one doubted the accuracy with which sir 
Isaac Newton had made the experiment ; yet some men, 
particularly M. Euler and others, were of opinion that the 
conclusion which Newton had drawn from it went too far, 
and maintained that in very small angles refraction might 
be obtained without colour. Mr. Dollond was not of that 
opinion, but defended Newton's doctrine with much learn- 
ing and ingenuity, as may be seen by a reference to the 
letters which passed between Euler and Dollond upon that 
occasion, and which were published in the " Philosophical 
Transactions," vol. XLVIII. ; and contended, that, " if the 
result of the experiment had been as described by sir 
Isaac Newton, there could not be refraction without co- 

A mind constituted like Mr. Dollond' s, could not re- 
main satisfied with arguing in this manner, from an expe- 
riment made b} another, but determined to try it himself, 
and accordingly in 1757 began the examination ; and, to 
use his own words, with " a resolute perseverance," con- 
tinued during that year, and a great part of the next, to 
bestow his whole mind on the subject, until in June 1758 
he found, after a complete course of experiments, the 
result to be very different from that which he expected, 
and from that which sir Isaac Newton had related. He 
discovered " the difference in the dispersion of the colours 
ot light, when the mean rays are equally refracted by diffe- 
rent mediums." The discovery was complete, and he imme- 
diately drew from it this practical conclusion, " that the object- 
glasses of refracting telescopes were capable of being made 
without the images formed by them being affected by the 


different refrangibility of the rays of light." His account of 
this experiment, and of others connected with it, was given 
to the royal society, and printed in their Transactions, vol. L. 
and he was presented in the same year, by that learned 
body, with sir Godfrey Copley's medal, as a reward of his 
merit, and a memorial of the discovery, though not at that 
time a member of the society. This discovery no way af- 
fected the points in dispute between Euler and Dollond, 
respecting the doctrine advanced by sir Isaac Newton. A 
new principle was in a manner found out, which had no 
part in their former reasonings, and it was reserved for 
the accuracy of Dollond to have the honour of making a 
discovery which had eluded the observation of the immortal 
Newton. The cause of this difference of the results of the 
8th experiment of the second part of the first book of New- 
ton's Optics, as related by himself, and as it was found 
when tried by Dollond in 1757 and 1758, is fully and in- 
geniously accounted for by Mr. Peter Dollond in a paper 
read at the royal society, March 21, .1789, and afterwards 
published in a pamphlet. 

This new principle being now established, he was soon 
able to construct object-glasses, in which the different re- 
frangibility of the rays of light was corrected, and the name 
of achromatic was given to them by the late Dr. Bevis, on 
account of their being free from the prismatic colours, 
and not by Lalande, as some have said. As usually hap- 
pens on such occasions, no sooner was the achromatic te- 
lescope made public, than the rivalship of foreigners, and 
the jealousy of philosophers at home, led them to dftubt of 
its reality ; and Euler himself, in his paper read before 
the academy of sciences at Berlin in 1764, says, " I am 
not ashamed frankly to avow that the first accounts which 
were published of it appeared so suspicious, and even so 
contrary to the best established principles, that I could not 
prevail upon myself to give credit to them;" and he adds, 
*' I should never have submitted to the proofs which Mr. 
Dollond produced to support this strange phenomenon, if 
M. Clairaut, who must at first have been equally surprized 
at it, had not most positively assured me that Dpllond's 
experiments were but too well founded." And when the 
fact could be no longer disputed, they endeavoured to 
find a prior inventor, to whom it might be ascribed ; and 
several conjecturers were honoured with the title of dis- 
coverers. But Mr. Peter Dollond in the paper we have 

D O L L O N D. 215 

just mentioned, has stated and vindicated, in the most un- 
exceptionable and convincing mamier, his father's right 
to the first discovery of this improvement in refracting te- 
lescopes, as well as of the principle on which it was 
founded. In so doing he has corrected the mistakes of 
M. de la Lande in his account of this subject ; those of 
M. N. Fuss, professor of mathematics at St. Petersburg, 
in his " Eulogy on Euler," written and published in 1783 ; 
and those of count Cassini, in his " Extracts of the Ob- 
servations made at the Royal Observatory at Paris in the 
year 1787;" and it must appear to every impartial and 
candid examiner, that Mr. Dollond was the sole discoverer 
of the principle which led to the improvement of refracting 

This improvement was of the greatest advantage in as- 
tronomy, as they have been applied to fixed instruments ; 
by which the motions of the heavenly bodies are deter- 
mined to a much greater exactness than by the means of 
the old telescope. Navigation has also been much bene- 
fited by applying achromatic telescopes to the Hadley's 
Sextant ; and from the improved state of the lunar tables, 
and of that instrument, the longitude at sea may now be 
determined by good observers, to a great degree of accu- 
racy ; and their universal adoption by the navy and army, 
as well as by the public in general, is the best proof of the 
great utility of the discovery. 

In the beginning of 1761, Mr. Dollond was elected 
F. R. S. and appointed optician to his majesty, but did 
not live to enjoy these honours long; for on Nov. 30, in 
the same year, as he was reading a new publication of M. 
Clairaut, on the theory of the moon, and on which he had 
been intently engaged for several hours, he was seized 
with apoplexy, which rendered him immediately speech- 
less, and occasioned his death in a few hours afterwards. 
His family, at his death, consisted of three daughters and 
two sons, Peter and John, who, possessing their father's 
abilities, carried on the optical business in partnership, 
until the death of John, when it was continued, and still 
flourishes, under the management of Mr. Peter Dollond, 
well known as an able philosopher and artist, and Mr. George 
Huggins, his nephew, who, upon the king's permission, 
has taken the name of Dollond. 1 

1 From the Life of John Dollond, F. R. S. by John Kelly, LL. D. rector of 
Copford, in Essex ; author of the Triglott Celtic Dictionary, and a translator 

216 D O L O M I E U. 


TET DE), a very able mineralogist, was born in Dauphiny, 
June 24, 1750. Of his early history our authorities give 
but a confused account. He was inspector of the mines, 
and commander of the order of Malta. He first went to 
sea at the age of eighteen, when being insulted by one of 
his companions, who was on board the same ship, he fought 
and killed him ; for which, on his return to Malta, he was 
sentenced to death by the chapter of the order. The 
grand-master, however, granted him his pardon, but as it 
was necessary that it should be confirmed by the pope, and 
as his holiness was at that time out of humour with the 
knights, he remained inflexible, and Dolomieu was con- 
fined for nine months in a dungeon in the island. He af- 
terwards resumed his studies, and accompanied the regi- 
ment of carabineers in which he was an officer. At Metz 
he took his first lessons in chemistry and natural history, 
and his progress became so rapid, that the academy of 
sciences granted him the title of corresponding member, 
which favour attached him entirely to natural philosophy. 
He then quitted the service, and almost immediately be- 
gan his travels through Sicily, which produced " Voyage 
aux Isles de Lipari," 1783, 8vo ; a very interesting ac- 
count of these volcanic isles, and forming very useful ma- 
terials for a history of volcanoes. In the same year he 
published " Memoire sur le tremblemens de terre de la 
Calabre in 1783," 8vo, which the following year was trans- 
lated into Italian; and in 1788, "Memoire sur les isles 
Ponces, et Catalogue raisonne de PEtna," 8vo. 

On the commencement of the revolution, he embraced 
the principles of the popular party, but refusing any public 
employment, pursued his favourite studies. In the "Jour- 
nal de Physique," for 1790, we find a dissertation by him 
on the origin of basaltes ; and he prepared the mineralo- 
gical articles of the new Encyclopaedia. The revolutionary 
horrors, which were fatal to his friend the duke de Roche- 
foucault, who was murdered before his eyes, had likely 
to have been equally fatal to himself, his name being in- 
serted in the lists of the proscribed by the tyrants of the 

of the Bible into the Manks Gaelic. Dr. Krlly married a daughter of Mr. Peter 
Dolloml. This Life wos printed for private distribution by Messrs. Dollond, 
and obligingly presented to the Editor of this Dictionary by Mr. G. H. Dollond. 
Besides the Life, there is an Appendix of various iroportaril papers relating to 
the discovery aud uses of the achromatic telescope. 

D O L O M I E U. 217 

day ; but he escaped by wandering from place to place, 
until calmer times, when he was appointed inspector of 
the mines, and at length Bonaparte took him with him in 
his expedition to Egypt. He is said to have contributed 
to the surrender of Malta to the French, by the connec- 
tions which he still preserved there; but after the memo- 
rable battle of Aboukir, when obliged to land in Calabria, 
he was seized by order of the king of Naples, and thrown 
into a dungeon at Messina. Here he was detained, not- 
withstanding the earnest applications of the French go- 
vernment, the king of Spain, sir Joseph Banks, and other 
eminent characters in Europe, nor was he released until 
the peace of 1800. He then resumed his wonted occu- 
pations, visited the mountains of Swisserland, and was 
about to have published the result of his observations, 
when he died Nov. 28, 1801, at Dree, near Macon. He 
had been appointed member of the conservative senate 
immediately after his return, and was a member of the In- 
stitute. After his death was published his essay " Sur la 
philosophic mineralogique," composed during his impri- 
sonment at Malta, where such were his privations, that, 
as he informs us, the black of his lamp, diluted with water, 
served him for ink; his pen was a fragment of bone, shaped 
with great labour on the floor of his prison, and the prin- 
cipal part of his work was written on the margins, and be- 
tween the lines of some books which bad been left in his 
possession. These contrivances gave him the pleasure 
which is felt on overcoming difficulties; and he adds, that 
had it not been that he found himself placed in such a si- 
tuation, perhaps he never would have undertaken this work 
at all. His last journey to the Alps was lately published 
by Bruun Neergaard, in 8vo. l 

DOMAT (JoHN), a French lawyer, was born of a good 
family, at Clermont, in Auvergne, in 1625. Father Sir- 
mood, who was his great uncle, had the care of his educa- 
tion, and sent him to the college at Paris, where he learned 
the Latin, Greek, Italian, and Spanish tongues, applied 
himself to the study of philosophy and the belles-lettres, 
and made himself a competent master in the mathematics. 
Afterwards he went to study the law, and to take his de- 
grees at Bourges, where professor Emerville made him an 
offer of a doctor's hood, though he was but twenty years of 
age. Upon his return from Bourges, he attended the bar of 

1 Diet. Hist. Biographic Moderne. 

218 D O M A T. 

the high court of judicature at Clermont, and began to plead 
with extraordinary success. In 1648 he married, and by 
that marriage had thirteen children. Three years before he 
had been made advocate to the king, in the high court of 
Clermont ; which place he filled for thirty years with such 
uncommon reputation for integrity as well as ability, that he 
became arbiter, in a great measure, of all the affairs of the 
province. The confusion which he had observed in the laws, 
put him upon forming a design of reducing them to their 
natural order. He drew up a plan for this purpose, and com- 
municated it to his friends, who approved of it so much, and 
thought it so useful, that they persuaded him to shew it to 
some of the chief magistrates. With this view he went to 
Paris in 1685, where the specimen of his work, which he 
carried along with him, w r as judged to be so excellent, that 
Lewis XIV. upon the report which Pelletier, then comp- 
troller general, made to him of it, ordered Domat to con- 
tinue at Paris, and settled upon him a pension of 2000 
livres. Henceforward he employed himself at Paris, in 
finishing and perfecting his work ; the first volume of which, 
in 4to, was published there, under the title of " Les Lois 
civiles, dans leur ordre naturel," 1689. Three other 
volumes were published afterwards, which did their author 
the highest honour ; who, upon the publication of the first, 
was introduced by Pelletier, to present it to the king. It 
was usual to recommend this work to young lawyers and 
divines, who wished to apply themselves to the study of 
morality and the civil law; and an improved edition was 
published so recently as 1777. It was also translated and 
published in English by Dr. William Strahan, 1720, 2 vols. 
fol. and reprinted and enlarged in 1741. His " Legum 
Delectus," which is a part of this great work, was printed 
separately, and very elegantly by Wetstein ; and in 1806, 
M. d'Agard published the first volume of a translation of 
this " Delectus," with notes, &c. 

Domat died at Paris Mar. 14, 1696. He was intimately 
acquainted with the celebrated Pascal, who was his coun- 
tryman, and with whom he had many conferences upon 
religious subjects. He used also to make experiments 
with him upon the weight of the air, and in other branches 
of natural philosophy. He was at Paris when Pascal died 
there Aug. 19, 1662, and was entrusted by him with his. 
most secret papers. 1 

1 Moreri. Diet. Hist. 

D O M B E Y. 219 

DOMBEY (JOSEPH), an eminent French botanist and 
traveller, was born at Macon, Feb. 22, 1742. He was 
brought up to the study of medicine, and took the de- 
gree of doctor of physic in the university of Montpellier. 
He there imbibed, under the celebrated professor Gouan, 
a taste for natural history, more especially for botany. 
To this taste he sacrificed his profession, and all prospect 
of emolument from that source, and cultivated no studies 
but such as favoured his darling propensity. Whatever 
time was not devoted to that, was given to the pleasures 
and dissipation incident to his time of life, his gay and 
agreeable character, and the society with which he was 
surrounded. To this dissipation he perhaps sacrificed 
more than prudence could justify ; and it was fortunate for 
his moral character and worldly interest, probably also for 
his scientific success, that he removed to Paris in 1772, to 
improve his botanical knowledge. In 1775, while re- 
turning from a visit to Haller at Berne, he was informed 
that M. Turgot, the French minister, had chosen him to 
go to Peru, in search of plants that might be naturalized 
in Europe. On this he immediately returned to Paris, 
was presented to the minister, and received his appoint- 
ment, with a salary of 3000 livres. Part of this was obliged 
to be mortgaged to pay his debts, and he was detained until 
the Spanish court had consented to the undertaking, which 
was not until next year. On arriving at Madrid, in No- 
vember 1776, he found that the Spanish court had encum- 
bered his expedition with futile instructions, and had added 
four companions, who, although of very little use, had each 
a salary of 10,000 livres. He accomplished his voyage, 
however, in six months, arriving at Lima April 8, 1778, 
where he obtained a favourable reception from the vice- 
roy of Peru, Don Emanuel de Guirrior, and from M. de 
Bordenave, one of the canons of Lima. 

His first botanical expedition towards Quito was not with- 
out danger, from hordes of run-away negroes, but it af- 
forded him an abundant harvest of specimens of plants, 
as well as of antiquities from the sepulchres of the ancient 
Peruvians. These, with thirty-eight pounds of platina, 
and a collection of seeds, he sent immediately to Europe, 
He was also employed by the viceroy to analyse some 
mineral waters in that neighbourhood. He afterwards 
settled for a time in the mountainous province of Tarma, 
beyond the Cordilleras, and in May 1780, visited Huanuco, 
the extremity of the Spanish settlements in that direction. 

-20 D O M B E Y. 

To investigate the vast and almost impervious forests } 
yond, swarming with insects, and filled with stagnant 
pestiferous vapours, proved a labour of no less danger than 
difficulty ; not only from these natural impediments, but 
from the savages, 200 of whom were advancing by night 
to plunder them, had they not escaped by a precipitate 
and perilous retreat to Huanuco. From thence Dombey 
returned alone to Lima, where, although he x \vas much 
discouraged by the ignorance and bigotry of the Spanish 
priests, he met with some enlightened and disinterested 
characters, who could appreciate his merit, and rendered 
him, from time to time, the most essential services. 

Having sent off his second collection to Europe, Dom- 
bey returned to Huanuco, in the end of December 1780, 
where he had shortly after the mortification of hearing that 
his first collection had been taken by the English, and re- 
deemed at Lisbon, by the Spanish government, conse- 
quently that the antiquities were now detained in Spain, 
and that duplicates only of the. dried plants and seeds had 
been forwarded to Paris. Dombey in the mean while, 
leaving his more recent acquisitions in safety at Lima, un- 
dertook a journey to Chili, and although his journey was 
necessarily attended with vast expence, his character was 
now so well known, that he readily met with assistance. 
He arrived at La Conception in the beginning of 1782, 
where, the town being afflicted with a pestilential fever, 
he devoted himself to the exercise of his medical skill, as- 
sisting the poor with advice, food, and medicine. This 
example having the effect to restore the public courage, 
the grateful people wished to retain him, with a handsome 
stipend, as their physician ; and the bishop of La Con- 
ception endeavoured to promote his union with a young 
lady of great beauty and riches, on whom his merit had 
made impressions as honourable to herself as to him ; but 
neither of these temptations prevailed. Having added 
greatly to his collection of drawings, shells, and minerals, 
as welt as of plants, and having discovered a new and most 
valuable mine of quicksilver, and another of gold, he re- 
visited Lima, to take his passage for Europe. A journey 
of 100 leagues among the Cordilleras, made at his own 
expence, had much impaired his finances and his health, 
but he refused the repayment which the country offered 
him, saying, that " though he was devoted to the service 
of Spain, it was for his own sovereign, who had sent him, 
to pay his expences." In Chili he discovered the majestic 

D O M B E Y. 221 

tree, of the tribe of Pines, 150 feet high, now named after 
him, Dombeya, of which the Norfolk-island pine is ano- 
ther species. While he still remained at Lima, the la- 
bours of arranging and packing his collections of natural 
history, added to the fatigues he had already undergone, 
and the petty jealousies and contradictions he experienced 
from some of the Spaniards in power, preyed upon his 
health and spirits ; and under the idea that he might pos- 
sibly never reach Europe, he wrote to his friend Thouin, 
to take the necessary precautions for the safety of his 
treasures on their arrival in a Spanish port. He survived, 
however, to undergo far greater distresses than he had 
yet known. After narrowly escaping shipwreck at Cape 
Horn, and being obliged to wait at the Brasils till his 
ship could be refitted, which last circumstance indeed was 
favourable to his scientific pursuits and acquisitions, he 
reached Cadiz on the 22d of February, 1785; but, instead 
of the reception he expected and deserved, he was not 
only tormented with the most pettifogging and dishonest 
behaviour concerning the property of his collections, but 
those collections were exposed, without discrimination or 
precaution, to the rude and useless scrutiny of the barba- 
rians at the custom-house, so as to be rendered useless, in 
a great measure, even to those who meant to plunder them. 
The whole were thrown afterwards into damp warehouses, 
where their true owner was forbidden to enter. Here 
they lay for the plants to rot, and the inestimable collec- 
tions of seeds to lose their powers of vegetation, till certain 
forms were gone through, which forms, as it afterwards 
appeared, tended chiefly to the rendering their plunder 
useless to others, rather than valuable to their own nation. 
In the first place, as much of these treasures had suffered 
by this ill-treatment, Dombey was required to repair the 
injury from his own allotment, or from that of his master, 
the king of France. With this he could not of himself 
comply ; but an order was, for some political reason, pro- 
cured from the French court, and he was obliged to sub- 
mit. He could never, however, obtain that the seeds 
should be committed to the earth so as to be of use; and 
hence the gardens of Europe have been enriched with 
scarcely half a score of his botanical discoveries, among 
which are the magnificent Datura arborea, the beautiful 
Salvia formosa, and the fragrant Verbena triphylla, or, as 
it ought to have been called, citrea. This last will be a 

222 D O JVI B E Y. 

*' monumentum sere perennins" with those who shall ever 
know his history. What had been given him for his own 
use hy the vice-roy of the Brasils, underwent the same 
treatment as the rest. Finally, he was required to fix a 
price upon the sad remains of his collections, which, as a 
great part was French national property, it was obvious he 
could not do. He remained at Cadiz, without money and 
without friends. His only hope was that he might here- 
after publish his discoveries, so as to secure some benefit 
to the world and some honour to himself. But this last 
consolation was denied him. Anxious to revisit his native 
land, he would have compounded for his liberty with the 
loss of all but his manuscripts ; but he was not allowed to 
depart until his persecutors had copied all those manu- 
scripts, and bound him by a written promise never to pub- 
lish any thing till the return of his travelling companions. 
In the mean while, those very companions were detained 
by authority in Peru; and in after-times the original bo- 
tanical descriptions of Dombey have, many of them, ap- 
peared verbatim, without acknowledgment, in the pompous 
Flora of Peru and Chili, which thence derives a great part 
of its value. Thus chagrined and oppressed, the unhappy 
Dombey sunk into despair, till, no longer useful or for- 
midable to his oppressors, he was allowed to return, with 
such parts of his collections as they condescended to leave 
him, to Paris. 

There our countryman Dr. Smith knew him in 1786 ; 
no longer the handsome lively votary of pleasure, nor even 
the ardent enthusiastic cultivator of science, but presenting 
the sallow, silent, melancholy aspect of depression and 
disappointment. He chiefly associated with his faithful 
friends, Le Monnier and Thouin, and in their society bo- 
tanical converse still retained its charms. To the contents 
of his own collection, which, however injured and dimi- 
nished, was still a very interesting one, he paid little atten- 
tion. Bound by his promise, his high sense of honour 
would not let him make the proper use of it, but at length 
he was induced to part with it to M. de Buffon, who nobly 
exerted himself so as to procure from government a pen- 
sion of 6000 livres for Dombey, and 60,000 livres to pay 
his debts. The herbarium was confided to M. L'Heritier, 
with orders to publish its contents. This was no sooner 
known at Madrid, than interest was made by that court to 
defeat the measure, and the court of Versailles was not 

D O M B E Y. 223 

in a condition to dispute even so unjust and politically 
unimportant a requisition from that quarter. Buffon had 
orders to withdraw the herharium, but L'Heritier on the 
first alarm had taken it over to London, and Dr. Smith 
with his lamented friend Broussonet, and his draughtsman 
Redoute", were alone entrusted with the secret. Happy 
and safe in a land of liberty and science, L'Heritier re- 
mained about fifteen months devoted to the prosecution of 
his object, chiefly under the hospitable roof of '.is friend 
sir Joseph Banks. 

After his return, he had determined to retire to a peace- 
ful retreat at the foot of Mount Jura, where he had a friend 
devoted to the love and cultivation of plants. His pecu- 
niary circumstances were now easy, and he resigned his 
fatal celebrity without regret. He broke oft' all scientific 
communication, except with M. Pavon, one of his fellow- 
labourers in Peru, and who had all along been innocent of 
the execrable machinations against his honour and his 
peace. He refused a place in the French academy of 
sciences, as well as a large pecuniary offer from the em- 
press of Russia for the duplicates of his collection, saying, 
" he was not in want of money, and he had most pleasure 
in distributing his specimens amongst his friends." Re- 
siding at Lyons for some time, in his way towards Switzer- 
land, he had the misfortune to be present during the siege 
of that town ; but sickening at the sight of public miseries 
on every side, he procured a commission to visit North 
America, in order to purchase corn from the United States, 
and to fulfil some other objects of public importance, es- 
pecially relating to science and commerce. A tempest 
obliged him to take shelter at Guadaloupe, but that island 
being, like the mother country, in a state of revolution, he 
narrowly escaped with his life, and after much barbarous 
treatment, was ordered to quit the colony in the American 
vessel in which he came. That vessel was no sooner out 
of the harbour, than it was attacked by two privateers, and 
taken. Dombey, disguised as a Spanish sailor, was thrown 
into a prison in the island of Montserrat, where ill-treat, 
ment, mortification, and disease, put a period to his life 
on the 19th of February, 1796. ' 

much admired artist, was born at Bologna in 1581, and 

* O ' 

1 Res's Cyclopaedia, 

224. D O M E N I C H I N O. 

received his first instruction in the art of painting, from 
Denis Calvart ; but afterwards he became a disciple of the 
Caracci, and continued in that school for a long time. 
The great talents of Domenichino did not unfold them- 
selves as early in him, as talents much inferior to his have 
disclosed themselves in other painters; he was studious, 
thoughtful, and circumspect; which by some writers, as 
well as by his companions, was misunderstood, and mis- 
called dullness. But the intelligent Annibal Caracci, who 
observed his faculties with more attention, and knew his 
abilities better, testified of Domenichino, that his apparent 
slowness of parts at present, would in time produce what 
would be an honour to the art of painting. He persevered 
in the study of his art with incredible application and at- 
tention, and daily made rapid advances. Some writers 
contend that his thoughts were judicious from the begin- 
ning, and they were afterwards elevated, wanting but little 
of reaching the sublime; and that whoever will consider 
the composition, the design, and the expression, in his 
Adam and Eve, his Communion of St. Jerom, and in that 
admirable picture of the Death of St. Agnes at Bologna, 
will readily perceive that they must have been the result 
of genius, as well as of just reflections ; but Mr. De Piles 
says he is in doubt whether Domenichino had any genius 
or not. That ingenious writer seems willing to attribute 
every degree of excellence in Domenichino's performances, 
to labour, or fatigue, or good sense, or any thing but ge- 
nius ; yet, says Pilkington, how any artist could (accord- 
ing to his own estimate in the balance of painters) be on 
an equality with the Caracci, Nicolo Poussin, and Lio- 
nardo da Vinci, in composition and design, and superior 
to them all by several degrees in expression, and also ap- 
proach near to the sublime, without having a genius, or 
even without having an extraordinary good one, seems to 
me not easily reconcileable. If the productions of an artist 
must always be the best evidence of his having or wanting 
a genius, the compositions of Domenichino must ever 
afford sufficient proofs in his favour. The same biographer 
says, that as to correctness of design, expression of the 
passions, and also the simplicity and variety, in the airs of 
his heads, he is allowed to be little inferior to Raphael ; 
yet his attitudes are but moderate, his draperies rather 
stiff, and his pencil heavy. However, as he advanced in 
years and experience, he advanced proportionably in, 

D O M E N I C H I N O. 22* 

merit, and the latest of his compositions are his best. 
There is undoubtedly in the works of this eminent master, 
what will always claim attention and applause, what will 
for ever maintain his reputation, and place him among the 
number of the most excellent in the art of painting. One 
of the chief excellences of Domenichino consisted in his 
painting landscapes; and in that style, the beauty arising 
from the natural and simple elegance of his scenery, his 
trees, his well- broken grounds, and in particular the cha- 
racter and expression of his figures, gained him as much! 
public admiration as any of his other performances. 

The Communion of St. Jerom, and the Adam and Eve, 
are too well known to need a description ; and they are 
universally allowed to be capital works, especially in the 
expression. In the Palazzo della Torre, at Naples, there 
is a picture of Domenichino, representing a dead Christ, 
on the Knees of the Virgin, attended by Mary Magdalen 
and others. The composition of this picture is very good, 
and the design simple and true ; the head of the Magdalen 
is full of expression, the character excellent, and the co- 
louring tolerable ; but in other respects, the penciling is 
dry, and there is more of coldness than of harmony in the 
tints. But in the church of St. Agnes, at Bologna, is an 
altar piece which is considered as one of the most accom- 
plished performances of this master, and shews the taste, 
judgment, and genius of this great artist in a true light. 
The subject is, the Martyrdom of St. Agnes ; and the de- 
sign is extremely correct, without any thing of manner. 
The head qf the saint hath an expression of grief, mixed 
with hope, that is wonderfully noble ; and he hath given 
her a beautiful character. There are three female figures 
grouped on the right, which are lovely, with an uncom- 
mon elegance in their forms, admirably designed, and 
with a tone of colour that is beautiful. Their dress, and 
particularly the attire of their heads, is ingenious and 
simple ; one of this master's excellences consisting in that 
part of contrivance : in short, it is finely composed, and 
unusually well penciled ; though the general tone of the 
colouring partakes a little of the greenish cast, and the 
shadows are rather too dark, yet that darkness may pro- 
bably have been occasioned or increased by time. Such 
is the opinion of Pilkington, but it is time now to attend 
to that of more authorized criticism. " Expression," says 
Mr. Fuseli, " which hud languished after the demise of 


226 D O M E N I C H I N O. 

RafTaello, seemed to revive in Domenidiino ; but his sen- 
sibility was not supported by equal comprehension, ele- 
vation of mind, or dignity of motive. His sentiments want 
propriety, he is a mannerist in feeling, and tacks the 
imagery of Theocritus to the subjects of Homer. A de- 
tail of petty, though amiable conceptions is rather calcu- 
lated to diminish than inforce the energy of a pathetic 
whole. A lovely child taking refuge in the lip or bosorn 
of a lovely mother, is an idea of nature, and pleasing in a 
lowly, pastoral, or domestic subject ; but perpetually re- 
curring, becomes common-place, and amid the terrors of 
martyrdom, is a shred sewed to a purple robe. In touching 
the characteristic circle that surrounds the Ananias of Raf- 
faello, you touch the electric chain, a genuine spark in- 
sensibly darts from the last as from the first, penetrates 
mul subdues. At the martyrdom of St. Agnes, by Dome- 
nichino, you saunter amid the adventitious mob of a lane, 
where the silly chat of neighbour gossips announces a 
topic as silly, till you find with indignation, that instead 
of a broken pot, or a petty theft, you are witness to a scene 
for which heaven opens and angels descend. 

" It is, however, but justice to observe that there is a 
subject in which Domenichino has not unsuccessfully 
copied, and perhaps even excelled RafTaello. I mean that 
of the Cure of the demoniac boy, among the series of fres- 
coes painted by him at Grotto Ferrata. That inspired 
figure is evidently the organ of an internal preternatural 
agent, darted upward without contortion, and even con- 
sidered without any connexion with the story, never can 
be confounded with a mere tumultuary distorted maniac ; 
which is not perhaps the case of the boy in the Trans- 
figuration ; the subject, too, being within the range of 
Domenichino's powers, a domestic one, the whole of the 
persons introduced is characteristic. Awe of the saint who 
operates the miracle, and terror at the redoubled fury of 
the son at his approach, mark the rustic father : confidence, 
serene activity, and fervent prayer, the saint and his com- 
panion : nor could the agonizing female with the child, 
as she is the mother, be exchanged to advantage ; here 
she properly occupies that place which the fondling females 
in the pictures of St. Sebastian, St. Andrew, and St. Agnes, 
only usurp. 

" It has been said Domenichino's invention was inferior 
to his other parts. The picture of the * Rosario,' now in 

D O M E N I C H I N O. 227 

the gallery of the Louvre, is adduced as a proof; an idea 
neither then nor now understood by the public, disapproved 
of by his most partial friends, and of which he repented 
himself; in the most celebrated of his works, the Commu- 
nion of St. Jerome, he imitated Agostino, and in the alms- 
scene of ' St. Cecilia,' the ' St. Rocco' of Annibale Caracci. 
But from the Triumph of the < Rosary,' the most brilliant 
fanc_y will i licit little more than splendid confusion ; in the 
' St. Jerome,' if the arrangement and the postures are imi- 
tated, the characters are invented ; what he owes to Anni- 
bale in the Chanties of St. Cecilia, is less than what Anni- 
bale owes to Raffaello in his ' Genus unde Latinum ;' and 
is amply compensated by the original beauties of St. Ce- 
cilia before the Praetor. Domenichino was what few men 
of genius are, a good master. The best of his Roman 
scholars were Antonio Barbalunzaof Messina, and Andrew 
Camassei of Bevagna. - The first copied and imitated his 
master with sufficient success, and sometimes to a degree 
of deception. The second, more timid and less select, 
had nature and a grand style of colour." 

Domenichino was made the chief architect of the apos- 
tolical palace by pope Gregory XV. for his great skill in 
that art. He was likewise very well versed in the theory 
of music, but not successful in the practice. He loved 
solitude ; and it was observed, that, as he went along the 
streets, he took notice of the actions of private persons he 
met, and often designed something in his pocket-book. 
He was of a mild temper and obliging carriage, yet had 
the misfortune to find enemies in all places wherever he 
came. At Naples, particularly, he was so ill treated by 
those of his own profession, that, having agreed among 
themselves to disparage all his works, they would hardly 
allow him to be a tolerable master : and they were not 
content with having frighted him for some time from that 
city, but afterwards, upon his return thither, never left 
persecuting him, till by their tricks and vexations they had 
wearied him out of his life. He died in 1641, not without 
the suspicion of poison. l 

DOMINIC (DE GUZMAN), a Saint of the Romish calen- 
dar, founder of the order of the Dominicans, and as some 
say, of that horrible engine of tyranny, the Inquisition, was 
born in 1170, at Calarogo, in old Castille, in the diocese 

1 Argenville, vol. II. Pilkinytan. 
Q 2 


of Osma. He was of the family of the Guzmans, and edu- 
cated at first under a priest, his uncle ; but at fourteen 
years, was sent to the public schools of Palentia, where 
he became a great proficient in rhetoric, philosophy, and 
divinity, and was also distinguished by austere mortifica- 
tions and charity to the poor. When he had finished his 
studies and taken his degrees, he explained the Holy 
Scriptures in the schools, and preached at Palentia. In 
1198 he was made a canon of Osma. After five years he 
accompanied the bishop of Osma on an embassy to the earl 
of La Marche, and in his journey was grievously afflicted 
to behold the spread of what he called heresy among the 
Albigenses, and conceived the design of converting them, 
and at first appears to have used only argument, accom- 
panied with the deception of pretended miracles ; but find- 
ing these unsuccessful, joined the secular power in a bloody 
crusade against the Albigenses, which he encouraged by 
prayers and miracles. During these labours, he instituted 
the devotion of the Rosary, consisting of fifteen Pater 
Hosiers, and an hundred and fifty Ave Marias, in honour 
of the fifteen principal mysteries of the life and sufferings 
of Christ, and of the virgin Mary, which our saint thought 
the people might be made to honour by this foolish expe- 
dient. In 1206 he founded the nunnery of our lady of 
Prouille, near Faujaux, which he put under* the rule of 
St. Austin, and afterwards established an institute called 
his third order, some of the members of which live in 
monasteries, and are properly nuns ; others live in their 
own houses, adding religious to civil duties, and serving 
the poor in hospitals and prisons. 

St. Dominic had spent ten years in preaching in Lan- 
guedoc, when, in 1215, he founded the celebrated order of 
preaching friars, or Dominicans, as they were afterwards 
called. The same year it was approved of by Innocent III. 
and confirmed in 1216, by a bull of Honorius III. under 
the title of St. Augustin ; to which Dominic added several 
austere precepts and observances, obliging the brethren to 
tuke a vow of absolute poverty, and to abandon entirely all 
their revenues and possessions; and they were called 
preaching friars, because public instruction was the main 
end of their institution. The first convent was founded at 
Tholouse by the bishop thereof, and Simon de Montfort. 
Two years afterwards they had another at Paris, near the 
bishop's house ; and iome time after, viz. in 1218, a third 

D O M I N I C 229 

in the rue St Jaques, St. James's- street, whence the deno- 
mination of Jacobins. Just before his death, Dominic sent 
Gilbert de Fresney, with twelve of the brethren, into Eng- 
land, where they founded their first monastery at Oxford, 
in 1221, and soon after another at London. In 1276, the 
mayor and aldermen of the city of London gave them two 
whole streets by the river Thames, where they erected a 
very commodious convent, whence that place is still called 
Black Friars, from the name by which the Dominican? 
were called in England. St. Dominic, at first, only took 
the habit of the regular canons, that is, a black cassock, 
and rochet; but this he quited in 1219, for that which 
they now wear, which, it is pretended, was shewn by the 
blessed Virgin herself to the beatiiied Renaud d'Orleans. 
This order is diffused throughout the whole known world. 
It has forty-five provinces under the general, who resides 
at Rome ; and twelve particular congregations, or reforms, 
governed by vicars-general. They reckon three popes of 
this order, above sixty cardinals, several patriarchs, a hun- 
dred and fifty archbishops, and about eight hundred 
bishops ; beside masters of the sacred palace, whose office 
has been constantly discharged by a religious of this order, 
ever since St. Dominic, who held it under Honorius III. in 
1218. The Dominicans are also inquisitors in many places. 
Of all the monastic orders, none enjoyed a higher degree 
of power and authority than the Dominican friars, whose 
credit was great and their influence universal. Nor will 
this appear surprising, when we consider that they filled 
very eminent stations in the church, presided every where 
over the terrible tribunal of the inquisition, and had the 
care of souls, with the function of confessors in all the 
courts of Europe, which circumstance, in those times of 
ignorance and superstition, manifestly tended to put most 
of the European princes in their power. But the measures 
they used, in order to maintain and extend their authority, 
were so perfidious and cruel, that their influence began tq 
decline towards the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
The tragic story of Jetzer, conducted at Bern in 1501), for 
determining the uninteresting dispute between them and 
the Franciscans, relating to the immaculate conception, 
will reflect indelible infamy on this order. They were in- 
deed perpetually employed in stigmatizing with the oppro- 
brious name of heresy numbers of learned and pious men ; 
in encroaching upon the rights and properties of others, to 


augment their possessions ; and in laying the most ini- 
quitous snares and stratagems for the destruction of their 
adversaries. They were the principal counsellors, by 
whose instigation and advice LeoX. was determined to the 
public condemnation of Luther. The papal see never had 
more active and useful abettors than this order and that of 
the Jesuits. The dogmata of the Dominicans are usually 
opposite to those of the Franciscans. They concurred with 
the Jesuits in maintaining, that the sacraments have in 
themselves an instrumental and official powe". , by virtue of 
which they work in the soul (independently of its previous 
preparation or propensities) a disposition to receive the di- 
vine grace ; and this is what is commonly called the opus 
operatum of the sacraments. Thus, according to their 
doctrine, neither knowledge, wisdom, humility, faith, nor 
devotion, are necessary to the efficacy of the sacraments, 
whose victorious energy nothing but a mortal sin can resist. 

After establishing this important order, St Dominic, who 
had deservedly become a favourite at the court of Rome, 
was detained for several months to preach in that city ; and 
by his advice the pope created the new office, already 
mentioned, that of master of the sacred palace, who is by 
virtue of this office the pope's domestic theologian or chap- 
lain ; and St. Dominic was appointed to it. It has ever 
since been held by one of his order. The rest of his his- 
tory at Rome consists of his miracles, and may well be 
spared. In 1218 he took a journey from Rome through 
Languedoc into Spain, and founded two convents ; thence 
he went in 1219 to Toulouse and Paris, at which last place 
he founded his convent in St. James's-street, whence his 
order were called Jacobins, and inhabited a house since 
memorable in the history of the French revolution. After 
this, and the foundation of other convents, he arrived at 
Bologna, where he principally resided during tiie remain- 
der of his life, which ended August 6, 1221. He was 
canonized by pope Gregory IX. in 1234. 

Butler observes that St. Dominic hau no hand in the ori- 
gin of the inquisition, tiiough he owns, that the project of 
this court was first formed in a council of Toulouse iu 1.29, 
and that in 1233, two Dominican friars were the first in- 
quisitors. Modern protestant historians seem inclined to 
concede that, although St. Dominic was an inquisitor, it 
was not in the most offensive sense of the word. Tins, 
however, will not excuse his tyranny towards the Albi- 


genses, and if he did not invent the inquisition, he at least 
must be allowed the honour of inventing the rosary, a 
species of mechanical devotion which has done infinite 
mischief. ! 

DOM1NIS (MARK ANTONY DE), archbishop of Spalato 
in Dalmatia, was born about 1561, at Arba, and educated 
at Padua. He was remarkable for a fickleness in religious 
matters, which at length proved his ruin ; otherwise he 
was a man of great abilities and learning. He was entered 
eariy amongst the Jesuits, but left that society to be bishop 
of Segni, and afterwards archbishop of Spalato ; but in- 
stead of growing more firmly attached to the church of 
Rome on account of his preferment, he became ever} 7 day 
more and more disaffected to it. This induced him to 
write his famous books " De Republica Ecclesiastica," 
which were afterwards printed in London; and in which 
he aimed a capital blow at the papal power. These books 
were read over and corrected, before publication, by our 
bishop Bedell, who was then at Venice in quality of chap- 
lain to sir Henry Wotton, ambassador there from James I. 
De Dominis coming to Venice, and hearing a high charac- 
ter of Bedell, readily discovered his secret, and commui- 
cated his copy to him. Bedell took the freedom he allowed 
him, of correcting many improper applications of texts in 
scripture, and quotations of fathers : for that prelate, 
being ignorant of the Greek tongue (a common thing in 
those days even amongst the learned), had committed 
many mistakes both in the one and the other. De Do- 
minis took all this in very good part, entered into great 
familiarity with Bedell, and declared his assistance so use- 
ful, and indeed so necessary to him, that he could, as he 
used to say, do nothing without him. 

When Bedell returned to England, Dominis came over 
with him, and was at first received by the English clergy 
with all possible marks of respect. Here he preached and 
wrote against the Romish religion, and the king gave him 
the deanery of Windsor, the mastership of the Savoy, and 
the rich living of West Ildesley in Berkshire. De Do- 
minis' s view seems to have been to reunite the Romish 
and English churches, which he thought might easily be 

1 Butler's Lives of the Saints. JWosheim's and Milner's EccJ. Hist. Morc/i, 
Fabric. Bib). Lat. Med. 

232 D O M I N I S. 

effected, by reforming some abuses and superstitions in 
the former; "and then," Grotius says, "he imagined, 
the religion of protestants and catholics would be the 
same." After he had staid in England some years, he was 
made to believe, upon the promotion of pope Gregory 
XIV. who had been his school-fellow and an old acquaint- 
ance, that the pope intended to give him a cardinal's hat, 
and to make use of him in all affairs ; so that he fancied 
he should be the instrument of a great reformation in the 
church. This snare wa* laid for him chiefly by the artifice 
of Gondemar, the Spanish ambassador ; and his own am- 
bition and vanity (of both which he had a share) made him 
easily fall into it. Accordingly he returned to Rome in 
1622, where he abjured his errors in a very solemn man- 
ner. He was at first, it is said, well received by the pope 
himself; but happening to say of cardinal Bellarmine, who 
had written against him, that he had not answered his ar- 
guments, he was complained of to the pope, as if he had 
been still of the same mind as when he published his books. 
He excused himself, and said, that though Bellarmine 
had not answered his arguments, yet he did not say they 
were unanswerable ; and he offered to answer them him- 
self, if they would allow him time for it. This imprudent 
way of talking, together with the discovery of a correspond- 
ence which he held with some protestants, furnished a 
sufficient plea for seizing him ; and he was thrown into 
prison, where he died in 1625. It was discovered after 
his death, that his opinions were not agreeable to the doc- 
trine of the church of Rome ; upon which his corpse was 
dug up, and burnt with his writings in Flora's Field, by a 
decree of the inquisition. 

Besides his work, " De Republica Ecclesiastica," 3 vols. 
fol. he was author of a work in optics, which obtained the 
applause of the illustrious sir I. Newton, and which is en- 
titled " De Radiis Visus & Lucis in Vitris perspectives et 
Iride Tractatus." Our great philosopher complimented 
the author of this tract so far as to declare, that he was the 
first person who had explained the phenomena of the co- 
lours of the rainbow. He wrote also, 1. " Dominis suae 
profectionis a Venetiis consilium exponit," London, 1616, 
4to, and published in English the same year. 2. " Predica 
fatta, la prima Domenica dell' Avvento 1617, in Londra 
nella Capella delta delli Mercian," Lond. 1617, 12mo, 
published in English the same year, 4to. 3. " Sui Re- 

D O M I N I S. 233 

tiitus in Anglia consiliura exponit," Rome, 1623, 4to, and 
in English the same year. 4. " De pace regionis, Epistola 
ad Josephum Hallum," 1666, 4to. We are also indebted 
to him for father Paul's " History of the Council of 
Trent," the manuscript of which lie procured for arch- 
bishop Abbot. 1 

DONALDSON (JOHN), an artist and author, was born 
at Edinburgh in 1737 ; his father was a glover in rather 
low circumstances, but of a speculative turn of mind, and 
much addicted to metaphysical reveries, of which his son 
unfortunately inherited a double portion, and without his 
father's prudence, who never suffered his abstractions to 
interfere with his business. While a child, young Donald- 
son was constantly occupied in copying every object be- 
fore him with chalk on his father's cutting-board, which, 
was often covered with his infant delineations. This natu- 
ral determination of the mind was encouraged by the father, 
and at the age of twelve or thirteen, his son had acquired 
some reputation as a drawer of miniature portraits in Indian 
ink, and was by these efforts enabled to contribute to the 
support of his parents. At the same time he was much 
admired for his skilfil imitations of the ancient engravers, 
which he executed with a pen so correctly, as sometimes 
to deceive the eye of a connoisseur. After passing several 
years in Edinburgh, he came to London, and for some 
time pai.ited portraits in miniature with much success ; 
but unfortunately he now began to fancy that the taste, 
policy, morals, and religion of mankind were all wrong, 
and that he w is born to set them right. From this time his 
profession became a secondary object, and whether from 
jealousy or insanity, he used repeatedly to declare that sir 
Joshua Reynolds must be a very dull fellow to devote his 
life to the study of lines and tints. The consequence of 
all this was that contemptuous neglect of business which 
soon left him no business to mind. In the mean time he 
employed his pen in various lucubrations, and published a 
volume of poems, and an " Essay on the Elements of 
Beauty," in both which merit was discoverable. Before 
he took a disgust at his profession, he made an historical 
drawing, the " Tent of Darius," which was honoured with 
the prize given by the Society of Arts ; and also painted 

1 Moreri. Laruli Hi>-t. de la Literature rl'Italie, vol. V. Burnet's Life of 
Bedell, p. 10, 18. Freheri Theatrum. Saxii Onomabt. 


two subjects in enamel, the " Death of Dido," and " Hero 
and Leander," both which obtained prizes from the same 
society, yet no encouragement could induce him to prose- 
cute his art. Among his various pursuits he cultivated 
chemistry, and discovered a method of preserving not only 
vegetables of every kind, but the lean of meat, so as to 
remain uncorrupted during the longest voyages. For this 
discovery he obtained a patent; but want of money, and 
perhaps his native indolence, and a total ignorance of the 
affairs of life, prevented him from deriving any advantage 
from it. The last twenty years of his life were years of 
suffering. His eyes and business failing, he was not sel- 
dom in want of the most common necessaries. His last 
illness was occasioned by sleeping in a room which had 
been lately painted. He was seized with a total debility ; 
and being removed by the care of some friends to a lodging 
at Islington, where he received every attention that his 
case required, he expired Oct. 11, 1801, regretted bv all 
who knew him as a man of singular and various endow- 
ments, addicted to no vice, and of the utmost moderation, 
approaching to abstemiousness; but unhappy in a turn of 
mind too irregular for the business of life, and above the 
considerations of prudence. Mr. Edwards attributes to 
him an anonymous pamphlet entitled " Critical Observa- 
tions and Remarks upon the public buildings of London." 1 
DONALDSON (WALTER), born at Aberdeen in Scot- 
land, bore some rank among the learned men of the seven- 
teenth century. He had been in the retinue and service 
of David Cuningham, bishop of Aberdeen, and Peter Ju- 
nius, great almoner of Scotland, when they went on an 
embassy from king James to the court of Denmark, and to 
the princes of Germany. After his return home, he went 
to Heidelberg, where the famous Dionysius Gothofredus 
taught the civil law. Donaldson, having there dictated to 
some young students a short course of moral philosophy, 
a young man of Riga in Livonia put the manuscript to 
the press without his consent, but he seemed not dis- 
pleased, and informs us of the several editions which were 
made of that work in Germany, and in Great Britain, 
under the title " Synopsis moralis philosophise." He was 
afterwards professor of natural and moral philosophy, and 
of the Greek tongue, in the university of Sedan, and was 

Gent. Mag. 1801. Edwards's Supplement to Walpole. 


principal of the college sixteen years ; after which he was 
invited to open a college at Charenton ; but that establish- 
ment was immediately opposed by law. Mot to remain 
idle while the law-suit was depending, he set himself to 
collect from among his papers the several parts of his 
" Synopsis Oeconomica," wnich he got printed at Paris in 
1620, in 8vo, and dedicated it to the prince of Wales. It 
was reprinted at Rostoch, 1624, in Svo. That wherein he 
reduced into common places, and under certain general 
heads, all that lies scattered in Diogenes Laertius concern- 
ing the same thing, was printed in Greek and Latin, at 
Francfort, in 1612, under the title of " Synopsis Locorum 
communium, in qua sapientiae human imago repraesen- 
tatur," &c. ' 

DONATELLO, or DONATO, one of the principal re- 
vivers of sculpture in Italy, of an obscure family at Flo- 
rence, was born in 1383. He learned design under Lo- 
renzo de Bicci, and abandoning the old dry manner, he 
was the first who gave his works the grace and freedom of 
the productions of ancient Greece and Rome ; and Cosmo 
de Medicis employed him on a tomb for pope John XXIII. 
and in other works, both public and private. Cosmo also 
availed himself of his taste and judgment in forming those 
grand collections, which gave celebrity to Florence as the 
parent of modern art. Amongst his performances in that 
city are his Judith and Holofernes in bronze, his Annuncia- 
tion, his St.. George and St. Mark, and his Zuccone, in one 
of the niches of the Campanile at Florence ; all of which 
are as perfect as the narrow principles upon which the art 
was then conducted would allow. To these we may add 
another excellent performance, his equestrian statue of 
bronze at Padua, to the honour of their general Gallama- 
lata. Conscious of the value of his performances, he ex- 
claimed to a Genoese merchant, who had bespoke a head, 
and estimated it by the number of days which it had em- 
ployed the artist, " this man better knows how to bargain 
for beans than for statues : he shall not have my head ;" 
and then dashed it to pieces : yet no man less regarded 
money than Donatello. Cosmo at his death having re- 
commended him to his son, the latter gave him an estate ; 
but in a little while Donatello, who began to be plagued 
with his farmers and agents, begged his benefactor to take 

1 Eayle in Gen. Diet, 

236 D O N A T E L L O. 

it again, as he did not like the trouble of it. The gift was 
resumed, and a weekly pension of the same value assigned 
to the artist. He had no notion of hoarding; but it is 
said that he deposited what he received in a basket, sus- 
pended from a ceiling, from which his friends and work- 
people might supply themselves at their pleasure. He 
died in 1466, at the age of 83, and was buried in the 
church of St. Lorenzo, near his friend Cosmo, that, as he 
expressed himself, " his soul having been with him when 
living, their bodies mio-ht be near each other when dead." 

O * O 

He left a son, named " Simon," who adopted his manner, 
and acquired reputation. 1 

DON ATI (VITALIANO), an eminent botanist, was born 
at Padua in 1717, of a noble family, but addicted himself 
to science, and under the ablest professors of the univer- 
sity of his native city, studied medicine, natural history, 
botany, and mathematics. After taking his doctor's degree 
in medicine, he more particularly cultivated natural history, 
and frequently went to Dalmatia in pursuit of curious spe- 
cimens. In 1750 he published a small folio, with plates, 
entitled " Delia Storia Naturale Marina dell' Adriatico," 
to which his friend Sesler subjoined the botanical history 
of a plant named after him Vitaliana. This work was after- 
wards translated into several languages. The same year, 
he was appointed professor of natural history and botany 
at Turin. After having travelled several times over the 
maritime Alps, he undertook, by order of the king, an 
expedition to the East Indies. Arriving at Alexandria, he 
went thence to Cairo, and after visiting a considerable part 
of Egypt, penetrated into those countries that were then 
unknown to European travellers. On his return he died at 
Bassora, of a putrid fever, in 1763. He had previously 
packed up two cases of collections of natural history, and 
two large volumes of observations made during his travels, 
which were to be conveyed to Turin by the way of Lisbon ; 
but at the latter place, it is said, they were kept a long 
time, not without some suspicion of their having been 
opened, &c. It is certain, however, that both the collec- 
tions and the manuscripts were lost by some means or 
other. Ferber, who gives some account of Donati in his 
" Letters on Mineralogy," thinks he was not very remark- 

1 Tiraboschi. Eoscoe's Lorenzo de Modi*!. Aglionby's Painting illus- 
trated, p. 3C3. Rees's Cyclops-ilia. 

D O N A T I. 237 

able for his botanical knowledge, but a first-rate connois- 
seur in petrifactions, corals, zoophytes, and, in general, 
in the knowledge of all marine bodies. He adds that his 
enemies were zealous in their endeavours to injure his re- 
putation ; affirming that he was still alive in Persia, where 
he resided in disguise, and appropriated to his own use 
the remittances that had been granted for the purposes of 
his voyage, all which Ferber considers as a ridiculous fable. 
After his death, was published his " Dissertation sur le 
corail noir." * 

DONATO (ALEXANDER), a Jesuit of Sienna, who died 
at Rome April 1'3, 1640, published in that city in 1639, 
in 4to, a description of ancient and modern Rome, 
" Roma vetus & recens utriusque edificiis illustrata." It 
is far more accurate and better composed than all those 
that had been given before to the public. Grsevius has in- 
serted it in the 3d volume of his Roman Antiquities. We 
have likewise Latin poems of his, Cologne, 1631, 8vo, and 
three books on the art of poetry. a 

DONATO (BERNARDIN), a very learned scholar of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Zano, a seat belonging to 
the family of Nogarola, in the diocese of Verona in Italy. 
He became professor of Greek and Latin at Padua, whence 
he went to teach the same languages at Capo d'Istria, as 
mentioned by Bembo in his letters. He taught also at 
Parma, and there printed a Latin oration in 1532 on the 
praises of Parma, and the study of classical literature, 
" De laudibus Parmae et de studiis humanioribus." After 
this he appears to have given lessons in the duchy of Fer- 
rara, whence he returned and died in his own country, 
much regretted as an accomplished scholar. He made the 
Latin translation of the Evangelical Demonstration of Euse- 
bius, which was magnificently printed, and afterwards used 
in a Parisedition, Greek and Latin, but without noticing that 
it was his. He translated also some pieces of Galen, Xe- 
noplion, and Aristotle ; and was editor of the first Greek 
edition of Chrysostom ; the first edition of QEcumenius ; 
of Aretas on the Apocalypse ; two books of John Damas- 
cenus on Faith; and superintended an edition of Macro- 
bius and Censorinus. In 1540 he published " De Pldto- 
nicae, et Aristotelicae philosophise, differentia," Venice, 8vo, 

1 Diet. Hist. Mon'h. Rev. vol. LV. 

* Moreri, Baiilet Jugemens. Saxii Onoaiast, 

238 D O N A T O. 

but this was a posthumous work, if according to Saxius, he 
died in 1 540. l 

DO NATO (JEROM), a nobleman of Venice, who died 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century, was very useful 
to his country ; served it as a commander more than once ; 
and was, in 1510, the means of reconciling that republic 
and pope Julius II. though he had the misfortune to he 
carried off by a violent fever at Rome in 1513, before the 
treaty was concluded between them. He was also a man 
of learning ; and published a translation of " Alexander 
Aphrodiseus de Anima." His letters are likewise well 
written ; which made Erasmus say of him, that he was ca- 
pable of any literary exertion, if his mind had not been 
dissipated by other employments. Pierius Valerianus has 
placed him in the list of unfortunate learned men, for 
which he gives three reasons : first, because his domestics 
obeyed him ill ; secondly, because he did not live to see 
the happiness, which would arise to his country from the 
conclusion of his treaty ; thirdly, because a great many 
books, which he had written to immortalize kis name, re- 
mained unpublished. We have not much reason, hovever, 
for thinking that any of these misfortunes gave him much 
uneasiness. An ingenious reply is, we know not upon 
what authority, attributed to him, when ambassador from 
Venice to pope Julius II. who asked him for the title of the 
claims of his republic to the sovereignty of the Adriatic. 
" Your holiness will find the concession of the Adriatic," 
said he to the pontiff, " at the back of the original record 
of Constantine's donation to pope Sylvester, of the city of 
Rome and the other territories of the church." A bold 
answer, when we consider how dangerous it was to dispute 
the authenticity of this writ of donation, insomuch that, in 
1478, several persons were condemned to the flames at 
Strasburg for expressing their doubts of it. 

Much additional information respecting Donate is given 
by our countryman Mr. Greswell, who says that " he 
united in his character whatever could adorn the scholar 
and the gentleman ;" and that " with a well-cultivated 
understanding, great political experience, and a profound 
knowledge of the interests of the state, he combined very 
elegant manners, and the most captivating address ; all 

1 Moreri, Maffei Verona illustrata. Saxii Onomasticon, 

f D O N A T U S. 239 

which advantages were heightened by a majestic stature 
and deportment, and every personal accomplishment." 1 

DONATUS, bishop of Casae Nigrae in Numidia, is re- 
garded by some as the author of the sect of the Donatists, 
which took its rise in the year 311, from the following 
circumstance. Cecilianus having been chosen to succeed 
Mensurius in the episcopal chair of Carthage, the election 
was contested by a powerful party, headed by a lady 
named Lucilla, and two priests, Brotus and Celestius, 
who had themselves been candidates for the disputed see. 
They caused Majorinus to be elected, under pretence that 
the ordination of Cecilianus was null, as having, according 
to them, been performed by Felix, bishop of Aptonga, 
whom they accused of being a traditor; that is, of having 
delivered to the pagans the sacred books and vessels during 
the persecution, and was therefore unfit to bestow conse- 
cration. The African bishops were divided, and Donatus 
headed the partisans of Majorinus. In the mean time, the 
affair being brought before the emperor, he referred the 
judgment to three bishops of Gaul, Maternus of Cologne, 
Reticius of Autun, and Marinus of Arles, r conjointly with 
the pope Miltiades. These prelates, in a council held at 
Rome in 313, composed of fifteen Italian bishops, in 
which Cecilianus and Donatus appeared, each with ten 
bishops of their party, decided in favour of Cecilianus ; 
but the division soon being renewed, the Donatists were 
again condemned by the council of Aries in 3)4; and 
lastly by an edict of Constantine, of the month of Novem- 
ber 316. Donatus, who was returned to Africa, there 
received the sentence of deposition and of excommunica- 
tion pronounced against him by pope Miltiades. 2 

DONATUS, bishop of Carthage, has likewise the credit 
of having given the name to the sect of Donatists, founded 
it is said, by the former, but which took its name from this 
Donatus, as being the more considerable man of the two. 
He maintained, that though the three persons in the 
trinity were of the same substance, yet the son was in- 
ferior to the father, and the holy ghost to the son. He 
began to be known about the year 329, and greatly con- 
firmed his faction by his character and writings. He was 
a man of great parts and learning ; but of greater pride. 

1 Greswell's Mam. of Politianus, &c. Moreri. Diet, Hist. Gen. Diet - 
Tiraboschi. 8 Dupin. Mosbeim. Aliluer's Ch. Hist. vol. II. p. 47. 

240 D O N A T U S. 

He did not spare even the emperors themselves ; for when 
Paulus and Macarius were sent by Constans with presents 
to the churches of Africa, and with alms to relieve the 
poor, he received them in the most reproachful manner, 
rejected their presents with scorn, and asked in a kind of 
fury, " What had the emperor to do with the church ?" 
He was banished from Carthage about the year 356, ac- 
cording to Jerom, and died in exile : though authors are 
not agreed as to the precise time either of his banishment 
or of his death. The emperors were obliged to issue 
many severe edicts to restrain the fury and intemperance 
of this very factious sect. The Donatists had a great 
number of bishops and laity of their party; some of whom 
distinguished themselves by committing outrages upon 
those who differed from them. They had a maxim which 
they firmly maintained upon all occasions, " That the 
church was every where sunk and extinguished, excepting 
in the small remainder amongst themselves in Africa." They 
also affirmed baptism in other churches to be null, and of 
no effect; while other churches allowed it to be valid in 
theirs ; from which they inferred, that it was the safer to 
join that community where baptism was acknowledged 
by both parties to be valid, than that where it was allowed 
to be so only by one. 

Notwithstanding the severities they suffered, it appears 
that they had a very considerable number of churches, 
towards the close of the fourth century ; and could number 
among them no less than 400 bishops; but at this time 
they began to decline, on account of a schism among 
themselves, occasioned by the election of two bishops, in 
the room of Parmenian, the successor of Donatus; one 
party elected Primian, and were called Primianists, and 
another Maximian, and were called Maximianists. The 
decline was also precipitated by the zealous opposi- 
tion of St. Augustin, and by the violent measures which 
were pursued against them by order of the emperor Ho- 
norius, at the solicitation of two councils held at Carthage; 
the one in the year 404, and the other in the year 411. 
Many of them were fined, their bishops were banisiied, 
and some put to death. This sect revived and multiplied 
under the protection of the Vandals, who invadi d Africa 
in the year 427, and took possession of this province ; but 
it sunk again under new severities, when their empire was 
overturned in the year 534. Nevertheless, they remained 

D O N A T U S. 241 

in a separate body till the close of the sixth century, when 
Gregory, the Roman pontiff, used various methods for sup- 
pressing them ; and there are few traces to be found of 
the Donatists after this period. They were distinguished 
by other appellations ; as Circumce/liones, Montenses, or 
mountaineers, Campites, Rupites, &c. They held three 
councils, or conciliabules ; one at Cirta, in Numidia, and 
two at Carthage. 1 

DONATUS (vEuus), a celebrated grammarian in the 
fourth century, wrote a grammar, which long continued in 
the schools, and notes upon Terence and Virgil. Vossius 
mentions him amongst his Latin historians, on account of 
the lives of Virgil and Terence, of which some have fan- 
cied him to be the author ; but he believes that the first 
was written by Tiberius Claudius Donatus, as it is certain 
the latter was by Suetonius. Our Donatus flourished in 
the time of Constantius, and taught rhetoric and polite 
literature at Rome with applause, in the year 356, and 
afterwards ; about which time St. Jerom, who has several 
times mentioned him as his master, studied grammar under 
him. Jerom also speaks of his commentaries upon Terence 
and Virgil ; and in his own commentary upon the first 
chapter of the book of Ecclesiastes, verse 9th, he quotes 
a verse out of Terence, and then an observation of his 
master Donatus upon it, which was probably made yi his 
lectures, as it does not now appear in the notes of Do- 
natus upon Terence. Donatus has given ample employ- 
ment to the Bibliographers, who all speak of the " Editio 
Tabellaris, sine ulla nota" of his Grammar, as one of the 
first efforts at printing by means of letters cut on wooden 
blocks. This work has been printed with several titles, 
as " Donatus," " Donatus minor," " Donatus pro pue- 
rulis," &c. ; but the work is the same, viz. Elements of 
the Latin language for the use of children. Dr. Clarke 
has given an account of twelve editions, all of great rarity, 
one of which, by Wynkyn de Worde, is described by Mr. 
Dibdin. His " Commentarii in quinque Comujclias Te- 
rentii," was first printed without a date, probably before 
1460, and reprinted in 1471, 1476; and his " Commen- 
tarius in Virgilium," fol. was printed at Venice in 1529.* 

1 Dupin Mosheim. Milner's Ch. Hist. vol. II. p. 47. 

2 Vossius. Fabric. Bibl. Lat. Lardner. Dibditi's Typographical Antiqui- 
ties, vol. 11. Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary, 


S42 D O N D E. 

DONDE, or DONDUS (JAMES), a famous physician 
of Padua, surnamed Aggregator, on account of the great 
quantity of remedies he had made, was not less versed in 
mathematics than in medicine. He invented a clock of a 
new construction, which shewed not only the hours of the 
day and night, the days of the month, and the festivals of 
the year, but also the annual course of the sun, and that 
of the moon. The success of this invention got him the 
appellation of Horologius, a name ever afterwards re- 
tained hy the family. It was likewise Dondus who first 
found out the secret of making salt from the waters of 
Albano, in the Pacluan, which is described in a posthu- 
mous treatise, " De fluxu et refluxu Maris," 1571. He 
died in 1350, leaving several works in physics and medi- 
cine. We have by him : " Promptuarium medicinae," 
Venice, 1481, folio; and in company with John de Don- 
dis, his son, " De fontibus calidis Patavini agri," in a 
treatise " De Balneis," Venice, 1553, folio. * 

DONDUCCI (GEORGE ANDREW), a Bolognese artist, 
born in 1575, was called II Mastelletta, from his father's 
trade, that of a pail-maker; and seems to have been born 
a painter. He was a pupil of the Caracci, but did not 
attend to their suggestions on the necessity of acquiring a 
competent foundation for drawing, and contrived to catch 
the eye by a more compendious method ; surrounding a 
splendid centre by impenetrable darkness, which absorbed 
every trace of outline. It is probable that his success 
greatly contributed to encourage that set of painters dis- 
tinguished by the name of Tenebrosi, shade-hunters, so 
numerous afterwards in the Venetian and Lombard schools. 
Donducci was distinguished, though not by correctness, 
by a great spirit of design, a sufficient imitation of Parmi- 
giano, whom he exclusively admired, and a certain native 
facility which enabled him to colour the largest dimen- 
sions of canvas in a little time. He failed in his attempts 
at changing this manner, as he grew older and more im- 
patient of the praise bestowed on an open style. Light, 
BO longer supported by obscurity, served only to expose 
his weakness ; and the two miracles of S. Domenico, in 
the church of that saint, which had been considered as his 
master-pieces, became by alteration the meanest of his 
works. The same diversity of manner is observable in his 
smaller pictures ; those of the first, such as the Miracle of 

1 Moreri. Mangel. Haller's Bibl. Mci Pract 

D O N D U C C I. 24S 

tJie Manna, in the Spada palace, are as highly valuable as 
his landscapes, which in many galleries would be taken for 
works of the Caracci, were they not discriminated by that 
original shade that stamps the genuine style of Mastelletta. 
The time of his death is not ascertained. 1 

DONEAU (HUGH), in Latin Donellus, one of the most 
learned civilians of the sixteenth century, was born at 
Chalons on the Saone, in 1537. His school-master had 
so disheartened nim by severity, that neither threats nor 
promises could make him remain in school. But at last, 
being afraid he should be placed in a menial situation, he 
applied more diligently to his studies. He learned civil 
law at Toulouse, under the professors John Corrasius and 
Arnold du Ferrier, who had no less than four thousand 
auditors. He was admitted to the decree of D. C. L. at 


Bourges, in 1551, and professed that science in the same 
city with Duaren, Hotman, and Cujacius, and afterwards 
at Orleans. He was very near being killed in the mas- 
sacre of 1572, because he was a protestant ; and could 
not have escaped the violence of the murtherers, if some 
of his scholars, who were Germans by nation, had not 
saved him by disguising him in a German dress, as one of 
their domestics. He had embraced the reformation whea 
rery young, at the instigation of his sister. He staid some 
time at Geneva, and afterwards he went into the palati- 
nate, where he taught the civil law in the university of 
Heidelbergh. He was invited to Leyden in 1575, to take 
upon him the same employment, which he accepted and 
discharged in a worthy manner, but baring imprudently 
engaged himself in some political disputes, he was forced 
to leave Holland in 1588. He returned to Germany, and 
was professor of law at Altorf until his death, May 4, 1 591. 
He had so happy a memory, that he knew the whole Cor- 
pus Juris by heart. His works, most of which had been 
published separately, were collected under the title , of 
" Commentaria de jure civili," 5 vols. folio, reprinted at 
Lucca, 12 vols. folio, of which the last appeared in 1770. 
2. " Opera Posthuma," 8vo. The most valuable of his 
writings, is his book on the subject of last wills and tes- 
taments, which he is said to have treated with great learn- 
ing and precision. 8 

1 Pilkington, edit. 1810. 

8 Gen. Diet. Niceion, vol. XXXIIT. Moreri. Freheil Tbeatrum. Bur 
an's Syllog* Epistolamm, Saxii Onomast. 

ft 2 

244 DON I. 

DONI (ANTHONY FRANCIS), a Florentine, first a monk 
and then a secular priest, died in 1574, at the age of sixty- 
one. He was member of the academy of the Peregrini, in 
which he took the academical name of Bizzaro, perfectly 
suitable to his satirical and humourous character. Some 
of his works are, 1. " Letters," in Italian, Svo. 2. " La 
Libraria," 1557, Svo. 3. " La Zucca," 1565, 4 parts, 
Svo, with plates. 4. " I mondi celesti, terestri ed infer- 
nali," 4to : there is an old French translation of it. 5. " I 
martiii, cive Raggionamenti fatti a i marmi di Fiorenza," 
Venice, 1552, 4to. In all his writings, of which there is 
a list of more than twenty in Niceron, he aspires at singu- 
larity, and the reputation of a comical fellow ; in the first 
he generally succeeds, and if he fail in the second, it is not 
for want of great and constant efforts to become so. Dr. 
Burney gives an account of a very rare book of his, entitled 
" Dialoghi della Musica," which was published at Venice, 
1544, which the doctor never saw, except in the library olf 
Padre Martini. The author was not only a practical mu- 
sician and composer by profession, but connected, and in 
correspondence with the principal writers and artists of his 
time. Dr. Burney also remarks that his " Libraria" must 
have been an useful publication when it first appeared ; 
as it not only contains a catalogue and character of all the 
Italian books then in print, but of all the MSS. that he 
had seen, with a list of the academies then subsisting, their 
institution, mottos, and employment ; but what rendered 
this little work particularly useful to Dr. Burney in his 
inquiries after early musical publications, is the catalogue 
it contains of all the music which had been published at 
Venice since the invention of printing. 

There was another DONI, whose name was JOHN BAP- 
TIST, a writer on Music, and who left behind him at his 
death, about 1650, many printed works upon ancient mu- 
sic, as " Compend. del. Trat. de' Generi e de' Modi della 
Musica." "De praestantia Musicse Veteris," and particularly 
his " Discorso sopra le Consonanze," with a great number 
of unfinished essays and tracts relative to that subject, and 
the titles of many more. Few men had indeed considered 
the subject with greater attention. He saw the difficulties, 
though he was unable to solve them. The titles of his 
chapters, as well as many of those of father Mersennus, 
and others, are often the most interesting and seducing 
imaginable. But they are false lights, which like ignes 

D O N I. 245 

fatui, lead us into new and greater obscurity. The 
treatises which he published both in Latin and Italian, 
on the music of the Greeks, being well written in 
point of language, obtained him the favour and eulogies 
of men of the highest class in literature. He has been 
much extolled by Heinsius, Gassendi, Pietro della 
Valle, and others. Apostolo Zeno, in his learned notes 
to the Biblioteca Italiana of Fontanini, speaks of him 
in the following terms : " We had reason to hope that 
the works of Doni -would have completed our knowledge 
of the musical system of the ancients ; as he united 
in himself a vast erudition, a profound knowledge in the 
Greek language, in mathematics, in the theory of modern 
music, in poetry, and history, with access to all the pre- 
cious MSS. and treasures of antiquity." Doni invented an 
instrument which he denominated the " Lyra Barberini," 
or " Amphichordon," which he has described in an express 
treatise, but we hear of it no where else. He was a de- 
clared foe to learned music, particularly vocal in fugue, 
where the several performers are uttering different words at 
the same time, and certainly manifests good taste, and 
enlarged views, with respect to theatrical music and the 
improvement of the musical drama or opera; but his ob- 
jections to modern music, and proposals of reform, not 
only manifest his ignorance of the laws of harmony, but a 
bad ear, as he recommends such wild, impracticable, and 
intolerable expedients of improvement., as no ear well 
constructed, however uncultivated, can bear. 

In 1763, signior Bandini, librarian to the ci-devant 
grand duke of Tuscany, published in 2 vols. folio, not 
only the musical tracts of Doni which had appeared during 
his life, but others that were found among his MS papers 
after his decease, some finished, some unfinished, and the 
mere titles of others which he had in meditation. l 

DONI D'ATTICHI (LEWIS), was born in 1596, of a 
noble family, originally of Florence, and entered himself 
of the Minims. Cardinal Richelieu, who became ac- 
quainted with him during his retirement at Avignon, was 
so struck with his modesty and learning, that he gave him 
the bishopric of Itiez, in which diocese he did much good. 

1 Burney and Hawkins's Hist, of Mu>ic. Moreri. Nlceron, vol. XXXIH, 
Cen. Diet. Marchand. Clement Bibl. Curieuse. Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

246 DON I. 

From the see of Uiez he was translated to that of Autun, 
and died in 1664, at the age of sixty-eight. He published, 
1. "A History of the Minims," 4to.' 2. "The Life of 
queen Joan, foundress of the Annonciades," 8vo. 3. " The 
Life of cardinal de Berulle," in Latin, 8vo. 4. " The His- 
tory of the Cardinals," in Latin, 1660, 2 vols. folio, &c. 
His Latin works are more tolerable in regard to style than 
those in French, the diction of which is become obsolete. * 
DONN (ABRAHAM), an ingenious mathematician, was 
born Feb. 6, 17 1 8, at Bideford, in Devonshire, where 
his father kept a mathematical school, and was reputed 
one of the best teachers of arithmetic, navigation, and 
dialing, in his time. It appears from some papers in MS. 
left by the Rev. Mr. Hervey, author of the " Meditations,'* 
that the family name was Donne ; and that Christopher, 
the grandfather, was the first that dropped the final e. 
The subject of the present article was brought up under 
the care of the Rev. Mr. Mudge, of Plymouth, and his 

successor White, M. A. with whom he made a very 

considerable progress in the Latin and Greek languages. 
When he left the grammar-school, as far as his health 
would permit, he assisted his father in his mathematical 
school ; and when he was about fourteen years of age, 
being at play with some of his schoolmates, he fell from a 
high pile of deals, which, with his soon after going a-swim- 
ming in a profuse sweat, laid the foundation for disorders 
which continued on him till the time of his death ; so that, 
from the fourteenth year of his age to his twenty-eighth, 
when he died, he can scarcely be said to have had the 
blessing of health, even for so short an interval as a month. 
^Notwithstanding this severe sickness, he studied the ma- 
thematics, and acquired some considerable knowledge in 
those sciences ; for he solved several questions in the 
Diaries. As to astronomy, it seemed to have been his 
favourite study ; and he left behind him the result of hiss 
calculations of the eclipses of the Sun and Moon, with the 
transits of Mercury, for more than ten years to come, with 
their delineations. He was assistant to Mr. Hervey in his 
studying the use of the globes ; and that pious clergyman 
preached his funeral serndbn, July 15, 1746. His works 
were published by his younger brother, Benjamin Donn, 

* Moreri. 

BONN. 247 

who about 1756 opened an academy at Kingston, near 
Taunton, in Somersetshire, where he taught with great 
success, and where he died in 1798, after publishing some 
mathematical treatises. ' 

DONNE (JOHN), an eminent English divine and poet, 
was born in the city of London in 1573. His father was 
descended from a very ancient family in Wales, and his 
mother was distantly related to sir Thomas More the cele- 
brated and unfortunate lord chancellor, and to judge Ras- 
tall, whose father, one of the earliest English printers, 
married Elizabeth, the chancellor's sister. Ben Jonson 
seems to think that he inherited a poetical turn from Hay- 
wood, the epigrammatist, who was also a distant relation, 
by the mother's side. Of his father's station in life we 
have no account, but he must have been a man of consi- 
derable opulence, as he bequeathed to him three thousand 
pounds, a large sum in those days. Young Donne re- 
ceived the rudiments of education at home under a private 
tutor, and his proficiency was such, that he was sent to the 
university at the early, and perhaps unprecedented age of 
eleven years, or according to Walton, at ten. At this time, 
we are told, he understood the French and Latin languages, 
and had in other respects so far exceeded the usual attain- 
ments of boyhood, as to be compared to Picus Mirandula, 
one that was " rather born, than made wise by study." He 
was entered of Hart-hall, now Hertford college, where at 
the usual time he might have taken his first degree with 
honour, but having been educated in the Roman catholic 
persuasion, he submitted to the advice of his friends who 
were averse to the oath usually administered on that occa- 
sion. About his fourteenth year, he was removed to Tri- 
nity college, Cambridge, where he prosecuted his studies 
for three years with uncommon perseverance and applause : 
but here likewise his religious scruples prevented his 
taking any degree. 

In his seventeenth year, he repaired to London, and 
was admitted into Lincoln's-inn, with an intention to study 
law, but what progress he made we are not told, except 
that he continued to give proofs of accumulated knowledge 
in general science. Upon his father's death, which hap- 
pened before he could have been regularly admitted into 

Gent. Mag. TO!. LXXIV, 

248 DONNE. 

the society of Lincoln's-inn, he retired upon the fortune 
which his father left to him, and had nearly dissipated the 
whole before he made choice of any plan of life. At this 
time, however, he was so, young and so submissive as to 
be under the guardianship of his mother and friends, who 
provided him with tutors in the mathematics, and such 
other branches of knowledge as formed the accomplish- 
ments of that age ; and his love of learning, which was 
ardent and discursive, greatly facilitated their labours, and 
furnished his mind with such intellectual stores as gained 
him considerable distinction. It is not improbable, also, 
that his poetical attempts contributed to make him more 

It was about the age of eighteen, that he began to study 
the controversy between the protestants and papists. His 
tutors had been instructed to take every opportunity of 
confirming him in popery, the religion of his family; and 
he confesses that his mother's persuasions had much weight. 
She was a woman of great piety, and her son, in all the 
relations of life, evinced a most affectionate heart. Amidst 
these allurements, however, he entered on the inquiry with 
much impartiality, and with the honest intention to give 
way to such convictions only as should be founded in 
established truth. He has recorded in the preface to his 
" Pseudo-Martyr," the struggles of his mind, which he 
says he overcame by frequent prayer, and an indifferent 
affection to both parties. The result was a firm, and, as it 
afterwards proved, a serious adherence to the doctrines of 
the reformed church. 

This inquiry, which terminated probably to the grief of 
his surviving parent and his friends of the Romish persua- 
sion, appears to have occupied a considerable space of 
time, as we hear no more of him, until he began his tra- 
vels in his twenty-first year. He accompanied the earl of 
Essex in his expedition in 1596, when Cadiz was taken, 
and again in 1597, but did not return to England until he 
had travelled for some time in Italy, from which he meant 
to have penetrated into the Holy Land, and visited Jerusa- 
lem and the holy sepulchre. But the inconveniences and 
dangers of the road in those parts appeared so insuperable 
that he gave up this design, although with a reluctance to 
which he often used to advert. The time, however, which 
he had dedicated to visit the Holy Land, he passed in Spain, 

DONNE. 249 

and both there and in Italy, studied the language, man- 
ners, and government of the country, allusions to which 
are scattered throughout his poems and prose works. 

Not long after his return to England, he obtained the 
patronage of sir Thomas Egerton, lord Ellesmere, lord 
chancellor of England, and the friend and predecessor of 
the illustrious Bacon. This nobleman appears to have 
been struck with his accomplishments, now heightened by 
the polish of foreign travel, and appointed him to be his 
chief secretary, as an introduction to some more important 
employment in the state, for which he is said to have pro- 
nounced him very fit. The conversation of Donne, at tiiis 
period, was probably enriched by observation, and en- 
livened by that wit which sparkles so frequently in his 
works. The chancellor, it is certain, conceived so highly 
of him, as to make him an inmate in his house, and a con- 
stant guest at his table, where he had an opportunity of 
mixing with the most eminent characters of the age, and 
of obtaining that notice, which, if not abused, generally 
leads to preferment. 

In this honourable employment, he passed five years, 
probably the most agreeable of his life. But a young man 
of a disposition inclined to gaiety, and in the enjoyment of 
the most elegant pleasures of society, could not be long a 
stranger to love. Donne's favourite object was the daughter 
of sir George Moor, or More, of Loxley farm in the county 
of Surrey, and niece to lady Ellesmere. This young lady 
resided in the house of the chancellor, and the lovers had 
consequently many opportunities to indulge the tenderness 
of an attachment which appears to -have been mutual. Be- 
fore the family, they were probably not very cautious, for 
in one of his elegies he speaks of spies and rivals, and her 
father either suspected, or from them had some intimation, 
of a connexion which he chose to consider as degrading, 
and therefore removed his daughter to his own house at 
Loxley. But this measure was adopted too late, as the 
parties, perhaps dreading the event, had been for some 
time privately married. This unwelcome news, when it 
could be no longer concealed, was imparted to sir George 
Moor, by Henry earl of Northumberland, a nobleman, 
who, notwithstanding this friendly interference, was after- 
wards guilty of that rigour towards his own youngest 
daughter, which he now wished to soften in the breast of 
sir George Moor. Sir George's rage, however, transported 

250 DONNE. 

him beyond the bounds of reason. He not only insisted 
on Donne's being dismissed from the lord chancellor's ser- 
vice, but caused him to be imprisoned ; and, at the same 
time, Samuel Brook, afterwards master of Trinity college, 
and iiis brother Christopher Brook, who were present at 
the marriage, the one acting as father to the lady, the 
other as witness. 

Ttieir imprisonment appears to have been an act of arbi- 
trary power, for we hear of no trial being instituted, or 
punishment inflicted on the parties. Mr. Donne was first 
released*, and soon procured the enlargement of his com- 
panions ; and, probably at no great distance of time, sir 
George Moor began to relent. The excellent character of 
his son-in-law was so often represented to him that he 
could no longer resist the intended consequences of such 
applications. He condescended, therefore, to permit the 
young couple to live together, and solicited the lord chan- 
cellor to restore Mr. Donne to his former situation. This, 
however, the chancellor refused, and in such a manner as 
to show the opinion he entertained of sir George's conduct. 
His lordship owned that " he was unfeignedly sorry for 
what he had done, yet it was inconsistent with his plac^ 
and credit to discharge and re-admit servants at the request 
of passionate petitioners." Lady Ellesmere also probably 
felt the severity of this remark, as her unwearied solicita- 
tions had induced the chancellor to adopt a measure which 
he supposed the world would regard as capricious, and in- 
consistent with his character. 

Whatever allowance is to be made for the privileges of 
a parent, the conduct of sir George Moor, on this occa- 
sion, seems entitled to no indulgence. He neither felt as 
a father, nor acted as a wise man. His object in request- 
ing his son-in-law to be restored to the chancellor's ser- 
vice, was obviously that he might be released from the 
expence of maintaining him and his wife ; for, when dis- 
appointed in this, he refused them any assistance. This 
harshness reduced Mr. Donne to a situation the most dis- 
tressing. His estate, the three thousand pounds before 
mentioned, had been nearly expended on his education 

* He date? a letter to sir H. GooJere, dates, and takes no notice of this cir- 

June 15, 1607, in which he expresses cumstatice. Donne's Letters, p. 81. 

some hopes of obtaining a place at In another letter he makes interest for 

court in the queen's household. This the place of one of his majesty's secre- 

may have been soon after his release, taries in Ireland, but this has no date, 

but his biographer, Walton, gives /few Ibid. p. 145. 

DONNE. 251 

and during his travels; and he had now no employment 
that could enable him to support a wife, accustomed to 
ease and respect, with even the decent necessaries of life. 
These sorrows, however, were considerably lessened by 
the friendship of sir Francis Wooley, son to lady Elles- 
mere by her first husband sir John Wooley of Pit ford in 
Surrey, knt. In this gentleman's house Mr. and Mrs. Donne 
resided for many years, and were treated with an ease and 
kindness which moderated the sense of dependence, and. 
which they repaid with attentions that appear to have 
gratified and secured the affection of their benevolent 

It has already been noticed that in his early years he 
had examined the state of the controversy between the 
popish and protestant churches, the result of which was 
his firm attachment to the latter. But this was not the 
only consequence of a course of reading in which the prin- 
ciples of religion were necessarily to be traced to their 
purer sources. He appears to have contracted a pious 
turn of mind, which although occasionally interrupted by 
the intrusions of gay life, and an intercourse with foreign 
nations and foreign pleasures, became habitual, and was 
probably increased by the distresses brought on his family 
in consequence of his imprudent marriage. That this was 
the case appears from an interesting part of his history, 
during- his residence with sir Francis Wooley, when he 
was solicited to take orders. Among the friends whom his 
talents procured him, was the learned Dr. Morton, after- 
wards bishop of Durham, who first made this proposal, but 
with a reserve which does him much honour, and proves 
the truest regard for the interests of the church. The cir- 
cumstance is so remarkable that no apology can be neces- 
sary for giving it in the words of his biographer : 

" Dr. Morton sent to Mr. Donne, and intreated to bor- 
row an hour of his time for a conference the next day. 
After their meeting, there was not many minutes passed 
before he spake to Mr. Donne to this purpose: ' Mr. Donne, 
the occasion of sending for you is to propose to you, what 
I have otten revolved in my own thought since 1 saw you 
last, which nevertheless I will not declare but upon this 
condition, that you shall not return me a present answer, 
but forbear three days, and bestow some part of that time 
in fasting and prayer, and after a serious consideration of 
what I shall propose, then return to me with your answer. 

252 DON N E. 

Deny me not, Mr. Donne, for it is the effect of a true love, 
which I would gladly pay as a debt due for yours to me." 
This request being granted, the doctor expressed himself 
thus : ' Mr. Donne, I know your education and abilities ; 
I know your expectation of a state employment, and I 
know your fitness for it, and I know too, the many delays 
and contingencies that attend court-promises ; and let me 
tell you, that my love, begot by our long friendship and 
your merits, hath prompted me to such an inquisition after 
your present temporal estate, as makes me no stranger to 
your necessities, which I know to be such as your generous 
spirit could not bear, if it were not supported with a pious 
patience : You know I have formerly persuaded you to 
wave your court-hopes, and enter into holy orders ; which 
I now again persuade you to embrace, with this reason 
added to my former request : The king hath yesterday 
made me dean of Gloucester, and I am also possessed of a 
benefice, the profits of which are equal to those of my 
deanery : I will think my deanery enough for my mainte- 
nance (who am and resolve to die a single man), and will 
quit my benefice, and estate you in it (which the patron is 
willing I shall do), if God shall incline your heart to em- 
brace this motion. Remember, Mr. Donne, no man's edu- 
cation or parts make him too good for this employment, 
which is to be an ambassador for the God of glory ; that 
God, who, by a vile death, opened the gates of life to 
mankind. Make me no present answer, but remember 
your promise, and return to me the third day with your 

" At the hearing of this, Mr. Donne's faint breath and 
perplexed countenance gave a visible testimony of an in- 
ward conflict; but he performed his promise, and departed 
without returning an answer till the third day, and theft 
his answer was to this effect : ' My most worthy and 
most dear friend, since I saw you I have been faithful to 
my promise, and have also meditated much of your great 
kindness, which hath been such as would exceed even my 
gratitude, but that it cannot do, and more I cannot return 
you ; and that I do with an heart full of humility and 
thanks, though I may not accept of your offer : But, sir, my 
refusal is not for that I think myself too good for that 
calling, for which kings, if they think so, are not good 
enough ; nor for that my education and learning, though 
not eminent, may not, being assisted with God's grace and 

DONNE. 253 

humility, render me in some measure fit for it ; but I dare 
make so dear a friend as you are my confessor : some irre- 
gularities of my life have been so visible to some men, 
that though I have, I thank God, made my peace with him 
by penitential resolutions against them, and by the assist- 
ance of his grace banished them my affections ; yet this, 
which God knows to be so, is not so visible to man, as to 
free me from their censures, and it may be that sacred 
calling from a dishonour. And besides, whereas it is de- 
termined by the best of casuists, that God's glory should 
be the first end, and a maintenance the second motive to 
embrace that calling, and though each man may propose 
to himself both together, yet the first may not be put last 
without a violation of my conscience, which he that 
searches the heart will judge. And truly my present con- 
dition is such, that if I ask my own conscience whether it 
be reconcileable to that rule, it is at this time so perplexed 
about it, that I can neither give mvself nor you an answer. 

9 O +1 * 

You know, sir, who says, Happy is that man whose con- 
science doth not accuse him for that thing which he does. 
To these I mio-ht add other reasons that dissuade me, but 


I crave your favour that may forbear to express them, and 
thankfully decline your offer.'" 

This transaction, which, according to the date of Dr. 
Morton's promotion to the deanery of Gloucester, happened 
in 1607, when our poet was in his thirty- fourth year, is 
not unimportant, as it displays that character for nice ho- 
nour and integrity which distinguished Donne in all his 
future life, and was accompanied with an heroic generosity 
of feeling and action, which is perhaps rarely to be met 
with, unless in men whose principles have the foundation 
which he appears to have now laid. 

Donne and his family remained with sir Francis Woolev 
until the death of this excellent friend, whose last act of 
kindness was to effect some degree of reconciliation be- 
tween sir George Moor and his son and daughter. Sir 
George agreed by a bond to pay Mr. Donne eight hundred 
pounds on a certain day, as a portion with his wife, or 
twenty pounds quarterly for their maintenance, until the 
principal sum should be discharged. With this sum, so 
inferior to what he once possessed, and to what he might 
have expected, he took a house at Mitcham for his wife 
and family, and lodgings for himself in London, which he- 
often visited, and enjoyed the society and esteem of many 

254, DONNE. 

persons distinguished for rank and talents. It appears, 
however, by his letters, that his income was far from ade- 
quate to the wants of an increasing family, of whom he 
frequently writes in a style of melancholy and despondence 
which appear to have affected his health. He still had no 
offer of employment, and no fixed plan of study. During 
his residence with sir Francis Wooley, he had read much 
on the civil and canon law, and probably might have ex- 
celled in any of the literary professions which offered en- 
couragement, but he confesses that he was diverted from 
them by a general desire of learning, or what he calls in 
one of his poems " the sacred hunger of science." 

In this desultory course of reading, which improved hia 
mind at the expence of his fortune, he spent two years at 
Mitcham, when sir Robert Drury insisted on his bringing 
his family to live with him in his spacious house in Drury - 
lane ; and sir Robert afterwards intending to go on an em- 
bassy with lord Hay to the court of France, he persuaded 
Donne to accompany him. Mrs. Donne was at this time 
in a bad state of health, and near the end of her preg- 
nancy ; and she remonstrated against his leaving her, as 
she foreboded " some ill in his absence." Her affectionate 
husband determined on this account to abandon all thoughts 
of his journey, and intimated his resolution to sir Robert, 
who, for whatever reason, became the more solicitous for 
his company. This brought on a generous conflict be- 
tween Donne and his wife. He urged that he could not 
refuse a man to whom he was so much indebted ; and she 
complied, although with some reluctance, from a conge- 
nial sense of obligation. It was on this occasion, probably, 
that he addressed to his wife the verses " By our first strange 
and fatal interview," &c. She had formed, if this conjecture 
be allowed, the romantic design of accompanying him in 
the disguise of a page, from which, it was the purpose of 
these verses to dissuade her. 

Mr. Donne accordingly went abroad with the embassy, 
and two days after their arrival at Paris had that extraor- 
dinary vision which has been minutely detailed by all his 
biographers. He saw, or fancied he saw, his wife pass 
through the room, in which he was sitting alone, with her 
hair hanging about her shoulders, and a dead child in her 
arms. This story he often repeated, and with so much 
confidence and anxiety, that sir Robert sent a messenger 
to Drur.y-h.QUse, who brought back intelligence, that he 

DONNE. 255 

found Mrs. Donne very sad and sick in bed, and that after 
a long and dangerous labour, she had been delivered of a 
dead child ; which event happened on the day and hour 
that Mr. Donne saw the vision. Walton has recorded the 
story on the authority of an anonymous informant, and 
has endeavoured to render it credible, not only by the cor- 
responding instances of Samuel and Saul, of Bildad, and 
of St. Peter, but those of Julius Caesar and Brutus, St. 
Augustin and Monica. The whole may be safely left to the 
judgment of the reader. 

From the dates of some of Donne's letters, it appears 
that he was at Paris with sir Robert Drury in 1612*, and 
one is dated from the Spa in the same year, but at what 
time he returned is not certain. After his return, how- 
ever, his friends became more seriously anxious to fix him 
in some honourable and lucrative employment at court. 
Before this period he had become known to king James, 
and was one of those learned persons with whom that so- 
vereign delighted to converse at his table. On one of 
those occasions, about 1610, the conversation turned on 
a question respecting the obligation on Roman Catholics 
to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy ; and Donne 
appeared to so much advantage in the dispute, that his 
majesty requested he would commit his sentiments to 
writing, and bring them to him. Donne readily complied, 
and presented the king with the treatise, published in that 
year, under the title of " Pseudo-Martyr." This obtained 
him much reputation, and the university of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degree of M. A. which he had previously- 
received from Cambridge. The " Pseudo-Martyr," con- 
tains very strong arguments against the pope's supremacy, 
and has been highly praised by his biographers. War- 
burton, however, speaks of it in less favourable terms. It 
must be confessed that the author has not availed himself 
of the writings of the judicious Hooker, and that in this, 
as well as in all his prose writings, are many of those far- 
fetched conceits, which, however agreeable to the taste of 
the age, have placed him at the head of a class of Very in- 
different poets. 

At this period of our history, it was deemed expedient 
to select such men for high offices in the church, as pro- 

* It may be necessary to mention that the dates of some of his letters do not 
correspond with Walton's narrative j aud i is now too late to attempt to recon- 
cile them. 

256 DONNE. 

mised by their abilities and zeal to vindicate the reformed 
religion. King James, who was no incompetent judge of 
such merit, though perhaps too apt to measure the talents 
of others by his own standard, conceived from a perusal 
of the " Pseudo-Martyr," that Donne would prove an or- 
nament and bulwark to the church, and therefore not only 
endeavoured to persuade him to take orders, but resisted 
every application to exert the royal favour towards him in 
any other direction. When the favourite earl of Somerset 
requested that Mr. Donne might have the place of one of 
the clerks of the council, then vacant, the king replied, 
*' I know Mr. Donne is a learned man, has the abilities of 
a learned divine, and will prove a powerful preacher, and 
my desire is to prefer him that way, and in that way I 
will deny you nothing for him." Such an intimation must 
have made a powerful impression, yet there is no reascn 
to conclude from any part of Mr. Donne's character, that 
he won I'd have been induced to enter the church merely 
by the persuasion of his sovereign, however flattering. 
To him, however, at this time, the transition was not dif- 
ficult. He had relinquished the follies of youth, and had 
nearly outlived the remembrance of them. His studies 
had long inclined to theology, and his frame of mind was 
adapted to support the character expected from him. His 
old .friend Dr, Morton probably embraced this opportu- 
nity to second the king's wishes, and remove Mr. Donne's 
personal scruples ; and Dr. King, bishop of London, who 
had been chaplain to the chancellor when Donne was his 
secretary, and consequently knew his character, heard of 
his intention with much satisfaction. By this prelate he 
was ordained deacon and afterwards priest ; and the king, 
although not uniformly punctual in his promises of patron- 
age, immediately made him his chaplain in ordinary, and 
gave him hopes of higher preferment. 

Those who had been the occasion of Mr. Donne's en- 
tering into orders, were anxious to see him exhibit in a 
new character, with the abilities which had been so much 
admired in the scholar, and the man of the world. But 
at first, we are told, he confined his public services to the 
churches in the vicinity of London, and it was not until 
his majesty required his attendance at Whitehall on an ap- 
pointed day, that he appeared before an auditory capable 
of appreciating his talents. Their report is stated to have 
been highly favourable. His biographer, indeed, seems 

DONNE. 257 

to be at a loss for words to express the pathos, dignity, 
and effect of his preaching, but in what he has advanced 
he no doubt spoke the sentiments of Donne's learned con- 
temporaries. Still the excellence of the pulpit oratory 
of that age will not bear the test of modern criticism, and 
those who now consult Mr. Donne's sermons, if they ex- 
pect gratification, must be more attentive to the matter 
than the manner. That he was a popular and useful 
preacher, is universally acknowledged, and he performed 
the more private duties of his function with humility, kind- 
ness, zeal, and assiduity. 

The same month, which appears to have been March 
1614, in which he entered into orders, and preached at 
Whitehall," the king happened to be entertained during 
one of his progresses at Cambridge, and recommended 
Mr. Donne to be made D. D. Walton informs us that the 
university gave their assent as soon as Dr. Harsnet, the 
vice-chancellor, made the proposal. According, however, 
to two letters from Mr. Chamberlain to sir Dudley Carlton, 
it appears that there was some opposition to the degree, 
in consequence of a report that Mr. Donne had obtained 
the reversion of the deanery of Canterbury. Even the 
vice-chancellor is mentioned among those who opposed 
him. It is not very easy to reconcile these accounts, unles 
by a conjecture that the opposition was withdrawn, when 
the report respecting the deanery of Canterbury was proved 
to be untrue. And there is some probability that this was 
the case, for that deanery became vacant in the following 
year, and was given to Dr. Fotherby, a man of much less 
fame and interest. But whatever was the cause of this 
temporary opposition at Cambridge, it is certain that Dr. 
Donne became so highly esteemed as a preacher, that 
within the first year of his ministry, he had the offer of 
fourteen different livings, all of which he declined, and all 
for the same reason, namely, that they were situated at a 
distance from London, to which, in common with all men 
of intellectual curiosity, he appears to have been warmly 

In 1617 his wife died, leaving him seven children. This 
affliction sunk so deep into his heart, that he retired from 
the world and from his friends, to indulge a sorrow which 
could not be restrained, and which for some time inter- 
rupted his public services. From this he was at length 
diverted by the gentlemen of Lincoln's-inn, who requested 


258 DONNE. 

him to accept their lecture, and prevailed. Their high- 
regard for him contributed to render this situation agree- 
able and adequate to the maintenance of his family. The 
connexion subsisted about two years, greatly to the satis- 
faction of both parties, and of the people at large, who 
had now frequent opportunities of hearing their favourite 
preacher. But on lord Hay being appointed on an em- 
bassy to Germany, Dr. Donne was requested to attend 
him. He was at this time in a state of health which re- 
quired relaxation and change of air, and after an absence 
of fourteen months, he returned to his duty in Lincoln's- 
inn, much improved in health and spirits, and about a year 
after, in 1620, the king conferred upon him the deanery 
of St. Paul's. 

This promotion, like all the leading events of his life, 
tended to the advancement of his character. While it. 
amply supplied his wants, it enabled him at the same time 
to exhibit the heroism of a liberal and generous mind, in 
the casfc of his father-in-law, sir George Moor. This man 
had never acted the part of a kind and forgiving parent, 
although he continued to pay the annual sum agreed upon 
by bond, in lieu of his daughter's portion. The time was 
now come, when Dr. Donne could repay his harshness, by 
convincing him how unworthily it had been exerted. The 
quarter after his appointment to the deanery, when sir 
George came to pay him the stipulated sum, Dr. Donne 
refused it, and after acknowledging more kindness than he 
had received, added, " I know your present condition is 
such as not to abound, and I hope mine is such as not to 
need it ; I will therefore receive no more from you upon 
that contract," which he immediately gave up. 

To his deanery was now added the vicarage of St. Dun- 
stan in the West, and another ecclesiastical endowment 
not specified by Walton. These according to his letters 
(p. 318) he owed to the friendship of Richard Sackville, 
earl of Dorset, and of the earl of Kent. From all this he 
derived the pleasing prospect of making a decent provision 
for his children, as well as of indulging to a greater extent 
his liberal and humane disposition. In 1624, he was chosen 
prolocutor to the convocation, on which occasion he deli- 
vered a Latin oration, which is printed in the London edi- 
tion of his poems, 1719. 

While in this full tide of popularity, he had the misfor- 
tune to fall under the displeasure of the king, who had 

DONNE. 259 

been informed that in his public discourses he had meddled 
with some of those points respecting popery which were 
more usually handled by the puritans. Such an accusation, 
might have had very serious consequences, if the king had 
implicitly confided in those who brought it forward. But 
Dr. Donne was too great a favourite to be condemned un- 
heard, and accordingly his majesty sent for him, and re- 
presented what he hud heard, and Dr. Donne so com- 
pletely satisfied him as to his principles in church and 
state, that the king, in the hearing of his council, be- 
stowed high praise on him, and declared that he rejoiced 
in the recollection that it was by his persuasion Dr. Donne 
had become a divine. 

About four years after he received the deanery of St. 
Paul's, and when he had arrived at his fifty-fourth year, 
his constitution, naturally feeble, was attacked by a disorder 
which had every appearance of being fatal. In this ex- 
tremity he gave another proof of that tenderness of con- 
science, so transcendently superior to all modern notions 
of honour, which had always marked his character. When 
there was little hope of his life, he was required to renew 
some prebendal leases, the fines for which were very con- 
siderable, and might have enriched his family. But this 
he peremptorily refused, considering such a measure, in 
his situation, as a species of sacrilege. " I dare not," he 
added, "now upon my sick bed, when Almighty God 
hath made me useless to the service of the church, make 
any advantages out of it." This illness, however, he sur- 
vived about five years, when his tendency to a consump- 
tion again returned, and terminated his life on the 31st day 
of March, 1631. He was buried in St. Paul's, where a 
monument was erected to his memory. His figure may 
yet be seen in the vaults of St. Faith's under St. Paul's. 
It stands erect in a window, without its niche, and de- 
prived of the urn in which the feet were placed. His pic- 
ture was drawn sometime before his death, when he dressed 
himself in his winding-sheet, and the figure in St. Faith's 
was carved from this painting by Nicholas Stone. The 
fragments of his tomb are on the other side of the church. 
Walton mentions many other paintings of him executed at 
different periods of his life, which are not now known. 

Of his character some judgment may be formed from, 
the preceding sketch, taken principally from Zoucb's much 
improved edition of Walton's Lives. His early years, 

S 2 

260 DONNE. 

there is reason to think, although disgraced by no flagrant 
turpitude, were not exempt from folly and dissipation. In 
some of his poems, we meet with the language and senti- 
ments of men whose morals are not very strict. After his 
marriage, however, he appears to have become of a serious 
and thoughtful disposition, his mind alternately exhausted 
by study, or softened by affliction. His reading was very 
extensive, and we find allusions to almost every science in 
his poems, although unfortunately they only contribute to 
produce distorted images and wild conceits. 

His prose works are numerous, but except the " Pseudo- 
Martyr," and a small volume of devotions, none of them, 
were published during his life. The others are, 1. " Pa- 
radoxes, problems, essays, characters," &c. 1653, 12mo. 
Part of this collection was published at different times be- 
fore. 2. Three volumes of " Sermons," in folio ; the first 
printed in 1640,, the second in 1649, the third in 1660. 
Lord Falkland styles Donne " one of the most witty and 
most eloquent of our modern divines." 3. " Essays in 
divinity," &c. 1651, 12mo. 4. " Letters to several per- 
sons of honour," 1654, 4to. Both these published by his 
son. There are several of Donne's letters, and others to 
him from the queen of Bohemia, the earl of Carlisle, arch- 
bishop Abbot, and Ben Jonson ; printed in a book, en- 
titled, " A collection of Letters made by sir Tobie Mat- 
thews, knt. 1660," 8vo. 5. " The ancient History of the 
Septuagint; translated from the Greek of Aristeas," 1633, 
in 12mo. This translation was revised and corrected by 
another hand, and published in 1635, 8vo. His sermons 
have not a little of the character of his poems. They are 
not, indeed, so rugged in style, but they abound with 
quaint allusions, which now appear ludicrous although they 
probably produced no such effect in his days. With this 
exception, they contain much good sense, much acquaint- 
ance with human nature, many striking thoughts, and 
some very just biblical criticism*. 

One of his prose writings requires more particular no- 
tice. Every admirer of his character will wish it expunged 

* We are informed by a valuable The MS. which appeals to be of the 
correspondent, to whom this article is date of Dr. Donne's time, shows at least 
indebted for other hints, that the rev. the value placed on his works, in the 
W. Woolston, of Adderbury, is in pos- care and pains then used to make ac- 
session of a large folio MS. of Sermons, curate transcripts, or to procure co- 
many of which are by Donne, and pies of them. 
Mne of these perhaps not published. 

DONNE. 26t 

from the collection. It is entitled " Biathanatos, a De- 
claration of that Paradox, or Thesis, that Self-Homicide is 
not so naturally Sin, that it may never be otherwise." If 
it be asked what could induce a man of Dr. Donne's piety 
to write such a treatise, we may answer in his own words 
that " it is a book written by Jack Donne, and not by Dr. 
Donne." It was written in his youth, as a trial of skill on 
a singular topic, in which he thought proper to exercise 
his talent against the generally-received opinion. But if 
it be asked why, instead of sending one or two copies to 
friends with an injunction not to print it, he did not put 
this out of their power by destroying the manuscript, the 
answer is not so easy. He is even so inconsistent as to 
desire one of his correspondents neither to burn it, nor 
publish it. It was at length published by his son in 1644, 
who certainly did not consult the reputation of his father, 
and if the reports of his character be just, was not a man. 
likely to give himself much uneasiness about that or any 
other consequence. 

Dr. Donne's reputation as a poet, was higher in his own 
time than it has been since. Dryden fixed his character 
with his usual judgment; as "the greatest wit, though 
not the best poet of our nation." He says afterwards *, 
that " he affects the metaphysics, not only in his satires, 
but in his amorous verses, where Nature only should 
reign, and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice 
speculations of philosophy, when he should engage their 
hearts, and entertain them with the softnesses of love." 
Dryden has also pronounced that if his satires were to be 
translated into numbers, they would yet be wanting in dig- 
nity of expression. From comparing the originals and 
translations in Pope's works, the reader will probably 
think that Pope has made them so much his own, as to 
throw very little lighten Donne's powers. He every where 
elevates the expression, and in very few instances retains 
a whole line. Pope, in his classification of poets, places 
Donne at the head of a school, that school from which 
Dr. Johnson has given so many remarkable specimens of 
absurdity, in his life of Covyley, and which, following 
Dryden, he terms the metaphysical school. Gray, in the 
sketch which he sent to Mr. Warton, considers it as a 
third Italian school, full of conceit, begun in queen Eliza- 

* On the Origin and Progress of Satire. 

262 DONNE. 

beth's reign, continued under James and Charles I. by 
Donne, Crashaw, Cleiveland, carried to its height by 
CowJey, and ending perhaps in Sprat. Donne's numbers, 
if they may be so called, are certainly the most rugged 
and uncouth of any of our poets. He appears either to 
have had no ear, or to have been utterly regardless of har- 
mony. Yet Spenser preceded him, and Drummond, the 
first polished versifier, was his contemporary ; but it must 
be allowed that before Drummond appeared, Donne had 
relinquished his pursuit of the Muses, nor would it be just 
to include the whole of his poetry under the general cen- 
sure which has been usually passed. Dr. Warton seems 
to think that if he had taken pains, he might not have 
proved so inferior to his contemporaries ; but what induce- 
ment could he have to take pains, as he published nothing, 
and seems not desirous of public fame ? He was certainly 
not ignorant or unskilled in the higher attributes of style, 
for he wrote elegantly in Latin, and displays considerable 
taste in some of his smaller pieces and epigrams. At what 
time he wrote his poems has not been ascertained ; but of 
a few the dates may be recovered by the corresponding 
events of his life. Ben Jonson affirmed that he wrote all 
his best pieces before he was twenty-five years of age. 
His satires, in which there are some strokes levelled at the 
reformation, must have been written very early, as he was 
but a young man when he renounced the errors of popery. 
His poems were first published in 4to, 1633, and 12mo, 
1635, 1651, 1669, and 1719. His son was the editor of 
the early editions. 

This son, JOHN DONNE, was educated at Westminster 
school, and removed from thence to Christ-church, Oxford, 
in 1622. Afterwards he travelled abroad, and took the 
degree of LL. D. at Padua in Italy; and June 1638 was 
admitted to the same degree in the university of Oxford. 
He died in 1662, and was buried in the churchyard of St. 
Paul, Covent-Garden. Wood tells us, that " he was no 
better all his life- time than an atheistical buffoon, a ban- 
terer, and a person of over-free thoughts, yet valued by 
Charles II. ; that he was a man of sense and parts; and that, 
besides some writings of his father, he published several 
frivolous trifles under his own name : among which is 
' The humble petition of Covent-Garden against Dr. John 
Baber a physician,' anno 1662." 1 

1 Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810. Biog. Brit. -Walton's Lire* 
by Zonch. 

D O O D Y. 263 

TDOODY (SAMUEL), an ingenious botanist, and the au- 
ihor of some discoveries in the indigenous botany, was 
a native of Staffordshire, which he left to settle in London 
as an apothecary. He was chosen superintendant and de- 
monstrator of the gardens at Chelsea, an office which he 
held some years before his death, which took place in 
1706. In 1695 he was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, and was the contemporary and friend of Ray, Plu- 
Jkenet, and Sloane, who all bear testimony to his merit. 
As he lived in London, and there is reason to believe was 
in very considerable business, his excursions could not or- 
dinarily extend far from that city; but in its neighbour- 
hood, his diligence was beyond any other example. He 
struck out a new path in botany, by leading to the study 
of that tribe which comprehends the imperfect plants, 
now called the Cryptogamia class. In this branch he 
made the most numerous discoveries of any man in that 
age, and in the knowledge of it stood clearly unrivalled. 
The early editions of Ray's Synopsis were much amplified 
by his labours ; and he is represented by Mr. Ray, as a 
man of uncommon sagacity in discovering and discriminat- 
ing plants in general. The learned successor of Tourne- 
fort, M. Jussieu, speaks of him as " inter Pharmacopceos 
Londinenses sui temporis Coryphictis." In truth he was 
the Dillenius of his time. There is a long list of rare 
plants, many of them new, and first discovered by Mr. 
Doody, published in the second edition of Ray's Synopsis, 
accompanied with observations on other species. There is 
also " The case of a dropsy of the breast,'' written by 
him, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions, in 
1697, vol. XX. Some of his MSS. on medical and botani- 
cal subjects are in the British Museum. ' 

nent nonconformist, was born at Kidderminster in Wor- 
cestershire, in 1730. Having discovered an early inclina- 
tion to learning, he was sent to Cambridge, and admitted 
of Pernbroke-hall, where he studied with a view to the 
church, or rather to the meeting, as the church was then 
under the controul of the republican party. His first des- 
tination, however, was to the law, and he wont for some 
time to receive instructions in an attorney's office ; but his 
master having employed him to copy some writings on a 

1 Pulteney's Sketches. Ayscough's Cat. of MSS. 


Sunday, he relinquished the business. It appears to have 
been after this that he went to the university, and having 
taken his degrees in arts, became a preacher. His first 
settlement was at St. Alphage, London-wall. This living 
being then vacant, Mr. Doolittle appeared as a candidate, 
with several others, and the parishioners preferring him, 
he became their pastor in 1654, and remained a very po- 
pular preacher, until 1662, when he was ejected for non- 
conformity. From this he removed to Moorfields, and 
opened a kind of boarding-school, in which he was so suc- 
cessful as to be obliged to hire a larger house in Bunhill- 
fields, where he continued until the great plague, and 
then he removed to Woodford. After the plague abated, 
he returned to London, and saw it laid in ashes by the 
great fire. On this occasion he and some other noncon- 
formists resumed their preaching, and were for some time 
unmolested. Mr. Doolittle has the credit of projecting the 
first meeting-house, which was a hired place in Bunhill- 
fields, but that proving toe small, when the city began to 
be rebuilt, he erected a more commodious place of wor- 
ship in Mugwell, or Monkwell-street, Cripplegate, which 
remains until this day. Here, however, he was occasion- 
ally interrupted by the magistrates, who put the laws in 
execution ; but in 1672 he obtained a licence from Charles 
II. which is still suspended in the vestry-room of the meet- 
ing, and for some time continued to preach, and likewise 
kept an academy at Islington for the education of young 
men intended for the ministry among the nonconformists. 
On the corporation-act being passed, when his licence be- 
came useless, he was again obliged to leave London, and 
resided partly at Wimbledon, and partly at Battersea, 
where, although his house was rifled, he escaped impri- 
sonment. At the revolution he was enabled to resume his 
ministry in Monkwell-street, and here he closed the public 
labours of fifty-three years, on May 24, 1707^ the seventy- 
seventh year of his age. Much of this time was spent in 
writing his various works, many of which attained a high 
degree of popularity ; as, 1. " A Treatise concerning the 
Lord's Supper," 1665, 12mo, which has perhaps been 
oftener prii ted than almost any book on that subject. 
2. " Directions how to live after a wasting plague" (that 
of London), 1666, 8vo. 3. " A Rebuke for Sin, by God's 
burning anger" (alluding to the great Fire). 4. " The 
Young Man's Instructor, and the Old Man's Kemembran- 


cer," 1673, Svo. 5. " A Call to delaying Sinners," 1683, 
12mo, of which there have been many editions. 6. " A 
Complete Body of Practical Divinity," fol. 1723, &c. &c. 
His son, Samuel, was settled as a dissenting minister at 
Reading, where-he died in 1717. l 

matician, was born at Nuremberg in 1677, and was first 
intended by his family for the bar, but soon relinquished 
the study of the law for that of mathematics, in which he 
was far more qualified to excel. He became professor of 
mathematics at Nuremberg, after having travelled into 
Holland and England to profit by the instructions of the 
most eminent scholars in that science. In England he be- 
came acquainted with Flamstead, Wallis, and Gregory, 
and in 1733, long after he returned home, was elected a 
fellow of the royal society as he was also of the societies 
of Petersburgh and Berlin. His works, in German, on 
astronomy, geography, and mathematics, are numerous. 
He also published some in Latin : " Nova Methodus pa- 
randi Sciaterica Solaria/' 1720. " Physica experimentis 
illustrata," 4to; "Atlas Ccelestis," 1742, fol. Doppel- 
maier made some curious experiments in electricity, at the 
latter part of his life, which he also published ; and trans- 
lated the astronomical tables of Stretius, French and 
English, into Latin. 2 


DORIA (ANDREW), a noble Genoese, the greatest ma- 
riner of his age, was born in 1468, at Oneille, a small 
town on the coast of Genoa, of which Ceva Doria, his 
father, was joint lord. He adopted the military profes- 
sion, and distinguished himself for several years in the 
service of different princes of Italy. On his return to his 
native country, he was twice employed in Corsica, where 
he fought against the rebels with so much success, that 
the whole island was reduced to the obedience of the re- 
public. In consequence of the reputation for valour and 
prudence which Doria had acquired, he was appointed, 
about 1513, captain-general of the gallies of Genoa; and 
it is to be remarked, that he was upwards of forty-four 
years of age when he took up the profession of a maritime 
warrior. The African pirates, who at that time infested 

1 Calamy. Funeral Sermon by Williams, and Funeral Sermon on his son by 
Waters. Memoirs prefixed to his Body of Practical Divinity. 

2 Diet. Hist. Saxii Onomast, 

r> o R i A. 

the Mediterranean, gave him the first opportunities for 
acquiring fame. He pursued them with unremitted ar- 
dour, and in a short time enriched himself with so many 
captures, that the produce, joined to the assistance of his 
friends, enabled him to purchase four gallics. The revo- 
lutions that soon happened in the government of Genoa, 
determined Doria to enter into the service of Francis I.; 
but after that prince was taken prisoner at Pavia, he be- 
came dissatisfied with the ministry of France, and yielding 
to the solicitations of Clement VII. he attached himself to 
that pontiff, who made him his admiral. Rome being 
taken by the constable of Bourbon, in 1527, the pope was 
no longer able to continue Doria in his pay, and persuaded 
him to go back into the service of France, the sovereign 
of which, Francis I. received him with open arms, and ap- 
pointed him general of his gallies, with a salary of 36,000 
crowns, to which he afterwards added the title of admiral 
of the seas of the Levant Doria was then proprietor of 
eight well-armed gallies. It was to him that the French 

O O 

were indebted for the reduction of Genoa, from whence 
the Adorni were expelled that same year, 1527. The 
year following, Philippine Doria, his nephew and his lieu- 
tenant, whom he had dispatched with eight gallies to the 
coasts of the kingdom of Naples, in order to favour the 
operations of the French army there, commanded by Lau- 
trec, gained a complete victory over the naval armament of 
the emperor at Capo-d'Orso, near the gulf of Salerno. The 
imperial fleet being now destroyed, Naples, besieged by Lau- 
trec, could no longer receive succours by sea, and was on 
the point of surrendering, which would infallibly have 
brought on the conquest of the whole kingdom, when 
suddenly Doria abandoned France to serve the emperor. 
This defection frustrated the enterprise against Naples, 
and effected the total failure of the French affairs in Italy. 
As to the motives that led him to this sudden change, it 
should seem as if the ministers of Francis I. jealous of the 
influence of this foreigner, who besides treated them with 
the haughtiness of a republican, and the bluntness of a 
sailor, had endeavoured to ruin him in the king's opinion, 
and had partly succeeded in their attempt. Doria, soured 
and angry, only waited for a pretext to give vent to his 
indignation, which his enemies soon gave him. They per- 
suaded the king to appropriate to himself the town of Sa- 
vona, belonging to the Genoese; to enlarge the port, 

D O R I A. 267 

and make it a rival of the metropolis. In vain did Doria 
make remonstrances to him in behalf of the republic, to 
turn him from his purpose ; they were not only ill received, 
but were misinterpreted ; and he was represented to the 
king as a man that openly resisted his will. Nor did they 
stop here; they persuaded the king to arrest him; and 
twelve gallies, under the command of Barbezieux, received 
orders to go first to Genoa to take possession of his per- 
son, and then to proceed to Naples to seize upon his gal- 
Hes, commanded by Philippine his nephew. But Doria, 
having foreseen the blow, had retired to Lerica, in the 
gulph of La Spezia, whence he dispatched a brigantine to 
his nephew, with orders to join him without delay, and 
thought himself authorised to act in this manner, because 
the term of his engagement to the king was just expired. 
From this moment Doria made it his chief business to con- 
clude his agreement with the emperor, who had been so- 
liciting it for a long time. It will not appear surprizing 
that Francis T. now sought by all means in his power to 
regain Doria; but neither the most magnificent promises, 
nor even the mediation of pope Clement VII. could in- 
duce him to alter his resolution. What must, however, 
reflect still greater honour on the memory of Doria, was 
his refusal, on this occasion, of the sovereignty of Genoa, 
which was offered him by the emperor. Preferring the 
title of restorer to that of master, he stipulated that Genoa 
should remain free under the imperial protection, provided 
she should succeed in throwing off the yoke of the French. 
He thought nothing now was wanting to his glory, but to 
be the deliverer of his country ; and the failure of the ex- 
pedition against Naples emboldened him the same year, 
1528, to hazard the attempt. Accordingly, presenting 
himself before Genoa with 13 gallies, and about 500 men, 
he made himself master of it in one night, without shed- 
ding a drop of blood. This expedition procured him the 


adjudged him by a decree of the senate. The same decree 
contained an order for a statue to be erected to him, and a 
palace to be bought for him out of the public money. A 
new government was then formed at Genoa, by his advice, 
which is the government that subsisted until the late re- 
volutions in Europe ; so that he was not only the deliverer, 
but likewise the legislator of his country. Doria met with 
all the advantages he could desire from his attachment to 

268 D O R I A. 

the emperor, who gave him his entire confidence, and 
created him general of the sea, with a plenary and ab- 
solute authority. He was then owner of twelve gallies, 
which by his treaty were to be engaged in the service of 
the emperor; and that number was now augmented to 
twenty-two. Doria continued to signalize himself by se- 
veral maritime expeditions, and rendered the most im- 
portant services to the emperor. He took from the Turks, 
in 1532, the towns of Coron and of Patras, on the coast of 
Greece. The conquest of Tunis, and of the fort of Gou- 
lette, where Charles V. resolved to act in person, in 1535, 
was principally owing to the valour and good conduct of 
Doria ; but it was against his advice and reiterated remon- 
strances, that the emperor in 1541 set on foot the unfor- 
tunate expedition to Algiers, where he lost a part of his 
fleet, and a great number of soldiers, and cost Doria 
eleven of his gallies. Nor was he more favoured by for- 
tune in the affair of Prevezzo, in 1539. Being, with the 
imperial fleet, in conjunction with that of the Venetians and 
the gallies of the pope, in presence of the Turkish army, 
commanded by Barbarossa, and far inferior to his, he 
avoided the engagement under various pretences, and let 
slip the opportunity of a certain victory. For this he has 
been blamed by several historians. Some have even pre- 
tended (and, at that time, says Brantome, it was the com- 
mon report), that there was a secret agreement between 
Barbarossa and him, by which it was settled, that decisive 
opportunities should be mutually avoided, in order to pro- 
long the war which rendered their services necessary, and 
furnished them the means of enriching themselves. The 
African corsairs had never a more formidable enemy to 
contend with than Doria; the amount of the prizes taken 
from them, by himself or his lieutenants, was immense. 
The famous Dragut, among others, was captured by Jean- 
iietino Doria, with nine of his vessels. The zeal and the 
services of this great man were rewarded by Charles V. 
with the order of the golden fleece, the investiture of the 
principality of Melphes, and the marquisate of Tursi, in 
the kingdom of Naples, to him and his heirs for ever; to- 
gether with the dignity of grand chancellor of that king- 
dom. It was not till about 1556, at the age of near ninety, 
that he relinquished the care of his gallies, and the com- 
mand of them in person. Then, sinking under the weight 
of years, Philip II. king of Spain permittee] him to cou- 

D O R I A. 269 

stitute John Andrew Doria, his nephew, his lieutenant. 
He terminated his long and glorious career on the 25th of 
November, 1560, at the age of ninety-three, without off- 
spring, though he had been married. He was very far 
from leaving so much property as might have been pre- 
sumed, from the great and frequent opportunities he had 
of amassing wealth, which is accounted for by the excess 
of his magnificence, and the little attention be paid to af- 
fairs of ceconomy. Few men, without leaving a private 
station, have ever played so great a part on the stage of 
the world, as Doria : at home in Genoa, honoured by his 
fellow citizens as the deliverer and the tutelar genius of 
his country ; abroad, with his gallies alone, holding, as it 
were, the rank of a maritime power. Few men have, even 
in the course of a long life, enjoyed a more uninterrupted 
course of prosperity. Twice was his ruin plotted ; once 
in 1547, by the conspiracy of John Lewis de Fiesco, aimed 
principally at him ; but the enterprise failed by the death 
of its leader, at the very moment of its execution ; the se- 
cond time, not long after, by that of Julius Cibo, which 
was detected, and cost the author of it his head. These 
two conspiracies had no other effect than to give still 
greater accessions of authority and fame to this great man, 
in Genoa, and through all Italy. He is accused by some 
authors of having been too cruel at times, in support of 
which they cite this instance : the marquis de Marignan, 
who took Porto Hercole in 1555, having taken prisoner 
Ottoboni de Fiesco, brother of Lewis, and an accomplice 
in his conspiracy, delivered him over to Doria, to revenge 
on him as he pleased the death of Jeannetino Doria, who 
had been slain in that conspiracy. Andrew, fired with 
rage, ordered Fiesco to be sewn up in a sack, and thrown 
into the sea. Those who have written on the side of 
Doria, have prudently passed over in silence this action, 
as unworthy of him. Another anecdote is told, more fa- 
vourable, and characteristic. One of his pilots, who was 
frequently importuning him, coming up to him one day, 
told him he had three words to say to him. " I grant it," 
returned Doria ; " but remember, that if thou speak more, 
I will have thee hanged." The pilot, without being dis- 
concerted, replied : " money or dismission." Andrew 
Doria, being satisfied with this reply, ordered him to be 
paid his arrears, and retained him in his service. ' 

Universal Hist. Robertson's Charles V.-Life of Doria, by Richer.-Dict, Hist. 

270 D O R I G N Y. 

DORIGNY (MICHAEL), a painter and engraver, was born 
at St. Quentin, in France, in 1617, and manifesting an early 
inclination for the arts, was placed under Simon Vonet, a 
painter at that time of great reputation, whose daughter he 
married, and whose manner as a painter he copied, but is bet- 
ter known as an engraver. He performed his plates chiefly 
with the point, in a bold, powerful style ; the lights are broad 
and mass}-, especially upon the figures. But the marking 
of the folds of the draperies, and the shadows upon the out- 
lines of the flesh, are frequently so extravagantly dark, as to 
produce a harsh, disagreeable effect, and sometimes to de- 
stroy the harmony of the engraving entirely. Although 
he understood the human figure, and in some instances it 
was correctly drawn ; yet by following the manner of 
Vouet, instead of the simple forms of nature, his outlines 
were affected, and the extremities of his figures too much 
neglected. This artist was made professor of the royal 
academy of painting at Paris, where he died in 1665, aged 
forty- eight. His works are said by abbe Marolles to have 
consisted of 105 prints. Amongst these were, " the Ado- 
ration of the Magi," the " Nativity of Christ," " Venus at 
her toilet,'* " Venus, Hope, and Love, plucking the 
feathers from the wings of Time," " Mercury and ther 
Graces," and " the Rape of Europa," all from pictures of 
Vouet. He also engraved from Le Seur, Sarasin, and other 
masters. * 

DORIGNY (LEWIS), an historical painter, the son of 
the preceding, was born at Paris, in 1654, and was taught 
the rudiments of the art by his father till he was ten years 
of age ; when, being deprived of his instructor, by the 
death of his parent, he became a disciple of Le Brun. la 
that school he made a considerable progress ; but being 
disappointed in his expectation of obtaining the first prize 
at the academy, he travelled to Italy, and studied for 
several years at Rome, Venice, and Verona. He is highly 
commended by the French writers for quick conception, 
lively colouring, and a spirited pencil ; yet they acknow- 
ledge that a sketch for a cieling which he produced at 
Paris, representing the Fall of Phaeton, was so much dis- 
commended by Rigaud, Largilliere, and others, that in 
great disgust he returned to Verona, where he ended his 
days. His principal work is the dome of the great church 
at Trent. He died at Verona in 1742. 2 

* Strntt's Diet. * Argenville, TO'. IV, Strutt and Pilkington. 

D O R I G N Y. 271 

DORIGNY (Sm NICHOLAS), an eminent engraver, the 
brother of the preceding, was born in France in 1G57. 
His father dying when he was very young, he was brought 
up to the study of the law, which he pursued till about 
thirty years of age : when being examined, in order to 
being admitted to plead, the judge, finding him very deaf, 
advised him to relinquish a profession to which one of his 
senses was so ill adapted. He took the advice, and shut 
himself up for a year to practise drawing, for which he 
had probably better talents than for the law, sinee he 
could sufficiently ground himself in the former in a twelve- 
month. Repairing to Rome, and receiving instructions 
from his brother Lewis, he followed painting for some 
years, and having acquired great freedom of hand, he 
was advised to try etching. Being of a flexile disposition, 
or uncommonly observant of advice, he accordingly turned 
to etching, and practised that for some more years ; but 
happening to look into the works of Audran, he found he 
had been in a wrong method, and took up Audran's man- 
ner, which he pursued for ten years. He was now about 
fifty years of age, had done many plates, and lastly the 
gallery of Cupid and Psyche, after Raphael, when a new 
difficulty struck him. Not having learned the handling and 
ri-rht use of the graver, he despaired of attaining the har- 
mony and perfection at whicn he aimed, and at once 
abandoning engraving, he returned to his pencil a word 
from a friend, says lord Orford, would have thrown him 
back to the law. However, after two months, he was per- 
suaded to apply to the graver ; and receiving some hints 
from one that used to engrave the writing under his plates, 
he conquered that difficulty too, and began the seven 
planets from Raphael. Mercury, his first, succeeded so 
well, that he engraved four large pictures with oval tops, 
and from thence proceeded to Raphael's " Transfiguration,'* 
which raised his reputation above all the masters of that 
time. At Rome he became known to several Englishmen 
of rank, who persuaded him to come to England and en- 
grave the Cartoons, then at Hampton Court. He arrived 
in June 1711, but did not begin his drawings till Easter 
following, the intervening time being spent in raising a 
fund for his work. At first it was proposed that the plates 
should be engraved at the queen's expence, and to be 
given as presents to .the nobility, foreign princes, and 
ministers. Lord-treasurer Oxford was much his friend ; 

272 D O R I G N Y. 

but Dorigny demanding 4000/. or 5000/. put a stop to that 
plan ; yet the queen gave him an apartment at Hampton 
Court, with necessary perquisites. The work, however, 
was undertaken by subscription *, at four guineas a set, 
and Dorigny sent for Dupuis and Dubosc from Paris to 
assist him ; but from some disagreement that occurred, 
they left him before the work was half completed. In 
1719 he presented two complete sets to king George I. 
and a set a-piece to the prince and princess; for which 
the king gave him 100 guineas, and the prince a gold 
medal. The duke of Devonshire, who had assisted him, 
procured for him, in 1720, the honour of knighthood. His 
eyes afterwards failing him, he returned to Paris, where, 
in 1725, he was made a member of the royal academy of 
painting, and died in 1746, aged eighty-nine. 

His drawing was incorrect and affected ; the naked parts 
of his figures are often falsely marked, and the extremities 
are defective. His draperies are coarse, the folds stiff and 
hard ; and a manner of his own pervades all his prints, so 
that the style of the painter is constantly lost in that of the 
engraver. Nor did he ever fail more than in working 
from the paintings of Raphael. Basan, with an excusable 
partiality for his countryman, says of him, " we have many 
excellent prints by his hand, in which one justly admires 
the good taste of his drawing, and the intelligent pic- 
turesque manner, which he acquired by the judicious re- 
flections he made upon the works of the great masters, 
during the residence of twenty-two years in Italy." We 
have of his prints the following, viz. " St. Peter curing the 
Lame Man at the gate of the temple," from Civoli ; " The 
Transfiguration," from Raphael ; " The Descent from the 
Cross," from Daniello da Volterra ; " The Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian," from Domenichino, which two last are said 
to be his best prints ; " The Trinity," from Guido; " The 
History of Cupid and Psyche," from Raphael's pictures in 
the Vatican ; " The Cartoons," seven very large plates 
from the pictures of Raphael. He also engraved from 
Annibale Caracci, Lanfranche, Louis Dorigny, and other 
masters. l 

the fifteenth century, was born at Kiritz, in the marche of 

* Steele wrote the 226th Number of the Spectator to encourage this. 
1 Walpole's Anecdotes. Strutt's Diet. 


Brandenburgh, and was very young when he became a 
monk of the order of St. Francis. After studying philo- 
sophy and theology with distinguished success, he became 
eminent not only as a preacher, but as a lecturer on the 
scriptures at Erfurt, and professor of theology at Mag- 
deburgh. He was likewise made minister of his order in 
the province of Saxe, and held that office in 1431, at 
which time the Landgrave of Thuringia wrote several let- 
ters to him, instructing him to introduce some reform 
amono 1 the Franciscans of Eisenac. About the same time 
he was sent as one of the deputies to the council of Basil, 
by that party of his order who adhered to that council. It 
was either then, or as some think, ten years later, that he 
was raised to be general of his order. Whether he had 
been dismissed, or whether he resigned the office of mi- 
nister of Saxe, he held it only six years, and went after- 
wards to pass the rest of his days in the monastery of 
Kiritz, where he devoted himself to meditation and study, 
and wrote the greater part of his works. The time of his 
death is a disputed point. Casimir Oudin gives 1494 as 
the date of that event, which Marchand, with some pro- 
bability reduces to 1464. 

While he was professor at Magdeburg, at which time 
strictures and objections against the short commentaries 
on the scriptures of Nicholas de Lyra, were published by 
Paul de Burgos, Doringk undertook their defence and far- 
ther illustration. The different pieces which he wrote on 
these subjects were collected together, and inserted in an 
edition comprehending the works of both those authors, 
published in Paris, in six volumes folio, in 1590. This 
work was well received, and went through several editions. 

* w 

To Doringk some have ascribed the " Miroir Historial,'* 
commonly known by the name of " The Chronicle of Nu- 
remberg," and therefore considered him as the forerunner 
of the illustrious Luther, the Chronicle being written with 
spirit and energy against the vices of the cardinals, the 
bishops, and the popes, and also against jubilees and in- 
dulgences. But there is more reason to think that the 
Nuremberg Chronicle was the work of another hand, as 
Marchand has detailed at considerable length. It appears 
that a Chronicle which Doringk partly composed, may 
have given rise to this supposition. It is entitled " Chro- 
nica brevis et utilis ex speculo historiali Vincentii et alio- 
rum, Eusebii, Hieronymi, &c. et alioruin historicorum, 

27* D O R I N G K. 

collecta, et continuata a Matthia Doringk, usque ad an- 
num 1494." This remains in MS. in the library of the 
university of Leipsic, but the date at least must be wrong, 
if Marchand's conjecture as to the period of Doringk's 
death be just. He is said to have compiled also a con- 
tinuation of the Chronicle of Theodore Engelhusius from 
1420 to 1498, which is printed in the collection of Ger- 
man historians by Mencken. In this Doringk confessedly 
takes those liberties with the characters of the popes and 
cardinals, which are to be found in the Nuremberg Chro- 
nicle, and such a coincidence may have strengthened the 
supposition that he was the author of the latter. The 
reader will rind all that can be advanced on the subject in 
our first authority. ' 

DORMAN (THOMAS) a popish divine, who acquired 
some celebrity from the characters of Jewell, and Nowell, 
against whom he wrote, was born at Berkhamstead in Hert- 
fordshire, and educated by the care of his uncle Thomas 
Dorman, of Amersham in Buckinghamshire. He was af- 
terwarc'rs educated by Richard Reeve, a very celebrated 
schoolmaster at Berkhamstead, whence he went to Win- 
chester school, and afterwards to New College, Oxford, 
where he was admitted probationer-fellow. From this 
college, however, he removed to All Souls, of which he 
was elected fellow in 1554. He appears at this time to 
have been popishly affected, but afterwards avowed his 
principles by quitting his fellowship and country, and 
retiring first to Antwerp, and afterwards to Louvaine, 
where he resumed his studies. He had taken his degrees 
in law at Oxford, but now proceeded in divinity, and 
became doctor in that faculty. During his abode at Lou- 
vaine, he attacked Jew r ell and Nowell, who replied to him 
in the most satisfactory manner. In 1569, he was invited 
to the English college at Doway, where he taught for some 
time, and afterwards was beneficed at Tournay, in which 
city he died either in 1572, or 1577. His works, of which 
a particular account, with the answers, may be seen in 
Mr. Archdeacon Churton's excellent " Life of Nowell," 
are, 1. " A proof of certain articles in Religion denied by 
Mr. Jewell," Antwerp, 1564, 4to. 2. "A Request to Mr. 
Jewell, that he keep his Promise, made by solemn pro- 
testation in his late sermon had at Paul's Cross," London, 

1 Marchand's Diet. Hist. Moreri. 

D O R M A N. 275 

1567, 8vo. 3. "A Disproof of Mr. Alexander Nowell'a 
Reproof," Antwerp, 1565, 4to. * 

DORNAVIUS (GASPAR), a physician, orator, and poet, 
born at Zigenrick in Voiglitland, died in 1631, in an ad- 
vanced age, counsellor and physician to the princes of 
Brieg and Lignitz. He is the author of several works, 
which have been called learned fooleries. The most known 
of them are, 1. " Amplritheatrum sapientiae Socraticie,'* 
Hanover, 1619, 2 vols. fol. 2. " Homo diabolus ; hocest: 
Auctorum veterum et recentiorum de calumnias natura et 
remediis, sua lingua editorum, sylloge ;" Frankfort, 1618, 
4to 3. " De increment dominationis Turcicae," &c. 8 

DORPIUS (MARTIN), a very learned divine, and the 
friend of Erasmus, was born at Naaldrvvyck, in Holland, 
and became professor of philosophy in the university of 
Louvaine. He was also esteemed an able divine and 
linguist, but died in the prime of life, May 31, 1525. 
Besides some academical orations, he published " Dialogus 
Veneris et Cupidinis, Herculem animi ancipitem in suam 
militiam, invita virtute, propellentium;" " Complementum 
Aularioe Plautinae, et Prologus in Militem ejusdem ;" 
" Epistola de Hollandorum moribns ;" and " Oratio de 
laudibus Aristotelis," against Laurentius Valla. 

In 1515, when Erasmus was at Basil, Dorpius wrote 
against his " Praise of Folly." In this, Jortin says he was 
the first adversary of Erasmus, or at least the first who 
wrote against him, condemning the " Praise of Folly," as 
a satire upon all orders and professions. Erasmus replied 
with much mildness; and Dorpius, who was then a very 
young man, not only admitted his apology, but became 
his friend. At his death he was honoured by Erasmus with 
an epitaph, and deeply lamented by him as an irreparable 
loss to the republic of letters. 3 

DORSANE (ANTHONY), a French divine, was born of a 
noble family at Issoudun, and educated in the seminary de 
St. Magloire, at Paris, where he took a doctor's degree, 
1695. After being official at Chalons, he became canon 
of the church at Paris, and successively archdeacon, grand 
chanter, and official. Dorsane always opposed the bull 
Unigenitus, and retired when he found that M. de No- 

' Ath. Ox. -vol. I. Dndd's Ch. Hist. Tanner. Strype's Life of Parker, 
p. 180. Churlon's Life of Nowell. Fuller's Worthies, 
Moreri. Saxii Onomast. 

3 Moreri. I'oppen Bibl. Belg. Jortin's Erasmus. 

T 2 

276 D O R S A N E. 

ailles was about to issue his mandate for its acceptance. 
He died November 13, 1728, leaving an historical journal 
of all that had passed respecting the bull Unigenitus, which 
extends to 1728, 6 vols. 12mo, or 1756, 2 vols. 4to, which 
last is reckoned the best edition. l 

DOSITH^US, a reputed magician of Samaria, of the 
first century, who pretended to be the Messiah, is looked 
upon as the first heresiarch. but was more properly au 
enemy to Christianity. He applied to himself all the pro- 
phecies which are held by the church to regard Jesus 
Christ. He had in his train thirty disciples, as many as 
there are days in the month, and would not have any more. 
He admitted among them a woman whom he called the 
Moon. He observed the rite of circumcision, and fasted 
often. To gain belief that he was taken from the earth 
by an ascension into heaven, he retired into a cavern, 
where, far from the prying eyes of the world, he starved 
himself to death. The sect of the Dosithecans made great 
account of their chastity, and regarded with contempt the 
rest of mankind. A Uosithaean would not associate with 
any one who did not think and live like him. They had 
some singular practices, to which they were strongly at- 
tached : such as that of remaining for twenty-four hours 
in the same posture they happened to be in when the sab- 
bath began, which they pretended to be founded upon the 
prohibition of working during the sabbath. In conse- 
quence of such practices the Dosithaeans thought them- 
selves superior to the most enlightened men, to the most 
virtuous citizens, to the most beneficent of men. This 
sect subsisted in jEgypt till some time in the sixth century, 
but ecclesiastical historians are much divided as to the 
history of Dosithoeus and his sect. 8 


DOSSI (Dosso), an artist, was a native of Dosso in the 
Ferrarese territory, and from the school of Costa went to 
Rome, where he studied six years, and five at Venice ; 
and formed a style which is sometimes compared to that of 
Raphael, sometimes to that of Titian, and sometimes is 
said to resemble Coreggio. His name, with that of Gio. 
Batista his brother, has been ranked with the first names 
of Italy by Ariosto, their countryman ; and the pictures of 
Dosso prove that he did not owe the high rank in which 

Diet. Hist. s Ibid. 

D O S S I. 277 

he is placed by the poet, to partiality. The head of his 
St. John at Patmos, in the church a' Lateran at Ferrara, 
is a prodigy of expression. Of his most celebrated pic- 
ture in the church of the Dominicans at Faenza, there 
remains now only a copy : time destroyed the original. 
It represents Christ among the Doctors, and even in the 
copy the simplicity of the composition, the variety of 
the characters, and the breadth and propriety of the 
drapery, deserve admiration. Seven of his pictures, and 
perhaps of his best time, are at Dresden, and the best 
of these is that much praised one of the Four Doctors 
of the Church. Dosso, in partnership with his brother, 
was much employed in works for the court of Alphonso 
and Ercole II. dukes of Ferrara; and to that connec- 
tion with him, a character so much inferior to himself, 
\ve may probably ascribe the aspersions and illiberal cri- 
ticism of Vasari. The style of Dosso retains something 
more obsolete than the style of the great masters with 
whom he is compared ; but he has a novelty of invention 
and drapery all his own ; and withal a colour which with 
variety and boldness unites a general harmony. This ex- 
cellent artist died about 1560, but his age has not been 
ascertained. l 

DOUCIN (LEWIS), a French Jesuit, a native of Vernon, 
who died at Orleans Sept. 21, 1716, filled several high 
offices belonging to his order, and was said to have been 
the author of the famous problem levelled at the cardinal 
de Noailles, " Whom are we to believe ? M. de Noailles, 
archbishop of Paris, condemning the exposition of faith, 
or M. de Noailles, bishop of Chalons, approving the moral 
reflections ?" alluding to an apparent change in Noailles* 
opinions of the disputes between the Jansenists and Jesuits. 
Doucin was a member of the club or cabal which the Jan- 
senists called the Norman cabal, and which was composed 
of the Jesuits Tellier, Lallemand, and Daniel; and his zeal 
and activity were of great service to them. During the 
dispute on the famous bull Unigenitus, he was sent to 
Rome, and was a powerful advocate for that measure. He 
wrote a very curious piece of ecclesiastical history, entitled 
" Histoire de Nestorianisme," Paris, 1698, 4to ; another, 
entitled " Histoire de I'Origenisme," 4to, and " Memorial 
abrege touchant 1'etat et les progres de Jansenistne en 

* Pilkiugten, edit. 1810. 

278 D O U C I N. 

Hollande," written in 1697, when he accompanied the 
count de Creci to the congress at Ryswick. He was also 
the author of many pamphlets of the controversial kind, 
strongly imbued with the spirit of party. l 

DOUGHTY (JoiiN), an English divine, was born about 
1598 at Martley near Worcester, and educated at Wor- 
cester, whence at the age of sixteen he became a student 
at Oxford. After he had taken his bachelor's degree, he 
was one of those excellent scholars who were candidates 
for a fellowship in Merton college, and after a severe 
examination by the then warden, sir Henry Savile, Mr. 
Doughty gained the election. He there completed his 
degree of M. A. and entering into orders, became a very 
popular and edifying preacher. In 1631 he served the 
office of proctor only for four months, the proctors being 
removed by the king ; but about that time he became 
chaplain to the earl of Northumberland, and his college 
bestowed on him the rectory of Lapworth in Warwickshire. 
On the commencement of the rebellion, he left Lapworth, 
to avoid sequestration and imprisonment, and joined the 
king at Oxford. Soon after Dr. Duppa, bishop of Salis- 
bury, gave him the lectureship of St. Edmund's in that 
city, where he continued about two years ; but, on the de- 
feat of the royal army in the West, he went to London, 
and found an asylum in the house of sir Nathaniel Brent, 
in Little Britain. After the restoration, his loyalty and 
public services were rewarded with a prebend in West- 
minster, and the rectory of Cheam in Surrey, and about 
the same time he was created doctor of divinity. He died 
at Westminster, after he had lived, says Wood, " to be 
twice a child," December 25, 1672, and was buried in the 

He published, 1. " Two Sermons," on the abstruseness 
of divine mysteries, and on church schisms, 1628, 4to. 
2. " The King's Cause rationally, briefly, and plainly de- 
bated, as it stands de facto, against the irrational misprision 
of a deceived people," Oxford, 1644, 4to. 3. " Velita- 
tiones polemicae ; or polemical short discussions of certain 
particular and select questions," Lond. 1651 and 1652, 
Svo. 4. " Analecta sacra j sive excursus philologici, &c." 
Lond. 1658 and 1660, 8vo. 

Diet. Hist. 

Ath. Ox. vol. II. Wood's Colleges and Halls. 


DOUGLAS (GAWIN), bishop of Dunkeld, eminent for 
his poetical talents, was descended from a noble family, 
being the third son of Archibald, earl of Angus, and was 
born in Scotland at the close of the year 147-1, or the Be- 
ginning of 14-75. His father was very careful of his edu- 
cation, and caused him to be early instructed in literature 
and the sciences. He was intended by him for the church ; 
and after having passed through a course of liberal educa- 
tion in Scotland, is supposed to have travelled into foreign 
countries, for his farther improvement in literature, parti- 
cularly to Paris, where he finished his education. Alter 
his return to Scotland, he obtained the office of provost, of 
the collegiate church of St. Giles in Edinburgh, a post of 
considerable dignity and revenue ; and was also made 
rector of Heriot church. He was likewise appointed abbot 
of the opulent convent of Aberbrothick ; and the queen- 
mother, who was then regent of Scotland, and about this 
time married his nephew the earl of Angus, nominated 
him to the archbishopric of St. Andrew's. But he was pre- 
vented from obtaining this dignity by a violent opposition 
made to him at home, and by the refusal of the pope to 
confirm his appointment. The queen-mother afterwards 
promoted him to the bishopric of Dunkeld ; and for this 
preferment obtained a bull in his favour from pope Leo X. 
by the interest of her brother, Henry VIII. king of Eng- 
land. But so strong an opposition was again made to him, 
that he could not, for a considerable time, obtain peace- 
able possession of this new preferment ; and was even im- 
prisoned for more than a year, under pretence of having 
acted illegally, in procuring a bull from the pope. He 
was afterwards set at liberty, and consecrated bishop of 
Dunkeld, by James Beaton, chancellor of Scotland, and 
archbishop of Glasgow. After his consecration he went to 
St. Andrew's, and thence to his own church at Dunkeld ; 
where the first day, we are told, " he was most kindly re- 
ceived by his clergy and people, all of them blessing God 
for so worthy and learned a bishop." He still, however, 
met with many obstructions; and, for some time, was for- 
cibly kept out of the palace belonging to his diocese ; but 
he at length obtained peaceable possession. He soon after 
accompanied the duke of Albany, regent of Scotland, to 
Paris, when that nobleman was sent to renew the ancient 
league between Scotland and France. After his return to 
Scotland, he made a short stay at Edinburgh, and then 


repaired to his diocese, where he applied himself diligently 
to the duties of his episcopal office. He was also a pro- 
moter of public-spirited works, and particularly finished 
the stone bridge over the river Tay, opposite to his own 
palace, which had been begun by his predecessor. We 
meet with no farther particulars concerning him till some 
years after, when he was at Edinburgh, during the dis- 
putes between the earls of Arran and Angus. On that oc- 
casion bishop Douglas reproved archbishop Beaton for 
wearing armour, as inconsistent with the clerical character, 
but was afterwards instrumental in saving his life. During 
all these disorders in Scotland, it is said, that bishop 
Douglas behaved " with that moderation and peaceable- 
ness, which became a wise man and a religious prelate ;" 
but the violence and animosity which then prevailed among 
the different parties in Scotland, induced him to retire to 
England. After his departure, a prosecution was com- 
menced against him in Scotland ; but he was well received 
in England, where he was treated with particular respect, 
on account of the excellency of his character, and his 
great abilities and learning. King Henry VII I. allowed 
him a liberal pension ; and he became particularly intimate 
with Polydore Vergil. He died of the plague, at London, 
in 1521, or 1522, and was interred in the Savoy church, on 
the left side of the tomb-stone of Thomas Halsay, bishop 
of Laghlin, in Ireland ; on whose tomb-stone a short epi- 
taph for bishop Douglas is inscribed. Hume, of Gods- 
croft, in his " History of the Douglases," says, " Gawin 
Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, left behind him great appro- 
bation of his virtues and love of his person in the hearts of 
all good men ; for besides the nobility of his birth, the 
dignity and comeliness of his personage, he was learned, 
temperate, and of singular moderation of mind ; and in 
these turbulent times had always carried himself among 
the factions of the nobility equally, and with a mind to 
make peace, and not to stir up parties ; which qualities 
were very rare in a clergyman of those days." 

Bishop Douglas is styled by Mr. Warton, one " of the 
distinguished luminaries that marked the restoration of 
letters in Scotland, at the commencement of the sixteenth 
century, not only by a general eminence in elegant eru- 
dition, but by a cultivation of the vernacular poetry of his 
country." He translated the ,/Eneid of Virgil into Scottish 
heroics, with the additional thirteenth book by Mapheus 


Vegius, at the request of Henry, earl of Sinclair, to whom 
he was related. It was printed at London, in 1553, 4to, 
under the following title : "The XIII Bukes of Eneados of 
the fainose poete Virgill, translatet out of Latyne verses into 
Scottish metir, bi the reverend father in God, Mayster 
Gawin Douglas, bishop of Dunkel, and unkil to the erle 
of Angus ; every Buke having his perticular prologe." 
" This translation," says Mr. Warton, " is executed with 
equal spirit and fidelity ; and is a proof that the lowland 
Scotch and English languages were now nearly the same. 
I mean the style of composition ; more especially in the 
glaring affectation of anglicising Latin words." It cer- 
tainly has great merit, though it was executed in the space 
of about sixteen months. It appears, that he had pro- 
jected this translation so early as the year 1501, but did 
not complete it till about eleven years after. Besides this 
work, bishop Douglas also wrote an original poem, called 
*' The Palice of Honour," which was printed at London, 
1553, 4to, and Edinburgh, 1579, 4to. Mr. Warton ob- 
serves of this poem, that " it is a moral vision written in 
1501, planned on the design of the Tablet of Cebes, and 
imitated in the elegant Latin dialogue * De Tranquillitate 
Anitni' of his countryman Florence Wilson, or Florentius 
Volusenus. The object of this allegory is to show the in- 
stability and insufficiency of worldly pomp ; and to prove, 
that a constant and undeviating habit of virtue is the only 
way to true honour and happiness. The allegory is illus- 
trated by a variety of examples of illustrious personages ; 
not only of those who by a regular perseverance in honour- 
able deeds gained admittance into this splendid habitation, 
but of those who were excluded from it, by debasing the 
dignity of their eminent stations with a vicious and un- 
manly behaviour. It is addressed, as an apologue for the 
conduct of a king, to James the Fourth, is adorned with 
many pleasing incidents and adventures, and abounds 
with genius and learning." Both the editions which have 
been printed of this poem are extremely scarce. 

In his youth, he likewise translated Ovid " De remedio 
Amoris," which, says one of his biographers, " seems to 
have been the first of all his works, and done not without 
some view to himself; for, as Hume informs us, he had 
felt the effects of love. But this was in his younger years, 
and long before he was in holy orders. And he was very 
soon freed from the tyranny of this unreasonable passion, 


as appears from the very translation, which he finished so 
early, and seems to have proposed as an antidote against 
its charms both to himself and others. He hath given also 
many excellent precepts and advices against the danger of 
immoderate love and unlawful pleasures, in his admirable 
prologue to Virgil's fourth hook." 

He also wrote an allegorical poem, called " King Hart," 
which was first published from an original manuscript by 
]\lr. Pinkerton, in 1786, in his " Ancient Scotish Poems." 
A new edition of bishop Douglas's translation of Virgil was 
printed at Edinburgh, in 1710, in small folio, to which a 
large and valuable glossary was added by tbe celebrated 
printer Ruddiman, and a life of the author by the rev. 
John Sage, who acknowledges the assistance he had from 
.bishop Nicolson, sir Robert Sibbald, Dr. Pitcairne, and 
Mr. Urry. 1 

DOUGLAS (JAMES), an eminent physician, and reader 
of anatomy to the company of surgeons, was born in Scot- 
land, in 1675. After completing his education he came 
to London, and applied himself diligently to the study of 
anatomy and surgery, which he both taught and practised 
several years with success. Haller, who visited him when 
he was in England, speaks of him in high terms of appro- 
bation. He saw, he says, several of his anatomical pre- 
parations made with great art and ingenuity, to shew the 
motion of the joints, and the internal structure of the 
bones. He was then meditating an extensive anatomical 
work, which, however, he did not live to finish, and has 
rot been since published. When Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Wil- 
liam Hunter, came to London, he consulted with Dr. 
Douglas on the method of improving himself in anatomy, 
and Dr. Douglas took him into his house, to assist him in 
his dissections ; at the same time he gave him an oppor- 
tunity of attending St. George's hospital. The year fol- 
lowing, 1742, Dr. Douglas died. Besides several com- 
munications to the royal society, which are published in 
their Transactions, containing the anatomy of the uterus, 
with the neighbouring vessels, and some cases in surgery, 
the doctor published in 1707, " Myographix comparator 

1 Biog. Brit. Life by Mr. Sage, and by Dr. Scot, in Morison's Scotish 
Poets, No. III. 17SS Warton's Hist, of Poetry, vol. II. '280, Sic. Macken- 
zie's Scots Writers vol. II. Irvine's Lives of the Scottish Poets. Fawkes's 
Life of Douiilas, and Description of May, 1752, 4to. Chalmers's Life of RucU 
diinan, p. 44. Ceiisuta Liteiariaj vol. UL Bibliographer, vol. U. 


specimen," or a comparative description of all the muscles 
in a man, and in a quadruped (a dog), 12mo; containing 
the most correct description of the muscles that had been 
seen to that time. " Bibliographic anatomicoe specimen, 
seu catalogus pene omnium auctorum qui ab Hippocrate 
ad Harveium rem anatomicam illustrarunt," London, 1715, 
8vo ; reprinted with improvements at Leyderi, in 1731. 
" A description of the peritoneum, and of that part of the 
membrana cellularis which lies on its outside," &c. Lon- 
don, 1730, 4to, a very accurate and valuable work. "A 
history of the lateral operation for the stone," 1726, 8vo ; 
republished with an appendix, in 1733, comprising a com- 
parison of the methods used by different lithotomists, par- 
ticularly of that practised by Cheselden. 

Dr. Douglas collected, at a great ex pence, all the edi- 
tions of Horace which had been published from 1476 to 
1739. Dr. Harwood, who mentions this circumstance in 
his View of the Greek and Roman classics, which, however, 
had been previously mentioned by Pope, observes that 
this one author thus multiplied, must have constituted a 
very considerable library. A very accurate catalogue of 
those different editions is prefixed to the first volume of 
Watson's Horace. 

His brother, JOHN DOUGLAS, \vho was surgeon to the 
Westminster infirmary, wrote several controversial pieces; 
in one of them, entitled " Remarks on a late pompous 
\vork," London, 1735, 8vo, he censures, with no small 
degree of severity, as well as injustice, Cheselden's Ana- 
tomy of the Bones ; in another, Some account of the state 
of Midwifery in London, published in 1736, he criticises 
with equal asperity the works of Charnberlen and Chap- 
man, on the subject of midwifery ; and in a third he de- 
cries the new invented forceps of Dr. Smellie. He also 
wrote a work on the high operation for the stone, which 
he practised, a dissertation on the venereal disease, pub- 
lished in 1737, and " An account of Mortifications, and 
of the surprizing effects of the bark in putting a stop to 
their progress," London, 1729. The practice recom- 
mended in this little work is still followed. 1 

DOUGLAS (JOHN), the late learned bishop of Salis- 
bury, was born in Scotland, in 1721, the son of Mr. Archi- 
bald Douglas, a merchant of Fittenween, in Fifeshire. 

Rees's Cyclopaedia, Haller Bibl. AnaU 

284- DOUGLAS. 

His grandfather (who was a younger brother of the family 
of Douglas of Tulliquilly, one of the oldest branches of 
the house of Douglas now in existence), was an eminent 
clergyman of the episcopal church of Scotland, and the 
immediate successor of bishop Burnet in the living of 
Salten, in East Lothian, from which preferment he was 
ejected at the revolution, when presbyterianism was es- 
tablished in Scotland. The subject of this memoir was 
educated for some years at the school of Dunbar, but in 
1736 was entered a commoner of St. Mary hall, Oxford, 
where he remained till 1738, and then removed to Baliol- 
college, on being elected an exhibitioner on bishop War- 
ner's foundation. In 1741 he took his bachelor's degree; 
and in 1742, in order to acquire a facility of speaking 
French, he went abroad, and remained for some time at 
Montreal, in Picardy, and afterwards at Ghent, in Flan- 
ders. On his return to college, in 1743, he took his mas- 
ter's degree, and having been ordained deacon, in 1744, 
he was appointed to officiate as chaplain to the third regi- 
ment of foot-guards, which he joined when serving with 
the combined army in Flanders. During the time he 
tilled this situation, he employed himself chiefly in the 
study of modern languages. He was not an inactive 
spectator of the battle of Fontenoy, April 29, 1745, on 
which occasion he was employed in carrying orders from 
general Campbell to the English who guarded the village 
in which he and the other generals were stationed. 

When a detachment of the army was ordered home to 
suppress the rebellion in Scotland, he returned to England 
in Sept. 1745, and having no longer any connexion with 
the guards, went back to Baliol college, where he was 
elected one of the exhibitioners on the more lucrative 
foundation of Mr. Snell. In 1747 he was ordained priest, 
and became curate of Tilehurst, near Reading ; and after- 
wards of Dunstevv, in Oxfordshire, where he was residing, 
when, at the recommendation of Dr. Charles Stuart, and 
lady Allen, a particular friend of his mother, he was se- 
lected by lord Bath as a tutor to accompany his son, lord 
Pulteney, on his travels. Of the tour which he then made, 
there exists a manuscript in Mr. Douglas's hand-writing. 
It relates principally, if not exclusively, to the govern- 
ments and political relations of the several countries through 
which he passed. In October 1749, he returned to Eng- 
land, and took possession of the free chapel of Eaton Con- 


stantine, and the donative of Uppington, in Shropshire, 
on the presentation of lord Bath. Here he commenced 
his literary career, by his able defence of Milton. Early in 
1747, William Lander, a Scotch schoolmaster, made a most 
flagitious attempt to subvert the reputation of Milton, by 
shewing that he was a mere copier or translator of the 
works of others, and that he was indebted to some mo- 
dern Latin poets for the plan, arrangement, &c. of his 
Paradise Lost. Many persons of considerable literary 
talents gave credit to the tale of Lander, among whom was 
the celebrated Dr. Johnson. Mr. Douglas, however, exa- 
mined the merits of the case, considered most accurately the 
evidence adduced by Lander, and soon found that the whole 
was a most gross fabrication. He published in 1750 a de- 
fence of Milton against Lander, entitled, " Milton vindi- 
cated from the Charge of Plagiarism," &c. which appeared 
in the form of a letter addressed to the earl of Bath. 
Having justified the poet, he proceeded to charge the ac- 
cuser with the most gross and manifest forgery, which he 
substantiated to the entire satisfaction of the public. The 
detection was indeed so clear and manifest, that the cri- 
minal acknowledged his guilt, in a letter dictated by Dr. 
Johnson, who abhorred the imposition he had practised. 

In the same year (1750) he was presented by lord Bath 
to the vicarage of High Ercal, in Shropshire, and vacated 
Eaton Constantine. He only occasionally resided on his 
livings, and at the desire of lord Bath, took a house in a 
street contiguous to Bath-house, London, where he passed 
the winter months. In the summer he generally accom- 
panied lord Bath in his excursions to Tunbridge, Chelten- 
ham, Shrewsbury, and Bath, and in his visits to the duke 
of Cleveland, lord Lyttelton, &c. In Sept. 1752, he 
married miss Dorothy Pershouse, sister of Richard Pers- 
house, of Reynolds-hall, near Walsall, in Staffordshire ; 
and within three months became a widower. In the spring 
of 1754, he published "The Criterion, or Miracles ex- 
amined, &c." in the form of a letter to an anonymous cor- 
respondent, since known to have been Dr. Adam Smith, 
with whom he probably became acquainted at Baliol-col- 
lege, where Smith studied for some time. This was de- 
signed as a refutation of the specious objections of Hume 
and others to the reality of the miracles recorded in the 
New Testament. Hume had maintained that there was as 
good evidence for the miracles said to have taken place 


among the ancient heathens, and in later times, in the 
church ot Rome, as there was for those recorded by the 
evangelists, and said to have been performed by the power 
of Christ. Mr. Douglas, who had shewn himself an acute 
judge of the value of evidence, pointed out the distinction 
between the pretended and true miracles, to the honour 
of the Christian religion. Dr. Leland, in his " View of 
Deisiical Writers," has made very honourable mention of 
this work. 

In 1755, he wrote a pamphlet entitled " An Apology 
for the Clergy," against the Hutchinsonians ; and shortly 
after, another pamphlet, entitled " The Destruction of 
the French foretold by Ezekiel," against the same, being 
an ironical defence of them aq;ainst the attack made on 


them in the former pamphlet, which, however, was not 
greatly wanted, as the Hutchinsonians had at that time 
the more serious aid of Mr. (afterwards Dr.) George Home, 
bishop of Norwich, who could himself, had he thought it 
necessary, wield the weapon of irony with good effect. 
In 1756, Mr. Douglas published his first pamphlet against 
Archibald Bower, the purpose of which, as well as of what 
followed against the same doubtful character (see BOWER), 
was to shew that his History of the popes could not be de- 
pended upon, and that the author had shewn himself ca- 
pable of much misrepresentation and falsehood, which he 
had indulged to secure the patronage of the protestants in 
this country. In the autumn of the same year, Mr. Douglas 
published "A serious Defence of the Administration," being 
an ironical justification of their introducing foreign troops to 
defend this country. In 1757 he published " Bower and 
Tillemont compared ;" shortly afterwards, " A full Con- 
futation of Bower's Three Defences ;" and in the spring 
of 1758, " The complete and final Detection of Bower." 

In the Easter term of this year he took his doctor's de- 
gree, and was presented by, lord Bath to the perpetual 
curacy of Kenley, in Shropshire. In 1759, he published 
" The Conduct of a late noble commander candidly con- 
sidered," as good a defence as the case would admit, of 
lord George Sackville. It was suggested solely by the 
attack so unfairly made on him by Ruff head, before it 
could possibly be known whether he deserved censure. 
No person was privy to Dr. Douglas's being the author of 
this Defence, except his bookseller, Andrew Millar, to 
whom he made a present of the copy. In the same mouth 


he wrote and published, " A Letter to two great men on 
the approach of peace," a pamphlet which excited great 
attention, and was generally attributed to lord Bath. In 
1760 he wrote the preface to the translation of Hooke's 
" Negociations in Scotland." He was this year appointed 
one of his majesty's chaplains. In 1761 he published his 
" Seasonable Hints from an honest man," as an exposition 
of lord Bath's sentiments. In November 1762, he was, 
through the interest of lord Bath, made canon of Windsor. 
In December of that year, on the day on which the pre- 
liminaries of peace were to be taken into consideration in 
parliament, he wrote a paper called " The Sentiments of 
a Frenchman," which was printed on a sheet, pasted on 
the walls in every part of London, and distributed among 
the members of parliament, as they entered the house. 

In 1763 he superintended the publication of " Henry 
Earl of Clarendon's Diary and Letters," and wrote the 
preface which is prefixed to these papers. In June of this 
year, he accompanied lord Bath to Spa, where he became 
acquainted with the hereditary prince of Brunswick (the 
late duke), from whom he received marked and particular 
attention, and with whom he was afterwards in correspond- 
ence. It is known that within a few years there existed 
a series of letters written by him during his stay at Spa, 
and also a book containing copies of all the letters which 
he had written to, and received from, the prince of Bruns- 
wick, on the state of parties, and the characters of their 
leaders in this country, and on the policy and effect of its 
continental connexions ; but as these have not been found 
among his papers, there is reason to apprehend, that they 
may have been destroyed, in consideration of some of the 
persons being still alive, whose characters, conduct, and 
principles, were the topics of that correspondence. 

In 1764, his steady patron, lord Bath, died, and be- 
queathed to him his library ; but general Pulteney wishing 
that it should not be removed from Bath-house, he relin- 
quished his claim, and accepted 1000/. in lieu of it. Ge- 
neral Pulteney, at his death, left it to Dr. Douglas again, 
and he again gave it up to the late sir William Pulteney, 
for the same sum. It has been erroneously stated that the 
valuable library, of which Dr. Douglas was possessed, had 
been derived from this source, whereas it was entirely 
collected by himself; and the Bath library, after the 
death of sir William Pulteney, was lately sold by auction. 


In 1764 he exchanged his livings in Shropshire for that 
of St. Austin and St. Faith, in Watling-street, London. 
In April 1765 he married miss Elizabeth Rooke, daughter 
of Henry Brudenell Rooke, esq. During this and the 
preceding year*, as well as in 1768, he wrote several po- 
litical papers, which were printed in the Public Advertiser; 
and all ihe letters which appeared in that paper, in 1770 
and 1771, under the signatures of Tacitus and Manlius, 
were written by him. In 1773, he assisted sir John Dal- 
rymple in the arrangement of his MSS. In 1776 he was 
removed from the chapter of Windsor to that of St. Paul's. 
During this and the subsequent year he was employed in 
preparing captain Cook's Journal for publication, which 
he undertook at the urgent request of lord Sandwich, then 
first lord of the admiralty. In 1777, he assisted lord Hard- 
wicke, in arranging and publishing his " Miscellaneous 
Papers," which came out in the following year. In 1778 
he was elected a member of the royal and antiquary so- 
cieties. In 1781 he was again applied to by lord Sand- 
wich, to reduce into a shape fit for publication, the Jour- 
nal of capt. Cook's third and last voyage ; to which he 
supplied the very able introduction, and the .notes. In 
1781 he was chosen president of Sion-college for the year, 
and preached the Latin sermon before that body. 

In 1786 he was elected one of the vice-presidents of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and framed their address on the 
king's recovery, 17S9, both to his majesty and the queen. 
In March 1787 he was elected one of the trustees of the 
British Museum, and in September of the same year, was 
appointed bishop of Carlisle. In 1788 he succeeded to 
the deanery of Windsor, for which he vacated his residen- 
tiaryship of St. Paul's. In 1789 he preached before the 
house of lords, and of course published, the sermon on the 
anniversary of king Charles's martyrdom. In June 1791, 
he was translated to the see of Salisbury. In 1793 he 
preached, which is also published, the anniversary sermon 
before the society for propagating the Gospel. Having 
been often and very urgently requested, by many of his 

* In 1T67 he appears to have been begging that he would stop the pro- 
suspected of writing a pamphlet en- gress of a report likely to be so inju- 
titled " Observations on the Spanish rious to him. This, and Mr. Wilkes's 
papers," and as Mr. Wilkes had in- answer, appeared in the papers of the 
formed him of this suspicion, Dr. Doug- day. 
las wrote a letter to that gentleman, 


literary friends, to publish a new edition of the " Cri- 
terion," which had been many years out of print, he un- 
dertook to revise that excellent work. He had a long time 
before collected materials for a new and enlarged edition ; 
but unfortunately they had been either mislaid or lost; or, 
more probably, destroyed, by mistake, with some other 
manuscripts. This circumstance, and his very advanced 
ago, sufficiently accounts for his not having attempted to 
alter materially the original work. In this statement, all 
the avowed publications of the bishop are enumerated, but 
he was concerned in many others, in which he was never 
supposed to have had any part, and in some of no trifling 
celebrity, whose nominal and reputed authors he per- 
mitted to retain and enjoy exclusively all that credit of 
which he could have justly laid claim to no inconsiderable 
share. During a great part of his life, he was in corre- 
spondence with some of the most eminent literary and po- 
litical characters of the age. Few could have read more, 
if indeed any one so much as, with such habits of incessant 
application as those in which he persevered, almost to the 
last hour of his long protracted life, he must necessarily 
have read. In the strictest sense of the expression, he 
never let one minute pass unimproved ; for he never 
deemed any space of time too short to be employed in 
reading ; nor was he ever seen by any of his family, when 
not in company with strangers, without having a book or a 
pen in his hand. He retained his faculties to the last, and 
without any specific complaint, died on Monday, May 18, 
1 807, without a struggle, .in the arms of his son, to whom, 
the public are indebted for the principal part of the pre- 
ceding memoir. Bishop Douglas was interred on Monday 
the 25th in a vault in St. George's chapel, Windsor. 

This learned prelate enjoyed a very high share of repu- 
tation during a very long life. He was, if not one of the 
most profound, one of the most general scholars in the 
kingdom, and the range of his information was most ex- 
tensive. Nor was he more an enlightened scholar, than a 
warm friend to men of learning and genius ; in private life, 
he was amiable, communicative, and interesting in his 
conversation and correspondence. As a divine, if he took 
nio distinguished part in the controversies of the times, he 
evinced by his " Criterion," his detection of Lauder, and 
his controversy with Bovver, what a formidable antagonist 
he could have proved, and what an unanswerable assertor 



of truth. His character likewise stood high for fidelity and 
a conscientious discharge of the public duties of his station., 
and when not employed in the pulpit, for always counte- 
nancing public worship by his presence. His punctuality 
in this last respect is still remembered by the congregations 
or i^t. Faith's and St. Paul's. In a word, as his talents re- 
commended him in early life to patronage, so he soon de- 
monstrated that he wanted only to be better known to be 
thought deserving of the highest preferments. l 

DOUJAT (JOHN), a learned French advocate and clas- 
sical scholar, was born in 1609 at Toulouse, of a family 
distinguished by their talents. After having studied clas- 
sics and philosophy with great success, he went through a 
course of law, and was admitted an advocate of the parlia- 
ment of Toulouse in 1637. Removing afterwards with a 
view to settle in Paris, he was admitted to the same rank 
in the parliament of that city in 1639. Here his reputation 
for knowledge and eloquence became soon acknowledged, 
and in 1650, on the death of Balthazar Baro, he was chosen 
into the French academy in his place. The following 
year, according to the " Menagiana," he went to Bourges 
as candidate for a law professorship, but we are not told 
whether he succeeded ; in the same year, however, he 
was appointed professor of the canon law in the royal col- 
lege ; and four years after, in 1655, had the appointment 
of regent doctor of the faculty of the law, and filled both 
offices with the highest reputation, nor did their laborious 
duties prevent him from finding sufficient leisure to write 
many of his published works. He was also appointed pre- 
ceptor to the dauphin in history, and became one of the 
learned editors of the Dauphin classics. He died Oct. 27, 
1688, in his 79th year, being then dean of the French 
academy, of the royal college, and of the faculty of law. 
He had an extensive knowledge of languages, wrote flu- 
ently in Latin and French, and spoke Italian, Spanish, 
Greek, Hebrew, and even the Turkish, and understood 
English, German, and Sclavonic. With all these accom- 
plishments, he was a man of singular modesty, probity, 
and disinterestedness. His talents having procured him 
what he thought a competent maintenance, he had no am- 
bition for riches, and employed what was not necessary for 
his own moderate wants, upon the poor. 

Gent.Mag. vol. LXXVIL 

D O U J A T. 291 

His works are numerous, and justify the fame he ac- 
quired.. 1. " Dictionnaire de la' langue Toulousaine," 
lt)38, 8vo. This, which is without Doujat's name, was 
printed at the end of Goudelin's works, which are in that 
language. 2. " Grammaire Espagnole abregee," Paris, 
1644, 12mo, also without his name. 3. " Moyen aise 
d'apprendre les langues mis en pratique sur la langue 
Espagnole," ibid. 1646, 12rao. 4. " Joannis Dartis opera 
Canonica, edente J. Doujatio," ibid. 1656, fol. 5. " De 
Pace a Ludovico XIV. constituta, oratio panegyrica," ibid. 
1660, 12mo. 6. " Historica juris Pontificii Synopsis,'* 
added afterwards to his edition of Lancelot's Institutions, 
ibid. 1670, 12mo. 7. " Synopsis Conciliorum et Chrono* 
logia Patrum, Pontificum, Imperatorum," &c. ibid. 1671, 
12mo. 8. A Latin translation of the " Panegyrique du- 
Roy," by M. Pellison, ibid. 1671, 4to. 9. " La Clef du 
grand Pouille de France," ibid. 1671, 2 volumes, 12mo. 
10. " Specimen Juris Canonici apud Gallos usu recepti," 
&c. ibid. 1671, 2 vols. 12mo, often reprinted. 11. A 
French translation of Velleius Paterculus, with notes, ibid. 
1672 and 1708, 12mo. 12. " Histoire du droit Canoni- 
que," ibid. 1675, 12mo. 13. " Historia Juris Civilis Ro- 
manorum," ibid. 1678, 12mo. 14. " Francisci Florentii 
opera Canonica et Juridica," with additions, ibid. 1679, 
2 vols. 4to. 15. The Delphin " Livy," ibid. 1679, 6 vols. 
4to. 16. " Theophili Antecessoris Institutionum lib. qua- 
tuor," with notes, &c. ibid. 1681, 2 vols. 12mo. 17. " In- 
stitutiones Juris Canonici a J. P. Lancelotto Perusino con- 
scriptae," with notes, ibid. 1685, 2 vols. 12mo. Inconse- 
quence of a new statute of the university of Paris, every 
regent doctor was obliged to lecture for three years on some 
branch of jurisprudence, and Doujat in obedience to this 
statute lectured on the subject of this work. 18. " Pra?- 
notionum canonicarum libri quinque," ibid. Paris, 1687, 
4to. 19. " Eloges des personnes illustres de 1' Ancient 
Testament^ pour donner quelque teinture de 1'Histoire Sa- 
cree, a I'usage de monseigneur le due de Bourgogne,'" 
ibid. 1688, 8vo, in verse, but not of the best sort. 20. "Re- 
ponse a M. Furetiere," Hague, 1688, 4to. 21. " Lettre 
touchant un passage conteste de Tite Live," printed in the 
Journal des Savans, Dec. 1685. 22. " Martini Bracarensis 
episcopi Collectio Canon um Oriental mm." This Doujat 
revised and corrected, for insertion in the " Bibl. Juris 
Canon, veteris," by Justell, Paris, 1661, 2 vols. fol. Dou 

u 2 

J92 T> O U J A T. 

jat wrote also several shorter pieces in the literary journals, 
some prefaces, &c. and Irad made some progress in a 
history of the regency of queen Anne of Austria, in con- 
sequence of the king's having appointed him historiogra- 
pher; but before a sheet had been printed, it was thought 
proper to suppress it. In the British Museum catalogue 
we find an article attributed to him under the title " Sup- 
plemeuta Lacunarum Livianavum," 4to, without date, and 
probably part of his edition of Livy. * 

DO US A (JANUS), a very learned man, was born of a 
rioble family at Nortwick in Holland, 1545. He lost his 
parents when very young, and was sent to several schools ; 
and to one at Paris among the rest, where he made a great 
progress in Greek and Latin. When he had finished his 
education, he returned to his own country, and married ; 
and though he was scarcely grown up, he applied himself 
to affairs of state, and was soon made a curator of the 
banks and ditches, which post he held above twenty years, 
and then resigned it. But Dousa was not only a scholar 
and a statesman, but likewise a soldier; and he behaved 
himself so well in that capacity at the siege of Leyden in 
1574, that the prince of Orange thought he could commit 
the government of the town to none so properly as to him. 
In 1575 the university was founded there, and Dousa made 
first curator of it ; for which place he was well fitted, as 
well on account of his learning as by his other deserts. 
His learning was indeed prodigious ; and he had such a 
menfory, that he could at once give an answer to any 
thing that was asked him, relating to ancient or modern 
history, or, in short, to any branch of literature. He was, 
says Melchior Adam, and, after him, Thuanus, a kind of 
living library ; the Varro of Holland, and the oracle of the 
university of Leyden. His genius lay principally towards 
poetry, and his various productions in verse were nu- 
merous : he even composed the annals of his own country, 
which he had collected from the public archives, in verse, 
which was published at Leyden 1601, 4to, and reprinted 
in 1617 with a commentary by Grotius. He wrote also 
critical notes upon Horace, Sallust, Plautus, Petronius, 
Catullus, Tibullus, &c. His moral qualities are said to 
have been no less meritorious than his intellectual and 
literary ; for he was modest, humane, benevolentj and affa- 

* Niceren, ?oi. XVI. MorerL 

D O U S A. 291 

ble. He was admitted into the supreme assembly of the 
nation, where he kept his seat, and discharged his office 
worthily, for the last thirteen years of his life. He died 
Oct. 12, 1604, and his funeral oration was made by Daniel 
Heinsius. Of his works, we have seen, 1. " Couiin. in 
Catullum, Tibullum, et Horatium," Antwerp, 1580, 12mo. 
2. " Libri tres Prascidaneorum in Petronium Arbitrmn," 
Leyden, 1583, 8vo. 3. " Epodon ex puris lambis," Ant. 
1514, 8vo. 4. " Plautinae Explicationes," Leyden, 1587, 
16mo. 5. " Poemata," ibid. 1607, 12mo. 6. " Odarum 
Britannicarum liber, ad Elizabetham reginam, et Jani 
Dousae filii Britannicorum carminum silva," Leyden, 1586, 
4to; and 7. lt Elegiarum libri duo, et Epigrammatum liber 
unus ; cum Justi Lipsii aliorumque ad eundem carminibus," 
ibid. 1586, 4to. In some catalogues, however, the works 
of the father and son seem be confounded. 

He left four sons behind him ; the eldest of whom, JANUS 
DOUSA, would, if he had lived, have been a more extraor- 
dinary man than his father. Joseph Scaliger calls him the 
ornament of the world; and says, that in the flower of his 
age he had reached the same maturity of wisdom and eru- 
dition, as others might expect to attain after a life spent 
in study. Grotius also assures us, that his poems ex- 
ceeded those of his father ; whom he assisted in composing 
the Annals of Holland. He was born in 1572; and, be- 
fore he was well out of infancy, became, through the 
great care of his father, not only a good linguist and poet, 
but also a good philosopher and mathematician. To all 
this he afterwards added an exquisite knowledge of the 
civil law and of history. Besides a great many poems, 
, which he composed in a very tender age, we have his notes 
and observations upon several Latin poets. Those upon 
Plautus were the product of his sixteenth year; and he 
was not above nineteen when he published his book " De 
Rebus Ccelestibus," and his " Echo, sive Lusus imaginis 
jocose." His commentaries upon Catullus, Tibullus, and 
Propertius, were published .the same year. His extraor- 
dinary fame and merit caused him to be made preceptor to 
the prince of Orange, and afterwards first librarian of the 
university of Leyden. He died at the Hague, in his re- 
turn from Germany in 1597, when lie had not quite com- 
pleted his 26th year. 

Dousa's three other sons, GEORGE, FRANCIS, and THEO- 
DORE, were all of them men of learning, though not so - 

D o u s A. 

eminent as Janus. George was a good linguist; travelled 
to Constantinople; and published a relation of his journey, 
with several inscriptions which he found there and else- 
where. Also, in 1607, he printed George Cedrenus's 
book, entitled, " De originibus urbis Constantinopolitanae," 
with Meursius's notes. Francis was far from wanting learn- 
ing : for in 1600 he published the epistles of Julius Caesar 
Scaliger; his annotations upon Aristotle's history of Ani- 
mals ; and some fragments of Lucilius, with notes of his 
own upon them. Theodore, lord of Barkenstyen, pub- 
lished the " Chronicon" of George Logotheta with notes, 
in 1614; and in 1638 wrote a treatise, called "Farrago 
echoica variarum linguarum, variorumque auctorum," &C. 1 
DOUW (GERHARD), an eminent artist, was born at 
Leyden in 1613, and after receiving some instructions 
from Dolendo, an engraver, and Kouwhoorn, a glass- 
painter, at the age of fifteen became a disciple of Rem- 
brandt, with whom he continued three years. Rembrandt 
taught him the principles of colouring, and the chiaro- 
scuro, to which knowledge Douw added a delicacy of pen- 
cil, and a patience in working up his colours to the highest 
degree of neatness, superior to any other, master. His 
pictures are usually of a small size, with figures exquisitely 
touched, transparent and delicate. Every object is a mi- 
nute copy of nature, and appears perfectly natural in 
colour, freshness, and force. In painting portraits he 
used a concave mirror, and sometimes looked at his ori- 
ginal through a frame with many exact squares of fine silk; 
practices now disused, except by some miniature painters 
who still use the mirror. 

Douw's pictures have always been high-priced in his 
own country, and in every part of Europe ; in finishing 
them he was curious and patient beyond example. Of 
this Sandrart gives a singular instance. Having once, in 
company with Bamboccio, visited Gerhard Douw, they 
admired a picture which he was then painting, and parti- 
cularly the excessive neatness of a broom, when Douw 
told them, he should spend three days more in working on 
that broom, before he should account it entirely complete. 
In a family picture of Mrs. Spiering, the same author says, 
that the lady had sat five days for the finishing of one of 

1 Niceron, vol. XVIII. Freheri Theatrum. Foppeu Bibl. Belg. Moreri. 
JJlount's Ceosura. Baillet Jugemens. Saxii Onomast. 

D O U W. 29* 

Iyer hands that leaned on an arm-chair. For that reason, 
not many would sit to him for their portraits ; and he 
therefore indulged himself mostly in works of fancy, in 
which he could introduce objects of still life, and employ 
as much time on them as suited his own inclination. 
Houbraken testifies, that his great patron Mr. Spiering 
allowed him a thousand guilders a year, and paid beside 
whatever he demanded for his pictures, and purchased some 
of them for their weight in silver; but Sandrart, with more 
probability, assures us, that the thousand guilders a year 
were paid to Gerhard, on no other consideration than that 
the artist should give his benefactor the option of every 
picture he painted, for which he was immediately to re- 
ceive the utmost of his demand. 

Douvv appears, incontestably, tabe the most wonderful 
in his finishing of all the Flemish masters. Every thing 
that came from his pencil is precious, and his colouring 
hath exactly the true and the lovely tints of nature ; nor 
do his colours appear tortured, nor is their vigour lessened 
by his patient pencil ; for, whatever pains he may have 
taken, there is no look of labour or stiffness ; and his pic- 
tures are remarkable, not only for retaining their original 
lustre, but for having the same beautiful effect at a proper 
distance, as they have when brought to the nearest view. 
The most capital picture of this master in Holland was, not 
very long since, in the possession of the widow Van Hoek, 
at Amsterdam ; it was of a size larger than usual, being 
three feet high, by two feet six inches broad, within the 
frame. In it two rooms are represented ; in the first 
(where there appears a curious piece of tapestry, as a sepa- 
ration of the apartments) there is a pretty figure of a 
woman giving suck to a child ; at her side is a cradle, and 
a table covered with tapestry, on which is placed a gilt 
lamp, and some pieces of still life. In the second apart- 
ment is a surgeon's shop, with a countryman undergoing 
an operation, and a woman standing by him with several 
utensils. The folding-doors show on one side a study, and 
a man making a pen by candle-light, and on the other side, 
a school with boys writing and sitting at different tables. 
At Turin are several pictures by Gerhard Douw, wonder- 
fully beautiful ; especially one, of a doctor attending a 
sick woman, and surveying an urinal. The execution of 
that painting is astonishingly fine ; and although the sha- 
dows appear a little too dark, the whole has an inexpres- 

296 D O U W. 

sible effect. In the gallery at Florence, there is a night- 
piece by candle-light, which is exquisitely finished ; and 
in the same apartment, a mountebank attended by a num- 
ber of figures, which, says Pilkington, it seems impossible 
either sufficiently to commend, or to describe. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, however, has contrived to describe it without 
much commendation, as a picture that is very highly 
finished, but has nothing interesting in it. The heads 
have no character, nor are any circumstances of humour 
introduced. The only incident is a very dirty one, which 
every observer must wish had been omitted ; that of a 
woman clouting a child. The rest of the figures are stand- 
ing round, without invention or novelty of any kind. After 
other objections to this picture, sir Joshua observes that 
the single figure of the woman holding a hare, in Mr. 
Hope's collection, is worth more than this large picture, 
in which perhaps there is ten times the quantity of work. 
Gerhard Douw died very opulent in 1674. ' 

DOVIZI, or DIVISIO (BERNARD), better known by 
the name of BEKNAKD of BIBIENA, an eminent cardinal, 
was born of a reputable family at Bibiena in 1470, and 
was sent at nine years of age to pursue his studies at Flo- 
rence. His family connexions introduced him into the 
house of the Medici, and such was the assiduity with which 
he availed himself of the opportunities of instruction there 
afforded him, that at the age of seventeen, he had attained 
a great facility of Latin composition, and was soon after- 
wards selected by Lorenzo de Medici, as one of his pri- 
vate secretaries. He was also the principal director of the 
studies of John de Medici, afterwards Leo X. and when 
the honours of the church were bestowed on his pupil, the 
principal care of his pecuniary concerns was intrusted to 
Dovizi ; in the execution of which he rendered his patron 
such important services, and conducted himself with so 
much vigilance and integrity, that some have not hesitated 
to ascribe to him, in a considerable degree, the future 
eminence of his pupil, who, when made pope, gave his 
tutor a cardinal's cap. He also employed himself in seve- 
ral negociations. He sent him as legate to the army raised 
against the duke of Urbino ; and also to the emperor 
Maximilian. In 1518 he was sent as legate to France to 
persuade the king, to join in the crusade against the Turks, 

* Argenville, vol. III. Descamps, vol. II. Sir J. Reynolds's Works. 

D O V I Z I. 297 

in which he would have succeeded, had not the pope dis- 
couraged the enterprize by his unreasonable distrust and 
caballing against France. Bibiena remonstrated against 
this conduct with cjreat freedom in his letters to Rome. 

O ' 

which is supposed to have hastened his death in Nov. 1520. 
Some have asserted that he was poisoned by the order or 
contrivance of Leo X. which is positively denied by the 
historian of that pontiff, as utterly destitute of proof. 

Bibiena, although an ecclesiastic, partook of the licen- 
tious character of the papal court and times to which he 
belonged, but was a friend to literature, and a patron of 
the arts. In his temper and manners he was affable, and 
even facetious, as appears by the representation of him 
in Castiglione's " Courtier," in which he is introduced as 
one of the interlocutors. Of his turn for literature, he 
gave a sufficient proof in his celebrated comedy " La Ca- 
landria," which, although not, as some have asserted, the 
earliest comedy which modern times have produced, de- 
servedly obtained great reputation for its author, and 
merits, even at this day, no small share of approbation. 
It was first printed at Siena in 1521, afterwards at Rome, 
1524, Venice, 1552 and 1562, and at Florence in 1558. * 

DOWN HAM (GEORGE), bishop of Derry in Ireland, 
the son of William Downham, bishop of Chester, was born 
there. He was educated at Cambridge, was elected a fel- 
low of Christ college in 1585, and was afterwards professor 
of logic. -Fuller says that no man was better skilled in 
Aristotle and Ramus, and terms him "the top-twig of that 
branch." He was esteemed a man of learning, and was 
chaplain to James I. by whom he was advanced to the see 
of Derry, by letters dated Sept. 6, 1616, and was conse- 
crated Oct. 6, of the same year. During the government 
of the lord chancellor Loftus, and the earl of Cork, he ob- 
tained a commission, by an immediate warrant from him- 
self to arrest, apprehend, and attach the bodies of all peo- 
ple within his jurisdiction, who should decline the same, 
or should refuse to appear upon lawful citation, or appear- 
ing should refuse to obey the sentence given against 
them, and authority to bind them in recognizances, with 
sureties or without, to appear at the council-table to answer 
such contempts. The like commission was renewed to 
him by the lord deputy Wentworth, Oct. 3, 1633. Both 

' Tiraboschi. Roscoe's Leo. Moreri in Bernard. 

29S D O W N H A M. 

were obtained upon his information, that his diocese 
abounded with all manner of delinquents, who refused obe- 
dience to all spiritual processes. He died at Londonderry 
April 17, 1634, and was buried there in the cathedral. He 
had a brother named John, who was an eminent divine and 
a writer. His own works are very numerous, and evince 
his theological abilities and piety. 1. " A treatise con- 
cerning Antichrist, in two books," Lond. 1603, 4to. 2. 
" The Christian's Sanctuary," ibid. 1604, 4to. 3. " Lec- 
tures upon the Fifteenth Psalm," ibid. 1604, -4to. 4. 
" Sermon at the consecration of the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, upon Apocalypse i. 20," ibid. 160S, 4to. 5. " De- 
fence of the same Sermon against a nameless author," ibid. 
1611,4to. 6. " Two Sermons, the one commending the 
ministry in general, the other, the office of bishops in par- 
ticular," ibid. 1608. The latter of these, but enlarged, is 
the consecration sermon above mentioned. 7. " Papa 
Antichristus, seu Diatriba de Antichristo," ibid. 1620, a 
different treatise from the former against Antichrist. 8. 


" The Covenant of Grace, or an Exposition upon Luke i. 
73, 74, 75," Dublin, 1631, 8vo. 9. " A treatise on Justi- 
fication," Lond. 1633, folio. 10. " The Christian's Free- 
dom, or the doctrine of Christian Liberty," Oxford, 1635, 
8vo. 11. "An Abstract of the Duties commanded, and 
sins forbidden in the Law of God," Lond. 1635, 8vo. 12. 
" A godly and learned Treatise of Prayer," Lond. 1640, 
4to. These three last were posthumous. His brother JOHN, 
above mentioned, was likewise educated at Cambridge, 
where he took the degree of B. D. He exercised his mi- 
nistry in different parts of London, and was the first who 
preached the Tuesday's lecture in St. Bartholomew Ex- 
change, which he did with great reputation. His princi- 
pal work is entitled "The Christian Warfare." He died in 
1644. l 

DOWNING (CALYBUTE), an English divine, the eldest 
son of Cal^bute Downing of Shennington, in Gloucester- 
shire, gent, was born in 1606, and in 1623 became a com- 
moner of Oriel college, Oxford, where he took one degree 
in arts. His master's degree, according to Wood, he took 
at Cambridge, or abroad ; after which, entering into orders, 
he held the vicarage of Hackney, near London, with the 
parsonage of Hickford, in Buckinghamshire. But these not 

' Sir James Ware's Works, by Harris. 


being sufficient for his ambition, he stood in competition 
with Dr. Gilbert Sheldon for the wardenship of All -soul's ; 
and losing that, was a suitor to be chaplain to the earl of 
Stratford, lord lieutenant of Ireland, thinking that road 
might lead to a bishopric. But failing there also, he joined 
the parliament party, and became a great promoter of 
their designs ; and in a sermon preached before the ar- 
tillery-company, Sept. 1, 1640, delivered this doctrine: 
" That for tiie defence of religion, and reformation of the 
church, it was lawful to take up arms against the king ;" 
but fearing to be called in question for this assertion, he 
retired to the house of Robert earl of Warwick, at Little 
Lees, in Essex. After this he became chaplain to the 
lord Robert's regiment, and in 1643 was one of the as- 
sembly of divines ; but died in the midst of his career, in 
1644. He has some political discourses and sermons in 
print, enumerated by Wood. He was father of sir George 
Downing, made by king Charles II. secretary to the trea- 
sury, and one of the commissioners for the customs. 1 

DOWNMAN (HUGH), an ingenious physician and poet, 
the son of a country gentleman of both his names, was 
born at Newton House, in the village of Newton St. Cyrus, 
near Exeter, in 1740, and educated at the grammar-school 
of Exeter. About 1758 he was entered of Baliol college, 
Oxford, where he remained until he took his bachelor's 
degree, and in 1762 was ordained by bishop Lavington in 
the cathedral of Exeter, but he had little attachment to the 
church, nor were his prospects very alluring. In 1765 he 
repaired to Edinburgh, with a view to study medicine, and 
took up his abode in the house of Dr. Blacklock, who, 
having read his first poetical production, " The Land of 
the Muses," bestowed encouraging praise. This poem 
was published at Edinburgh in 1768, but has never since 
been reprinted. To it were added " Poems on several 
occasions," of various merit, but all indicating a consi- 
derable share of poetical taste. In 1769, Mr. Downman 
came to London, where he attended the hospitals and 
lectures for one winter. He then received his master's 
degree at Cambridge, and soon after settled as a prac- 
titioner at Exeter, and married the daughter of Dr. An- 
drew, an eminent physician in that city. Here his practice 
was rapidly increasing, when, in 1778, the severity of a 
chronic complaint, contracted in his earlier years, obliged 

I Ath. Ox. yol. II. 


him to consult his health by change of air, and retirement, 
during- which he amused himself by literary efforts. The 
first was his tragedy of " Lucius ,'unius Brutus," published 
in 1779, in which there are some poetical beauties, but not 
enough of the dramatic form to suit the stage. " Beli- 
sarius," his second dramatic attempt, was performed at 
the Exeter theatre, but with little success; but his third, 
" Editha," brought out at that theatre in 1781, was per- 
formed for seventeen nights. This, however, must be im- 
puted to its being founded on a local event peculiarly 
interesting to an Exeter audience ; in other respects all his 
tragedies must be allowed to be better adapted to the closet 
than the stage. 

About 1777, a design was entertained of publishing a 
translation of Voltaire's works, and the poetical department 
was entrusted to Dr, Downman. The plan was too exten- 
sive, and those who undertook it failed. The publication, 
was consequently discontinued ; but a volume of the tra- 
gedies, containing CEdipus, Mariamne, Brutus, and The 
Death of Caesar, was printed in 1781. It might be sus- 
pected, that the expressive energy of our author's lan- 
guage was little suitable to the expanded tinsel of a French 
dramatist; yt't he is thought to have succeeded in fami- 
liarizing these tragedies to the English reader. When 
Mr. Polwhele, in 1792, collected the original miscellaneous 
poetry of Devonshire ai>d Cornwall, Dr. Downman, at 
that time his intimate friend, was a large contributor. His 
pen indeed was seldom from his hand, and his poetical 
stock was almost inexhaustible; so that, while many poems 
were distinguished by his signature, he could claim many 
others marked with single initials. 

About the same period a literary society was established 
at Exeter, consisting at first of nine, afterwards augmented 
to twelve members. The design of this meeting was, to 
unite talents of different descriptions, and genius directed 
to different pursuits. In a society thus formed, conversa- 
tion would probably rise superior to the usual discussion of 
the topics of the day, and by talents thus combined or 
contrasted each might improve with the assistance of ano- 
ther. An essay on any subject, except a strictly profes- 
sional one, was read by every member in his turn, which 
might suggest a subject of discussion, if no more interest- 
ing one occurred. This society for nearly twelve years 
was conducted with equal spirit and good humour. A 
volume of its essays has been published, and materials for 

D O W N M A N. 301 

another have been preserved ; but, in a later period, the 
communications were less numerous, thon ;h the society 
was supported with equal harmony till 1808, when the 
impaired health of Dr. Downman, its firs: founder and 
chief promoter, damped its spirit, and the meetings were 
discontinued. In the collections of this s )cirty are the 
few prose compositions of the subject of this memoir, 
though generally united with poetry. The very judicious 
address to the members, on their first meeting, was from 
his pen ; and the defence of Pindar from the imputation, 
of writing for hire, supposed to be countenanced by pas- 
sages in the llth Pythian, and the 2d Isthmean odes, 
accompanied by a new translation of each, displays equally 
his learning and the acuteness of his critical talents. la 
the same volume is an essay " on the origin and mythology 
of the Serpent Worship," tracing this superstition to its 
earliest periods, in Judea, ^gypt, and Greece, a subject 
which he afterwards pursued with respect to the worship 
of the sun and fire, in an exclusive essay, not published, 
in which, pursuing the track of Mr. Bryant, he chiefly 
rests on the insecure and delusive hasis of etymology. 
His other contributions were an essay on the shields of 
Hercules and Achilles, and various poetical pieces. But 
his chief reputation is founded on his excellent didactic 
poem of " Infancy," first published in 1771, and received 
with such avidity by the public, that he lived to see the 
seventh edition. He had now so far recovered as to be 
able to resume his profession, and his practice for several 
years was extensive and successful. In 1805, increasing 
infirmities warned him to retire; and, weaning himself 
from business by a visit to his friends in Hampshire and 
London, he declared his intention of resigning it entirely. 
This determination met with a strenuous opposition. He 
was urged to contract his limits ; to give occasional assist- 
ance in consultation, at the least inconvenient hours ; in 
short, to continue his useful labours in the way most easy 
to himself; but every solicitation was in vain, and he re- 
tired to private life with the eulogies and blessings of all 
around him. In his retirement, he made few original 
efforts. He reviewed his former labours, and a selection 
of those which he preferred is reserved in MS. The 
" Poems sacred to Love and Beauty," appear to be some 
of these early efforts ; and he published with his last cor- 
rections, the seventh edition of " Infancy." He died at 

302 DOWN M A X. 

deeply lamented as an ingenious 

lar, an able and humane, physician, and an amiable 
man. ' 

DKABICIUS (Nicn , was 

/, in Moraviii, v. IH-IC hi - ' 

i naster. I. .16, 

ami d Ins function at DrAoiut/ ; and wlicn In- was 

obh . retreat in i mut 

of i .<:ts of iL -ainst t!. :ant 

.D I.eidnit/, a town in Hungary, in 
no hopes of being restored to his church, 
be turned woollen -draper; in which occupation hU wife, 
who was tlu: daughter of one, was of .ire to him. 

Afterwards lie forgot the decorum of his lornu-r character 
so much, that la- decame a hard drinker; and the other 
ministers, justly scandali/ed at his conduct, informed their 
superiors of it, who, in a synod called in Poland, examined 
into the affair, and resolved that Drahicius should b 
peii'led from the ministry, if he did not live in a more 
edifying manner. This obliged him to behave himself 
with more decency, in public at least. 

VV hen he was upwards of fifty years of age, he commo; 
prophet. He bad his first vision in the night of Feb. 23, 
163S, and the second in the night of Jan. 23, 1G43. The 
f:r>t vision promised him in general great armies from the 
north and east, which should crush the house of Austria ; 
the second declared particularly, that Ragotski, prince of 
Transylvania, should command the army from the e 
and ordered Drabicins to inform his brethren, that < 
was about to restore them to their own country, and to 
venge the injuries done to his people ; and that they should 
prepare themselves for this deliverance by ;md 

prayer. He received orders to write down what 1, 
revealed to him ; and to begin in the manner of the an- 
cient prophets, " The word of the Lord came unto me.'* 
His \isions, however, were not much regarded at first. 
These two were followed l>v many others in the same year, 
''> ; and there was one, which ordered, that he should 
open tlu; whole allair to (.'omenius, who was then at. Kl- 
biii4, in Prussia. One of his \ isions, in 1644, assured bin 
that the imperial troops should not destroy the n 
They committed great ravages upon the territories of Ra> 

Geut Mag. rol. LXXX. 

D R A B I C I U S. 303 

gotski, plundered the town of Leidnitz, and besieged the 
castle. Drabicius shut himself up there, and did not de- 
pend so entirely upon the divine assurances as to think 
human means unnecessary. He even set his hand to the 
works : " he would not only be present," says Comenius, 
who blames him for it, " but also fire one of the cannon 
himself; whereas, it would have been more proper for 
him to have been in a corner, and to have applied himself 
to prayer. But the imprudent zeal of this new Peter, 
presuming to defend the Lord with the material sword, 
was chastised by the Lord himself, who permitted part of 
the flame to recoil upon his face, and to hurt one of his eyes.'* 
The imperialists raised the siege ; but soon after besieged 
the place again, and took it. The refugees were plun- 
dered, and Drabicius fell into the hands of the imperialists. 
This did not prevent him from going to Ragotski, and 
telling him, Aug. 1645, that God commanded him to de- 
stroy the house of Austria and the pope ; and that, " if 
he refused to attack that nest of vipers, he would draw 
down upon his family a general ruin." The prince already 
knew that Drabicius bad assumed the character of a pro- 
phet ; for Drabicius, according to the repeated orders 
which he had received in his ecstacies, had sent him a 
copy of his revelations, which Ragotski threw into the fire. 
The death of that prince, in Oct. 16 7, plunged Drabicius 
into extreme sorrow; who was in the utmost fear lest his 
revelation should vanish into smoke, and himself be ex- 
posed to ridicule. But he had one ecstatic consolation, 
which re-animated him ; and that was, that God would 
send him Comenius, to whom he should communicate his 
writings. Comenius having business in Hungary, in 1650, 
saw Drabicius there, and his prophecies; and made such 
reflections as he thought proper, upon the vision's having 
for three years before promised Drabicius that he should 
have Comenius for a coadjutor. Sigismond Ragotski, 
being .urged by Drabicius to make war against the em- 
peror, and by his mother to continue in peace with him, 
was somewhat perplexed. Drabicius denounced against 
him the judgments of the Almighty, in case of peace; and 
his mother threatened him with her curse in case of war. 
In this dilemma he recommended himself to the prayers 
of Drabicius and Comenius, and kept himself quiet till his 


In 1654 Drabicius was restored to his ministry, and his 
visions p esemed themselves more frequently than ever; 
ordering from lime to time that they should be communi- 
cated to his coadjutqr Comenius, that be might publish 
them to ail nations and languages, and particularly to the 
Turks and Tartars. Comenius found himself embarrassed 
between the fear of God, and that of men ; he was appre- 
hensive that by not printing the revelations of Drabicins 
he should disobey God, and that by printing them he 
should expose himself to the ridicule and censure of men. 
He took a middle way ; he resolved to print them, and 
not to distribute the copies ; and upon this account he en- 
titled the book " Lux in Tenebris." But his resolution 
did not continue long ; it gave way to two remarkable 
events, which were taken for a grand crisis, and the un- 
ravelling of the mystery. One of these events was the 
irruption of George Ragotski into Poland ; the other, the 
death of the emperor Ferdinand III., but both events far 
from answering the predictions, served only to confound 
them. Ragotski perished in his descent upon Poland ; 
and Leopold, king of Hungary, was elected emperor in 
the room of his father Ferdinand III. by which election 
the house of Austria was almost restored to its former 
grandeur, and the protestants in Hungary absolutely 
ruined. Drabicius was the greatest sufferer by this ; for 
the court of Vienna, being informed that he was the per- 
son who sounded the trumpet against the house of Austria, 
sought means to punish him, and, as it is said, succeeded 
in it. What became of him, we cannot learn ; some say 
that he was burnt for an impostor and false prophet ; 
others, that he died in Turkey, whither he had fled for 
refuge ; but neither of these accounts is certain. 

The " Lux in Tenebris" was printed by Comenius, at 
Amsterdam, in 1657; and contains not only the revela- 
tions of our Drabicius, but those of Christopher Kotterus, 
and of Christina Poniatovia. Comenius published au 
abridgement of it in 1660, with this title, " Revelationum 
divinarum in usum saeculi nostri factarum epitome." He 
reprinted the whole work, with this title, " Lux e tenebris 
novis radiis aucta, &c." These new rays were a sequel of 
Drabicius's revelations, which extended to 1666.* 

1 Gen. Diet. Moreri. See COMEMUI, vol. X. 

DRACO. 305 

DRACO, an eminent legislator of Athens, succeeded 
Triptolemus in the 39th olympiad, 324 years B.C. When 
the laws of Triptolemus were found insufficient for the re- 
gulation of the state, Draco instituted a new code, which 
was so extremely rigorous, that his Jaws were said to be 
written in blood. Under his system of legislation, death 
was the penalty for every kind of offence, in vindication of 
which he alleged, that as small faults seemed to him 
worthy of death, he could find no severer punishment for 
the greatest crimes. Such, however, was his abhorrence 
of the crime of taking away life, that he directed a prose- 
cution to be instituted even against inanimate things which 
had been instrumental to this purpose, and sentenced a 
statue, which had fallen upon a man and killed him, to be 
banished ; an absurdity which shews the rude state of le-? 
gislation in his time. Some of his laws were the result o 
age and experience, and owed their effect to the opinion 
that was entertained of his virtue and patriotism, but the 
Athenians could not endure the rigour of others, and the 
legislator himself was obliged to withdraw to the island of 
./Egina, where he suffered as severely from his friends, 
as he could from his enemies, being, as we are told, suf- 
focated at the public theatre, amidst the applauses of the; 
people. The rigour of his discipline was in some measure 
relaxed by Solon, in the 46th olympiad. 1 

DRAKE (Sia FRANCIS), one of our most distinguished 
naval heroes, who flourished in the reign of Elizabeth, was 
the son of Edmund Drake, a sailor, and born near Tavi- 
stock, in Devonshire, in 1545, but some have said that 
he was the son of a clergyman. He was, however, brought 
up at the expence, and under the care, of sir John Haw- 
kins, who was his kinsman ; and at the age of eighteen 
was purser of a ship trading to Biscay. At twenty he 
made a voyage to Guinea; and at twenty-two had the 
honour to be made captain of the Judith. In that capacity 
he was in the harbour of St. John de Ulloa, in the gulph 
of Mexico, where he behaved most gallantly in the glo- 
rious actions under sir John Hawkins, and returned with 
him to England with great reputation, though as poor as 
he set out. Upon this he projected a design against the 
Spaniards in the West Indies, which he no sooner an- 
nounced, than he had volunteers enough ready to accora- 

' Moreri. Brucker. 


306 D R A K E. 

pany him. In 1570 he made bis first expedition with two 
ships ; and the next year with one only, in which he re- 
turned safe, if not with such advantages as he expected. 
He made another expedition in 1572, did the Spaniards 
some mischief, and gained considerable hooties. In these 
expeditions he was much assisted by a nation of Indians, 
who then were, and have been ever since, engaged iu 
perpetual wars with the Spaniards. The prince of these 
people was named Pedro, to whom Drake presented a fine 
cutlass from his side, which he saw the Indian greatly ad- 
mired. Pedro, in return, gave him four large wedges of 
gold, which Drake threw into the common stock, with 
this remarkable expression, that" he thought it but just, 
that such as bore the charge of so uncertain a voyage on 
his credit, should share the utmost advantages that voyage 
produced." Then embarking his men with all the wealth 
he had obtained, which was very considerable, he bore 
away for England, where he arrived in August, 1573. 

His success in this expedition, joined to his honourable 
behaviour towards his owners, gained him high reputation, 
which was increased by the use he made of his riches. For, 
fitting out three slout frigates at his own expence, he sailed 
with them into Ireland, where, under Walter earl of Essex, 
the father of the famous unfortunate earl, he served as a 
volunteer, and performed many gallant exploits. After 
the death of his noble patron, he returned into England ; 
where sir Christopher Hatton, vice-chamberlain to queen 
Elizabeth, and privy-counsellor, introduced him to her 
majesty, and procured him countenance and protection at 
court. By this means he acquired a capacity of under- 
taking that grand expedition, which will render his name 
immortal. The first thing he proposed was a voyage into 
the South-seas, through the Straits of Magellan, which 
hitherto no Englishman had ever attempted. The project 
was well received at court ; the queen furnished him with 
means ; and his own fame quickly drew together a force 
sufficient. The fleet with which he sailed on this extra- 
ordinary undertaking, consisted only of five small vessels, 
compared with modern ships, and no more than 164 able 
men. He sailed from England, Dec. 13, 1577; on the 
25th fell in with the coast of Barbary, and on the 29th 
with Cape Verd. March 13, he passed the equinoctial, 
made the coast of Brazil April 5, 1578, and entered the 
river de la Plata, where he lost the company of two of his 

DRAKE. 307 

ships; but meeting them again, and taking out their pro- 
visions, he turned them adrift. May 29, he entered the 
port of St. Julian, where he continued two months, for the 
sake of laying in provisions; Aug. 20> he entered the 
Straits of Magellan ; and Sept. 25 passed them, having 
then only his own ship. Nov. 25, he came to Machao, 
which he had appointed for a place of rendezvous, in case 
his ships separated : but captain Winter, his vice-admiral, 
having repassed the Straits, was returned to England. 
Thence he continued his voyage along the coasts of Chili 
and Peru, taking all opportunities of seizing Spanish ships, 
and attacking them on shore, till his crew were sated with 
plunder; and then coasting North-America to the height 
of 48 degrees, he endeavoured, but in vain, to find a pas- 
sage back into our seas on that side. He landed, however, 
and called the country New Albion, taking possession of 
it in the name and for the use of queen Elizabeth ; and, 
having careened his ship, set sail from thence Sept. 29, 
1579, for the Moluccas. He is supposed to have chosen 
this passage round, partly to avoid being attacked by the 
Spaniards at a disadvantage, and partly from the lateness 
of the season, when dangerous storms and hurricanes were 
to be apprehended. Oct. 13, he fell in with certain 
islands, inhabited by the most barbarous people he had 
met with in all his voyage; and, Nov. 4, he had sight of 
the Moluccas, and, coming to Ternate, was extremely 
well received by the king thereof, who appears, from the 
most authentic relations of this voyage, to have been a 
wise and polite prince. Dec. 10, he made Celebes, where 
his ship unfortunately ran upon a rock Jan. 9th following; 
from which, beyond all expectation, and in a manner mi- 
raculously, they got off, and continued their course. 
March 16, he arrived at Java Major, and from thence in- 
tended to have directed his course to Malacca ; but founrf 
himself obliged to alter his purpose, and to think of re- 
turning home. March 25, 1580, he put this design in 
execution ; and June 15, doubled the cape of Good Hope, 
having then on board 57 men, and but three casks of 
water. July 12, he passed the Line, reached the coast of 
Guinea the 16th, and there watered. Sept. 11, he made 
the island of Tercera ; and Nov. 3, entered the harbour 
of Plymouth. This voyage round the globe was performed 
in two years and about ten months. 

X 2 


His success in this voyage, and the immense mass of 
wealth he brought home, raised much discourse through- 
out the kingdom ; some highly commending-, and some as 
loudly decrying him. The former alleged, that his exploit 
>vas not only honourable to himself, but to his country ; 
that it would establish our reputation for maritime skill in 
foreign nations, and raise an useful spirit of emulation at 
home ; and that, as to the money, our merchants having 
suffered much from the faithless practices of the Spaniards, 
there was nothing more just, than that the nation should 
receive the benefit of Drake's reprisals. The other party 
alleged, that in fact he was no better than a pirate; that, 
of all others, it least became a trading nation to encourage 
such practices ; that it was not only a direct breach of all 
our late treaties with Spain, but likewise of our old leagues 
with the house of Burgundy ; and that the consequences 
would be much more fatal than the benefits reaped from it 
could be advantageous. This difference of opinion con- 
tinued during the remainder of 1580, and the spring of 
the succeeding year ; but at length justice was done to 
Drake's services; for, April 4, 1581, her majesty, going 
to Deptford, went on board his ship; where, after dinner, 
she conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and de- 
clared her absolute approbation of all he had done. She 
likewise gave directions for the preservation of his ship, 
that it might remain a monument of his own and his coun- 
try's glory. Camden, in his Britannia, has taken notice 
of an extraordinary circumstance relating to this ship of 
Drake's, where, speaking of the shire of Buchan, in Scot- 
land, he says, "It is hardly worth while to mention the 
clayks, a sort of geese, which are believed by some with 
great admiration, to grow upon trees on this coast, and in 
other places, and when they are ripe, they fall down into 
the sea, because neither their nests nor eggs can any where 
be found. But they who saw the ship in which sir Francis 
Drake sailed round the world, when it was laid up in the 
river Thames, could testify that little birds breed in the 
old rotten keels of ships, since a great number of such, 
without life and feathers, stuck close to the outside of the 
keel of that ship." This celebrated ship, which had been 
contemplated many years at Deptford, at length decaying, 
it was broke p ; and a chair made out of the planks was 
presented to the* university of Oxford. 

DRAKE. 309 

In 1585 he sailed with a fleet to the West Indies, and 
took the cities of St. Jago, St. Domingo, Carthagena, and 
St. Augustin. In 1587 he went to Lisbon with a fleet of 
30 sail ; and, having intelligence of a great fleet assembled 
in the bay of Cadiz, which was to have made part of the 
armada, he with great courage entered that port, and burnt 
there upwards of 10,000 tons of shipping : which he after- 
wards merrily called, " burning the king of Spain's beard." 
In 1558, when the armada from Spain was approaching 
our coasts, he was appointed vice-admiral under Charles 
lord Howard of Efringham, high-admiral of England, 
where fortune favoured him as remarkably as ever : for he 
made prize of a very large galleon, commanded by don 
Pedro de Valclez, who was reputed the projector of this 
invasion. This affair happened in the following manner : 
July 22, sir Francis, observing a great Spanish ship float- 
ing at a distance from both fleets, sent his pinnace to sum- 
mon the commander to yield. Valdez replied, with much 
Spanish solemnity, that they were 450 strong, that he 
himself was don Pedro, and stood much upon his honour, 
and propounded several conditions, upon which he was 
willing to yield : but the vice-admiral replied, that he had 
no leisure to parley, but if he thought fit instantly to yield 
he might; if not, he should soon rind that Drake was no 
coward. Pedro, hearing the name of Drake, immediately 
yielded, and with 46 of his attendants came aboard Drake's 
ship. This don Pedro remained above two years his pri- 
soner in England ; and, when he was released, paid him. 
for his own and his captain's liberties, a ransom of 3500/. 
Drake's soldiers were well recompensed with the plunder 
of this ship : for they found in it 55,000 ducats of gold, 
which was divided among them. 

In the mean time it must not be dissembled, concerning 
the expedition in general, that, through an oversight of 
Drake, the admiral ran the utmost hazard of being taken 
by the enemy. For Drake being appointed, the first night 
of the engagement, to carry lights for the direction of tne 
English fleet, was led to pursue some hulks belonging to 
the Hansetowns, and so neglected this orh'ce ; which occa- 
sioned the admiral's following the Spanish lights, and re- 
maining almost in the centre of their fleet till morning. 
However, his succeeding services sufficiently atoned for 
this mistake, the greatest execution done on the flying 
Spaniards being performed by the squadron under his com- 

310 DRAKE. 

mand. It is remarkable, that the Spaniards, notwithstand- 
ing their loss was so great, and their defeat so notorious, 
took great pains to propagate false stories, which in some 
places gained so much credit as to hide their shame. A 
little before this formidable Spanish armament put to sea, 
the ambassador of his catholic majesty had the confidence 
to propound to queen Elizabeth, in Latin verse, the terms 
iipon which she might hope for peace ; which, with an 
English translation of a very homely kind, by Dr. Fuller, 
we will insert in this place, because Drake's expedition to 
the West Indies makes a part of this message. The verses 
are these : 

" Te veto ne pergas bello defendere Belgas : 
<Quce Dracus cripuit nunc rcstituautur oportet : 
Quas pater evertit jubeo te condere cellas : 
Keligio Papte fac restituatur ad unguem." 

" These to you are our commands, 
Send no help to th' Netherlands . 
Of the treasure took by Drake, 
Restitution you must make : 
And those abbies build anew, 
Which your father overthrew : 
If for any peace you hope, 
In all points restore the pope." 

The queen's extempore return : 

" Ad Graecas, bone rex, fient rnandata calendas." 

" Worthy king, know, this your will 
At latter-lammas we'll fulfil." 

In 1589 he commanded as admiral of the fleet sent to 
restore don Antonio, king of Portugal, the command of 
the land-forces being given to sir John Norris : but they 
were hardly got to sea, before the commanders differed, 
and the attempt proved abortive. The war with Spain 
continuing, a more effectual expedition was undertaken 
by sir John Hawkins and Drake, against their settlements 
in the West Indies, than had hitherto been made duriug 
the whole course of it : but the commanders here again 
not agreeing about the plan, this also did not turn out so 
successful as was expected. All diiriculties, before these 
two last expeditions, had given way to the skill and for- 
tune of Drake ; which probably was the reason why he did 
not bear these disappointments so well as he otherwise 
would have done. A strong sense of them is supposed to 
have thrown him into a melancholy, which occasioned a 

DRAKE. 311 

bloody-flux ; and of this he died on board his own ship, 
near the town of Noinbre de Dios in the West Indies, Jan. 
28, 1596. His death was lamented by the* whole nation, 
and particularly by his countrymen, who had great reason 
to love him from the circumstances of his private life, as 
well as to esteem him in his public character. He was' 
elected burgess for Bossiney, alias Tintagal, in Cornwall, 
in the 27th parliament of Elizabeth ; and for Plymouth in. 
Devonshire, in the 35th. This town had very particular 
obligations to him ; for in 1587 he undertook to bring wa- 
ter into it, through the want of which, till then, it had 
been grievously distressed : and he performed it by con- 
ducting thither a stream from springs at eight miles dis- 
tance, in a straight line : but in the manner he brought it, 
the course of it runs upwards of twenty miles. 

Sir Francis Drake was low of stature, but well formed, 
had a broad open chest, a very round head, his hair of a 
line brown, his beard full and comely, his eyes large and 
clear, of a fair complexion, with a fresh, cheerful, and 
very engaging countenance. As navigation had been his 
whole study, so he understood it thoroughly, and was a 
perfect master in every branch, especially in astronomy, 
and in the application of it to the art of sailing. He had 
the happiness to live under the reign of a princess, who 
never failed to distinguish merit, and to reward it. He 
was always her favourite; and she gave an uncommon 
proof of it,, in regard to a quarrel he had with his country- 
man sir Bernard Drake, whose arms sir Francis assuming, 
the other was so provoked at it, that he gave him a box on 
the ear. Upon this, the queen took up the quarrel, and 
gave sir Francis a new coat, which is thus emblazoned : 
" Sable, a fess wavy between two pole stars Argent," and 
for his crest, " a. ship on a globe under ruff," held by a 
cable, with a hand out of the clouds, over it this motto, 
"auxilio divino ;" underneath, "sic parvis nriagna ;" in the 
rigging of which is hung up by the heels a wivern Gules ; 
which was the arms of sir Bernard Drake. Her majesty's 
kindness, however, did not extend beyond the grave ; for 
she suffered his brother Thomas Drake, whom he made 
his heir, to be prosecuted for a pretended debt to the 
crown ; which prosecution hurt him a good deal. It is 
indeed true, that sir Francis died without issue, but not 
a bachelor, as some authors have written ; for ije left be- 
hind him a widow, Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of 

312 DRAKE. 

sir George Sydenham, in the county of Devon, knt. who 
afterwards was married to William Courtenay, esq. of Pow- 
derham castle in the same county, the ancestor of the 
noble family of Courtenay. ' 

DRAKE (FRANCIS), a surgeon at York, and an eminent 
antiquary, was much esteemed by Dr. Mead, Mr. Folkes, 
the two Mr. Gales, and all the principal members of the 
Royal and Antiquarian Societies. He published, in 1736, 
" Eboracum ; or the History and Antiquities of the City of 
York," a splendid folio. A copy of it with large manu- 
script additions was in the hands of his son, the late rev. 
William Drake, vicar of Isleworth, who died in 1801, and 
was himself an able antiquary, as appears by his articles in 
the Archseologia, and would have republisbed his father's 
work, if the plates could have been recovered. Mr. Drake 
was elected F. S. A. in 1735, and F. R. S. in 1736. From 
this latter society, for whatever reason, he withdrew in 
1769, and died the following year. Mr. Cole, who has 
a few memorandums concerning him, informs us that when 
the oaths to government were tendered to him in 1745, he 
refused to take them. He describes him as a middle-aged 
man (in 1749) tall and thin, a surgeon of good skill, but 
whose pursuits as an antiquary had made him negligent of 
his profession. Mr. Cole also says, that Mr. Drake and 
Csesar Ward, the printer at York, were the authors of the 
" Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England," 
printed in twenty-four volumes, 1751, &c. 8vo. This 
work extends from the earliest times to the restoration. 7 

DRAKE (JAMES), a celebrated political writer and phy- 
sician, was born at Cambridge in 1667 ; and at the age of 
seventeen admitted a member of that university, where he 
soon distinguished himself by his uncommon parts and in- 
genuity. Some time before the revolution, he took the 
degree of B. A. and after that of M. A. bur, going to Lon- 
don in 1693, and discovering an inclinutioji for the study 
of physic, he was encouraged in the pursuit of it by sir 
Thomas Millington, and the most eminent members of the 
college of physicians. In 1696 he took the degree of doc- 
tor in that faculty ; and was soon after elected F. R. S. and 
a fellow of the college of physicians. But whether his own 
inclination led him, or whether he did it purely to supply 

1 Biog. Brit. Prince's Worthies of Devon. 

? Gouglj's Topography. Cole's MS Athens in Brit. Mus. 

DRAKE. 313 

the defects of a fortune, which was not sufficient to enable 
him to keep a proper equipage as a physician in town, he 
applied himself to writing for the booksellers. In 1697 he 
was concerned in the publication of a pamphlet, entitled 
" Commendatory verses upon the author of prince Arthur 
and king Arthur." In 1702 he published in Svo, "The 
History of the last Parliament, begun at Westminster 
Feb. 10, in the twelfth year of king William, A. D. 1700." 
This created him some trouble ; for the house of lords, 
thinking it reflected too severely on the memory of king 
Williau), summoned the author before" them in May 1702, 
and ordered him to be prosecuted by the attorney-general ; 
who brought him to a trial, at which he was acquitted the 
year following. 

In 1704, being dissatisfied with the rejection of the bill 
to prevent occasional conformity, and with the disgrace of 
some of his friends who were sticklers for it, he wrote, in 
concert with Mr. Poley, member of parliament for Ipswich, 
" The Memorial of the Church of England : humbly of- 
fered to the consideration of all true lovers of our Church 
and Constitution," Svo. The treasurer Godolphin, and 
the other great officers of the crown in the whig interest, 
severely reflected on in this work, were so highly offended, 
that they represented it to the queen as an insult upon 
her honour, and an intimation that the church was in dan- 
ger under her administration. Accordingly her majesty 
took notice-of it in her speech to the ensuing parliament, 
Oct. 27, 1705; and was addressed by both houses upon 
that occasion. Soon after, the queen, at the petition of 
the house of commons, issued a proclamation for discover- 
ing the author of the " Memorial ;" but no discovery 
could be made. The parliament was not the only body 
that shewed their resentment to this book; for the grand 
jury of the city of London having presented it at the ses- 
sions, as a false, scandalous, and traitorous libel, it wa*s 
immediately burnt in the sight of the court then sitting, 
and afterwards before the Royal Exchange, by the hands 
of the common hangman. But though Drake then escaped, 
yet as he was very much suspected of being the author of 
that book, and had rendered himself obnoxious upon other 
accounts to persons then in power, occasions were sought 
to ruin him if possible ; and a newspaper he was publish- 
ing at that time under the title of " Mercurius Politicus," 
afforded his enemies the pretence they wanted. For, 

314 DRAKE. 

taking exception at some passages in it, they prosecuted 
him in the queen's-bench in 1706. His case was argued 
at the bar of that court, April 30 ; when, upon a flaw in 
the information (the simple change of an r for a t, or nor 
for not] the trial was adjourned, and in November follow- 
ing the doctor was acquitted ; but the government brought 
a writ of error. The severity of this prosecution, joined 
to repeated disappointments and ill-usage from some of 
his party, is supposed to have flung him into a fever, of 
which he died at Westminster, March 2, 1707, not without 
violent exclamations against the rigour of his prosecutors. 

Besides the performances already mentioned, he made 
an English translation of Herodotus, which was never pub- 
lished. He wrote a comedy called "The Sham- Lawyer, 
or the Lucky Extravagant ;" which was acted at the theatre 
royal in 1697. It is chiefly borrowed from two of Fletcher's 
plays, namely, " The Spanish Curate," and " Wit without 
Money." He was the editor of Historia Anglo-Scotica, 
1703, 8vo, which was burnt by the hands of the hangman at 
Edinburgh : in the dedication he says, that, " upon a di- 
ligent revisal, in order, if possible, to discover the name 
of the author, and the age of his writing, he found, that 
it was written in, or at least not finished till, the time of 
king Charles I." But he says nothing more ol ? the MS. nor 
how it came into his hands. But whatever merit there 
might be in his political writings, or however they might 
distinguish him in his life-time, he is chiefly known now by 
his medical works : by his new " System of Anatomy" 
particularly, which was finished a little before his decease, 
and published in 1707, with a preface by W. Wagstaffe, 
M. D. reader of anatomy at Surgeons'-hall. Dr. Wagstaffe 
tells us, that Drake " eminently excelled in giving the 
rationale of tilings, and inquiring into the nature and 
causes of phsenomena. He does not," says he, " behave 
himself like a mere describer of the parts, but like an un- 
prejudiced inquirer into nature, and an absolute master of 
his profession. And if Dr. Lower has been so much and 
so deservedly esteemed for his solution of the systole of 
the heart, Dr. Drake, by accounting for the diastole, ought 
certainly to be allowed his share of reputation, and to be 
admitted as a partner of his glory." A second edition of 
this work was published in 1717, in 2 vols. 8vo ; and an 
appendix in 1728, 8vo, which is usually bound np with 
the second volume. The plates, which are very numerous, 

DRAKE. 315 

are accurately drawn, and well engraved. Some of them 
are taken from Swammerdam. Dr. Drake added notes to 
the English translation of Le Clerc's " History of Physic," 
printed in 1699, tfvo ; and there is also, in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, a discourse of his concerning some in- 
fluence of respiration on the motion of the heart hitherto 
unobserved. The " Memorial of the Church of England," 
&c. was reprinted in 8vo, in 1711 ; to which is added, an 
introductory preface, containing the life and death of the 
author; from which this present account is chiefly drawn. 

Mr. D'Israeli, who has introduced Dr. Drake in his in- 
teresting work, " The Calamities of Authors," informs us 
that Drake, in one instance at least, condescended to prac- 
tise literary imposition. He reprinted father Parsons's 
famous libel against the earl of Leicester in queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, under the title of " Secret Memoirs of Ro- 
bert Dudley, earl of Leicester," 1706, 8vo, with a pre- 
face pretending it was printed from an old manuscript, 
instead of being literally taken from " Leycester's Com- 
monwealth." ' 

DRAKENBORCH (ARNOLD), an eminent classical edi- 
tor, was born at Utrecht, Jan. 1, 1684, where, and at 
Leyden, he was educated. In 171-6 he was appointed 
professor of rhetoric and history at Utrecht, an office which 
he filled with great reputation. The first publication 
which evinced his talents appeared in 1704, while a student 
under Barman, entitled " Dissertatio Philologico-Histo- 
rica de prrefecto urbis," of which a new edition was 
printed at Francfort in 1752; and three years after, in 
1707, he published another dissertation on taking his de- 
gree of doctor of laws, " De officio prsefectorum Prsetorio,'* 
Utrecht, Ho. He died at Utrecht in 1748. As an editor 
he is principally known by his edition of " Silius Italicus," 
1717, 4to, a very valuable work, not only containing every 
thing worthy of perusal in the preceding' editions, but 
enriched with the notes and emendations of Heinsius, and 
excerpta from an Oxford MS. and one Belonging to Pu- 
teanus ; and by his " Livy," printed at Amsterdam, 1738, 
7 vols. 4to, superior to all which went before it, although 
not immaculate, and the commentaries, it is generally 
allowed, are tediously prolix. 2 

1 Biog. Brit. D' Israeli's Calamities. 

* Diet. Hist. Saxii Onomast. Dibdin's Classics. Schacktii Qratio funebris 
in obitum Drakenborch, Utrecht, 1748, 4to. 

316 DRANT. 


DRANT (THOMAS), an English divine and poet, of the 
sixteenth century, was educated at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of bachelor in divi- 
nity in 1569. The same year he was admitted to the pre- 
bend of Firles in the cathedral of Chichester, June 27, and 
on July 2 to that of Chamberlaynward in St. Paul's, and 
March 9 following, he was installed archdeacon of Lewes. 
He seems to have been chaplain to Grindall, when arch- 
bishop of York. He was a tolerable Latin poet, and trans- 
lated the Ecclesiastes into Latin hexameters, 1572, 4to, 
and published two miscellanies of Latin poetry, the one 
entitled " Sylva," and the other " Poemata varia et ex- 
terna," the last printed at Paris. In the " Sylva," he 
mentions his new version of David's psalms, which Wartou 
supposes to have been in English, and says, he had begun 
to translate the Iliad, but had gone no further than the 
fourth book. In 1566 he published what he called " A 
medicinable Morall, that is, the txvo bookes of Horace his 
satyres Englished, according to the prescription of St. 
Hierome," &c. Lond. and in the following year appeared 
" Horace, his arte of Poetrie, Pistles, and Satyrs Englished." 
This version, which Drant undertook in the character of a 
grave divine, and as a teacher of morality, is very para- 
phrastic, and sometimes parodical. His other publications 
are, 1. " Gregory Nazianzen his Epigrams and spiritual 
sentences," 1568, 8vo. 2. " Shaklocki, epigrammatis in 
mortem Cuthberti Scoti, apomaxis," Lond. 1565, 4 to ; 
which occurs in Herbert's Antiquities under the title " An 
Epygrame of the death of Cuthberte Skotte some tyme 
beshoppe of Chester, by Roger Shacklocke, and replyed 
against by Thomas Drant." 3. " Thomae Drantae Angli, 
Advordingamiae Praesul," 1575, 4to. These two last are 
in the British Museum. 4. " Three godly and learned 
Sermons, very necessary to be read and regarded of all 
men," 1584, 8vo. Extracts from these are given in the 
Bibliographer. The time of his death is no where men- 
tioned, but as the archdeaconry of Lewes was vacant in 
157.S, it might have been in consequence of that event. ' 

DRAPER (Sm WILLIAM), lieutenant-general and K. B. 
was educated at Eton, and at King's college, Cambridge; 

1 Tanner. Phillips'* Theatrum. Warton's Hist, of Poetry. Bibliographer, 
Ne. 13, p. 173. MS. in Lambeth library, No. 805. 

DRAPER. 317 

and, preferring the military profession, went to the East- 
Indies in the company's service; where, in 1760, he re- 
ceived the privilege of ranking as a colonel in the army, 
with Lawrence and Clive, and returned home that year. 
In 1761 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier in the 
expedition to Belleisle. In 1763, he, with admiral Cor- 
nish, conducted the expedition against Manila. They 
sailed from Madras Aug. 1, and anchored Sept. 27, in 
Manila bay, where the inhabitants had no expectation of 
the enemy. The fort surrendered Oct. 6, and was pre- 
served from plunder by a ransom of four millions of dollars ; 
half to be paid immediately, and the other half in a time 
agreed on. The Spanish governor drew on his court for 
the first half, but payment was never made. The argu- 
ments of the Spanish court were clearly refuted by colonel 
Draper in a letter to the earl of Halifax, then premier. 
Succeeding administrations declined the prosecution of 
this claim from reasons of state which were never divulged ; 
and the commander in chief lost for his share of the ran- 
som 25,000/. The colours taken at this conquest were 
presented to King's college, Cambridge, and hung up in 
their beautiful chapel, and the conqueror was rewarded 
with a red ribband. Upon the reduction of the 79th regi- 
ment, which had served so gloriously in the East-Indies, 
his majesty, unsolicited by him, gave him the 16th regi- 
ment of foot as an equivalent. This he resigned to colonel 
Gisborne, for his half pay, 1200/. Irish annuity. In 1769 
the colonel appeared, and with much credit, in a literacy 
character, drawing his pen against that of JUNIUS, in de- 
fence of his friend the marquis of Granby, which drew a 
retort on himself, answered by him in a second letter to 
Junius, on the refutations of the former charge against 
him. On a republication of Junius's first letter, sir Wil- 
liam renewed his vindication of himself; and was answered 
with great keenness by his famous antagonist. Here the 
controversy dropped for the present, but he is supposed to 
have entered the lists once more, under the signature of 

' O 

Modestus, with that extraordinary and still concealed 
writer, in defence of general Gansel, who had been ar- 
rested for debt, and was rescued by a party of soldiers. In 
Oct. 1769 he retired to South Carolina, for the recovery 
of his health, and took the opportunity to make the tour 
of North America. That year he married miss de Lancy, 
daughter of the chief justice of New York, who died in 

31* DRAPE R. 

July 1778, and by whom he had a daughter born Aug. 18, 
1773. May 29, 1779, sir William, being then in rank a 
lieutenant-general, was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Minorca, on the unfortunate surrender of which important 
place he exhibited 29 charges against the late governor, 
general Murray, Nov. 1 1, 1782. Of these 27 were deemed 
frivolous and groundless ; and for the other two the gover- 
nor was reprimanded. Sir William was then ordered to 
make an apology to general Murray, for having instituted 
the trial against him; in which he acquiesced. From this 
time he appears to have lived in retirement at Bath till his 
decease, which happened the 8th of January 1787. Many 
particulars respecting his controversy with Junius, as well 
as the controversy itself, may be seen in the splendid edition 
of " Junius's Letters,'\published by Mr. Woodfall in 1812. 1 

DRAUDIUS (GEORGE), a German author, was born in 
1573, and died in 1630. He compiled a work entitled 
" Bibliotheca Classica," of which the best edition is that 
in two volumes 4to, Frankfort, 1625 ; in which are in- 
serted the titles of all kinds of books. It is, however, 
merely a crowded catalogue of all the works which had ap- 
peared at the Francfort fairs ; but although they are not 
well arranged, or very easily found, and the errors are in- 
numerable, it is, upon the whole, a very useful catalogue, 
particularly for German books, and musical publications. 2 

DRAYTON (MICHAEL), an English poet, was born at 
Harshull, in the parish of Atherston, in the county of 
Warwick, in 1563. His family was ancient, and originally 
descended from the town of Drayton in Leicestershire, 
which gave name to his progenitors, as a learned antiquary 
of his acquaintance has recorded ; but his parents remov- 
ing into Warwickshire, our poet was born there. When 
he was but ten years of age, he seems to have been page 
to some person of honour, as we collect from his own 
words : and, for his learning at that time, it appears evi- 
dently in the same place, that he could then construe his 
Cato, and some other little collection of sentences. It ap- 
pears too, that he was then anxious to know, " what kind 
of strange creatures poets were r" and desired his tutor of 
all things, that if possible " he would make him a poet." 
He was some time a student in the university of Oxford : 
though we do not find that he took any degree there. 

1 Woodfall's Juniws, vol. I. p. 69, &c. Harwood's Alumni E'onenses. 

2 Diet. Hist. Moren. Saxii Onomast. Baillet Jugeineiis. 

D R A Y T O N. 

In 1588, he seems, from his own description of the 
Spanish invasion, to have been a spectator at Dover of its 
defeat ; and might possibly be engaged in some military 
post or employment there, as we find mention of his being 
well spoken of by the gentlemen of the army. He took 
delight very early, as we have seen, in the study of poetry; 
and was eminent for his poetical efforts, nine or ten years 
before the death of queen Elizabeth, if not sooaer. In 
1593 he published a collection of pastorals, under the 
title of " Idea : the Shepherd's Garland, fashioned in nine 
eclogues; with Rowland's sacrifice to the nine Muses,'* 
4to, dedicated to Mr. Robert Dudley. This " Shepherd's 
Garland" is the same with what was afterwards reprinted 
with emendations by our author in 1619, folio, under the 
title of " Pastorals," containing eclogues ; with the " Man 
in the Moon ;" but the folio edition of Drayton's works, 
printed in 1748, though the title-page professes to give 
them all, does not contain this part of them. Soon after 
he published his " Barons' Wars," and " England's heroi- 
cal Epistles;" his "Downfalls of Robert of Normandy, 
Matilda and Gaveston ;" which were all written before 
1598; and caused him to be highly celebrated at that 
time, when he was distinguished not only as a great genius, 
but as a good man. He was exceedingly esteemed by his 
contemporaries; and Burton, the antiquary of Leicester- 
shire, after calling him his " near countryman and old ac- 
quaintance," adds further of him, that, " though those 
transalpines account us tramontani, rude, and barbarous, 
holding our brains so frozen, dull, and barren, that they 
can afford no inventions or conceits, yet may he compare 
either with their old Dante, Petrarch, or Boccace, or 
their neoteric Marinella, Pignatello, or Stigliano. But 
why," says Burton, " sould I go about to commend him, 
whom his own works and worthiness have sufficiently ex- 
tolled to the world r" 

Drayton was one of the foremost of Apollo's train, who 
welcomed James I. to his British dominions, with a con- 
gratulatory poem, &c. 1603, 4to ; and how this very poem, 
through strange ill luck, might have proved his ruin, but 
for his patient and prudent conduct under the indignity, 
he has, with as much freedom as was then convenient, in- 
formed us in the preface to his " Poly-Olbion," and in 
his epistle to Mr. George Sandys among his elegies. It is 
probable, that the unwelcome reception it met with might 

320 D R A Y T O N. 

deter him from attempting to raise himself at court. In 
1613 he published the first part of his " Poly-Olbion ;" 
by which Greek tide, signifying very happy, he denotes 
England ; as the ancient name of Albion is by some de- 
rived from Olbion, happy. It is a chorographical descrip- 
tion of the rivers, mountains, forests, castles, &c. in this 
island, intermixed with the remarkable antiquities, rarities, 
and commodities thereof. The first part is dedicated to 
prince Henry, by whose encouragement it was written : and 
there is an engraving at full length of that prince, in a 
military posture, exercising his pike. He had shewed 
Dravton some singular marks of his favour, and seems to 

fc O ' 

have admitted him as one of his poetical pensioners; but 
dying before the book was published, our poet lost the 
benefit of his patronage. There are 1 S songs in this vo- 
lume, illustrated with the learned notes of Selden ; and 
there are maps before every song, in which the cities, 
mountains, forests, rivers, &c. are represented by the 
figures of men and women. His metre of 12 syllables 
being now antiquated, it is quoted more for the history 
than the poetry in it; and in that respect is so very exact, 
that, as Nicolson observes, and since, Mr. Gough, Dray- 
ton's Poly-Olbion affords a much truer account of this 
kingdom, and the dominion of Wales, than could well be 
expected from the pen of a poet. It is interwoven with 
many fine episodes: of the conquest of this island by the 
Romans ; of the coming of the Saxons, the Danes, and 
the Normans, with an account of their kings ; of English 
warriors, navigators, saints, and of the civil wars of Eng- 
land, &c. This volume was reprinted in 1622, with the 
second part, or continuation of 12 songs more, making 30 
in the whole, and dedicated to prince Charles, to whom 
he gives hopes of bestowing the like pains upon Scotland. 

In 1626 we find him styled poet laureat, in a copy of 
his own verses written in commendation of Abraham Hol- 
land, and prefixed to the posthumous poems of that au- 
thor. It is probable, that the appellation of poet laureat 
was not formerly confined so strictly, as it is now, to the 
person on whom this title is conferred by the crown, who 
is presumed to have been at that time Ben Jonson ; be- 
cause we find it given to others only as a distinction of 
their excellency in the art of poetry; to Mr. George 
Sandys particularly, who was our author's friend. The 
print of Dray ton, before the first volume of his works in 

D R A Y T O N. 321 

folio, has a wreath of bays above his head, and so has his 
bust in Westminster-abbey ; yet when we find that the' 
portraits of Joshua Sylvester, John Owen, and others, who 
never had any grant of the laureat's place, are as formally 
crowned with laurel as those who really possessed it, we 
have reason to believe, that nothing more was meant by it, 
than merely a compliment*. Besides, as to Drayton, he 
tells us himself, in his dedication to sir William Aston of 
" The Owl," that he leaves the iaurel to those who may 
look after it. In 1627 was published the second volume of 
his poems, containing his " Battle of Agincourt, Miseries 
of queen Margaret, Court of Fairies, Quest of Cynthia, 
Shepherd's Syrena, elegies, also, the Moon-Calf," which 
is a strong satire upon tne masculine affe< : women, 

and the effeminate disguises of tne men, in th til 
The elegies are 12 in number, though there are i 
reprinted in the edition of 1748. In 1630 he published 
another volume of poems in 4 to, entitled, the " Muses' 
El^-zium :" with three divine poems, on Noah's flood, 
Moses's birth and miracles, and David and Goliath. Dray- 
tori died in 1631, and was buried in Westminster-abbey 
amongst the poets. 

The learned and elegant editor of Phillips's " Thea- 
trum" appears to have appreciated the poetry of Drayton 
at its full value, when at the same time that he thinks his 
taste less correct, and his ear less harmonious than Daniel's, 
he asserts, that " his genius was more poetical, though it 
seeuis to have fitted him only for the didactic, and not for 
the bolder walks of poetry. The * Poly-Olbion' is a 
work of amazing ingenuity ; and a very large proportion 
exhibits a variety of beauties, which partake very strongly 
of the poetical character ; but the perpetual personification 
is tedious, and more is attempted than is within the com- 
pass of poetry. The admiration in which the * Heroical 
Epistles' were once held, raises the astonishment of a 
more refined age. They exhibit some elegant images, 
and some musical lines. But in general they want passion 
and nature, are strangely flat and prosaic, and are inter- 
mixed with the coarsest vulgarities of ideas, sentiment, and 
expression. His * Barons' Wars,' and other historical 
pieces are dull creeping narratives, with a great deal of 

* This mat.ter is more fully explained by Mr. Malone in his Life of Dryden, 
vol. I. p. 78, '205, 


322 D R A Y T O N. 

ihe same faults, and'none of the excellencies which ought 
to distinguish such compositions. His ' Nymphidia' is 
light and airy, and possesses tiie features of true poetry." ] 
DREBEL (CouNELius), philosopher and alchymist, who 
was born in 1572, at Alemaer, in Holland, and died at 
London, in 1634 at the age of sixty-two, possessed a 
singular aptitude in the invention of machines ; although 
we cannot give credit to all that is related of the sagacity 
of this philosopher. We are told that he made certain 
machines which produced rain, hail, and lightning, as 
naturally as if these effects proceeded from the sky. By 
other machines he produced a degree of cold equal to that 
of winter ; of which he made an experiment, as it is pre- 
tended, in Westminster-hall, at the instance of the king 
of England ; and that the cold was so great as to be in- 
supportable. He constructed a glass, which attracted the 
light of a candle placed at the other end of the hall, and 
which gave light sufficient for reading by it with great 
ease. Drebel has left some philosophical works ; the prin- 
cipal of which is entitled : " De natura elementorum," 
Hamburgh, 1621, 8vo. It is also pretended that he was 
the first who invented the art of dying scarlet ; the secret 
of which he imparted to his daughter ; and Cuffler, who 
married her, practised the art at Leyden. Some authors 
give to Drebel the honour of the invention of the tele- 
scope. It is generally thought that he invented the two 
useful instruments, the microscope and the thermometer, 
the former of which was for some time only known in Ger- 
many. It appeared for the first time in 1621, and Fontana 
unjustly ascribed to himself the invention about thirty years 
afterwards. 2 

DRELINCOURT (CHARLES), minister of the Calvinist 
church of Paris, was born July 1595, at Sedan ; where 
his father had a considerable post. He passed through 
the study of polite literature and divinity at Sedan, but 
was sent to Saumur, to go through a course of philosophy 
there under professor Duncan. He was admitted minister 
m 1618, and discharged his function near Langres, till he 
was called by the church of Paris in 1620. He had all the 
qualifications requisite to a great minister. His sermons 

1 Biog. Brit. Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810. Warton's Hist. 

. Censura Literaria. Headley's Beauties, &c. Sec. 
- Diet, Hist. Moreri. Foppeu Bibl. Belg. 

D R E L I N C O U R T. 323 

were very edifying; he was assiduous and successful in 
comforting the sick ; and he managed the atTairs of the 
'.-.iuirch with such skill, that he never failed of being con- 
sulted upon every important occasion. His first essay 
was a "Treatise of Preparation for the Lord's Supper." 
This, and his " Catechism," the " Short View of Contro- 
versies," and " Consolations against the fears of Death," 
have, of all his works, been the most frequently reprinted. 
Some of them, his book upon death in particular, have 
passed through above forty editions ; and have been trans- 
lated into several languages, as German, Dutch, Italian, 
and English. His " Charitable Visits," in 5 volumes, have 
served for a continual consolation to private persons, and 
for a source of materials and models to ministers. He 
published three volumes of sermons, in which, as in all 
the forementioned pieces, there is a vein of piety very 
affecting to religious minds. His controversial works are : 
1. " The Jubilee ;" 2. " The Roman Combat ;" 3. " The 
Jesuit's Owl ;" 4. " An Answer to father Coussin ;" 5. 
" Disputes with the bishop of Bellai, concerning the ho- 
nour due to the Holy Virgin ;" 6. " An answer to La Mil- 
letierre ;" 7. " Dialogues, against the Missionaries," in 
several volumes ; 8. " The False Pastor Convicted," 9. 
; 'The False Face of Antiquity;" 10. "The Pretended 
Nullities of the Reformation ;" 11. " An Answer to prince 
Ernest of Hesse ;" 12. " An Answer to the speech of the 
clergy spoken by the archbishop of Sens;" 13. "A De- 
fence of Calvin." He wrote some letters, which have been 
printed ; one to the duchess of Tremouille, upon her hus- 
band's departure from the protestant religion ; one of con- 
solation, addressed to Madam de la Tabariere ; one upon 
the restoration of Charles II. king of Great Britain; some 
upon the English episcopacy, &c. He published also cer- 
tain prayers, some of which were made for the king, others 
for the queen, and others for the dauphin. Bayle tells us, 
that what he wrote against the church of Rome, confirmed 
the protestants more than can be expressed ; for with the 
arms with which he furnished them, such as wanted the 
advantage of learning, were enabled to oppose the monks 
and parish priests, and to contend with the missionaries. 
His writings made him considered as the scourge of the 
papists; yet, like mons. Claude, he was much esteemed, 
and even beloved by them. For it was well known that he 
had an easy access to the secretaries of state, the first pre- 

Y 2 


sident, the king's advocate, and the civil lieutenant ; though 
he never made any other use of his interest with them than 
to assist the afflicted churches. He was highly esteemed 
by the great persons of his own religion ; by the duke de 
la Force, the marshals Chatillon, Gascon, Turenne, and 
by the duchess of Tremouille. They sent for him to their 
palaces, and honoured him from time to time with their 
visits. Foreign princes and noblemen, the ambassadors 
of England and France, did the same ; and he was particu- 
larly esteemed by the house of Hesse, as appears from the 
books he dedicated to the princes and princesses of that 
name. He died Nov. 3, 1669. 

He married in 1625, the only daughter of a rich mer- 
chant of Paris, by whom he had sixteen children. The 
first seven were sons ; the rest intermixed, six sons and 
three daughters. LAURENCE, the eldest of all, was at first 
minister at Rochelle ; but being obliged to leave that 
church by an edict, he went to Niort, where he died in 
1680, having lost his sight about six months before. He 
was a very learned man, and a good preacher. He left 
several fine sermons, and likewise a collection of Christian 
sonnets, which are extremely , elegant, and highly es- 
teemed by those who have a taste for sacred poetry. They 
had gone through six editions in 1693. Henry, the se- 
cond son, was also a minister, and published sermons. 
The third son was the famous Charles Drelincourt, profes- 
sor of physic at Leyden, to whom we shall devote a sepa- 
rate article. Anthony, a fourth son, was a physician at 
Orbes, in Switzerland ; and afterwards appointed physician 
extraordinary by the magistrates of Berlin. A fifth son 
died at Geneva, while he was studying divinity there. 
Peter Drelincourt, a sixth, was a priest of the church of 
England, and dean of Armagh. 

All his other children died, either in their infancy, or 
in the flower of their youth, except a daughter, married 
to mons. Malnoc, advocate of the parliament of Paris ; and 
who instead of following him into Holland, whither he re- 
tired with his protestantism at the time of the dragoonade, 
continued at Paris, where she openly professed the Roman 
catholic religion. 1 

DRELINCOURT (CHARLES), the third son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris in 1633, and after studying 

' Gen. Diet. Moreri.- Diet. Hist, 

D R E L I N C O U R T. 325 

some years at Saumur, lie went to Montpellier, where he 
completed his medical course, and took his doctor's de- 
gree. He afterwards attended the marshal Turenne in 
his campaigns, and was by him appointed physician to the 
army. The skill and ability he had shewn in this situation, 
occasioned his being nominated to succeed Vander Linden, 
in 168S, as professor of medicine at Leyden, whither he 
obtained permission to go, though he had been made, se- 
veral years before, one of the physicians to Lewis the 
Fourteenth. Two years after, he was advanced to the chair 
of anatomy in the same university. He was also made 
physician to William, prince of Orange, and to his princess, 
Mary. As rector of the university of Leyden, he spoke 
the congratulatory oration to the prince and princess, on 
their accession to the throne of England. He continued 
to hold his professorships, the offices of which he filled 
so as to give universal satisfaction, to the time of his 
death, which happened on the last day of May, 1697. 
He was a voluminous and learned writer; his works, which 
were much read in his time, and passed through several 
editions, were collected and published together in 1671, 
and again in 1680, in 4 vols. 12mo. But the most com- 
plete edition of them is that published at the Hague, in 
1727, in 4to. In one of his orations he has been careful 
to exculpate professors of medicine from the charge of im- 
piety, so frequently thrown upon them. " Oratio Doc- 
toralis Monspessula, qufi Medicos Dei operum considera- 
tione atque contemplatione permotos, caeteris hominibus 
Religioni astrictiores esse demons tratur : atque adeo im- 
pietatis crimen in ipsos jactatum diluitur." He also, in 
his " Apologia Medica," refutes the idea of physicians 
having been banished from, and not allowed to settle in 
Rome for the space of six hundred years. He was a lover 
of Greek literature, and like his countryman, Guy Patin, 
an enemy to the introduction of chemical preparations into 
medicine, which were much used in his time. He was 
also a strong opponent to his colleague Sylvius Bayle 
has given him a high character. As a man he describes 
him benevolent, friendly, pious, and charitable ; as a 
scholar, versed in the Greek and Latin tongues, and in all 
polite literature in as high a degree as if he had never ap- 
plied himself to any thing else ; as a professor of physic, 
clear and exact in his method of reading lectures, and of 

326 D R E L I N C O U R T. 

a skill in anatomy universally admired ; as an author, one 
whose writings are of an original and inimitable cha- 
racier. l 

DRESSERUS (MATTHEW), a learned German, was 
born at Erlbrt, the capital of Thuringia, in 1536. The 
first academical lectures which he heard, were those of 
Luther and Melancthon, at Wittemberg ; but the air of 
that country not agreeing with his constitution, he was 
obliged to return to Erfort, where he studied Greek. 
When he had taken the degree of M. A. in 1559, he read 
lectures in rhetoric at home ; and afterwards taught polite 
literature and the Greek tongue, in the college of Erfort. 
Having thus passed sixteen years in his own country, he 
was invited to Jena, to supply the place of Lipsius, as pro- 
fessor of history and eloquence. He pronounced his in- 
augural oration in 1574, which was afterwards printed 
with other of his orations. Some time after, he went to 
Meissen, to be head of the college there ; where having 
continued six years, he obtained, in 1581, the professor- 
ship of polite learning in the university of Leipsic ; and a 
particular pension was settled on him to continue the *' His- 
tory of Saxony." Upon his coming to Leipsic, he found 
warm disputes among the doctors. Some endeavoured to 
introduce the subtleties of Ramus, rejecting the doctrine 
of Aristotle, while others opposed it; aad some were de- 
sirous of advancing towards Calvinism, while others would 
suffer no innovations in Lutheranism. Dresserus desired 
to avoid both extremes ; and because the dispute concern- 
ing the novelties of Ramus greatly disturbed the philoso- 
phical community, he was very solicitous to keep clear of 
it. But the electoral commissary diverted him from this 
pacific design ; and it happened to him, as it happens to 
many persons who engage late in disputes of this kind, that 
they are more zealous than the first promoters of them. 
Ilamism now appeared to Dresserus a horrible monster; and 
he became the most zealous opposer of it that over was 
known in that country. 

Dresserus spent the remainder of his life at Leipsic, 
where he died, in 1C07. He married in 1565, and be- 
coming a widower in 1598, he married again two years 
after. He was a man of great industry, and not easily 

1 Gen. Diet. Moreri, Freheri Theatrum Niceron, vol. XV. Reef's 1 Cy- 
clopaed! >. 

D R E S S E R U S. 327 

tired with application, as he shewed at Effort ; for he 
brought all his colleagues, who, except one, were Roman 
catholics, to consent that the confession of Augsburgh and 
the Hebrew tongue should be taught in the university. 
He was the author of several works, the principal of which 
were, " Rhetoricae libri quatuor," 1584, 8vo ; " Tres libri 
Progymnasmatum, litteratune Groecae," 8vo ; " Isagoge 
Historica," Leipsic, 1587, 8vo, not an accurate work. 
" De festis diebus Christianorum, Judaeorum et Ethni- 
coruin liber," Leipsic, 1597, 8vo. ' 

at Chateauneuf, in Thimerais, the 10th of May, 1714, 
was for some time of the magistracy of that town. Pre- 
ferring at an early period of life the pursuits of literatuiv 
to the practice of the bar, he quitted his station, and com- 
posed a great number of pieces in verse and prose. His 
poetical productions are very indifferent, but several of 
his works in prose are curious. The principal are : 1. " Bib- 
liotheque historique & politique du Poitou," 1754, 5 vols. 
1 2tno, containing much sound and judicious criticism. 

2. u L Europe illustre," 1755, and the following years. It is 
a collection of portraits of illustrious persons by Odieuvre ; 
with historical notices by Du Radier, who was paid at the rate 
of a crown for each, and several of them are very interesting. 

3. " Tablettes anecdotes des rois de France, 3 vols. 12mo. 
The author has here collected the remarkable sayings, the 
ingenious sentiments, and the witticisms of the kings, or 
attributed to the kings, of France. 4. " Histoire* anec- 
dotes des reines et regentes de France," 6 vols. 12mo. 
5. " Recreations historiques, critiques, morales, & d'eru- 
dition," 2 vols. 12mo. 6. " Vie de Witikind le Grand," 
1757, 12mo; abridged from the folio of Cruzius. All 
these works shew that the author has ransacked every scarce 
and uncommon book for his materials ; but his style is 
prolix, negligent, and familiar ; there is a want of method 
too, in the distribution of the facts, as well as of grace in the 
narration. Dreux du Radier composed also several briefs 
for the bar; among others, for John Francis Corneille. 
This author died 1st March, 1780. Though he was much 

* O 

given to sarcasm in his writings, especially in those of the 
latter description, yet he was of a friendly disposition, 
and he often took upon him with pleasure the business of 

1 Gen. Diet. Freheri Theatrum. Moreri. 


searching records, archives, and papers for families, or 
for literary men who wanted the assistance of his pen or of 
his erudition. 1 

UREXELIUS (JEREMIAH), a celebrated Jesuit, was'born 
at Augsburgh in Germany, in 1581, 2nd after a classical 
education, entered the society of the Jesuits in 1598. He 
taught rhetoric for some time, but was most distinguished 
for his talents as a preacher. The elector of Bavaria was 
so struck with his manner, that he appointed him his chap- 
lain in ordinary, which office he held for twenty-three 
years. He died at Munich April 19, 1638. Notwith- 
standing his frequent preaching, and a weak state of 
health, he. found leisure and strength to write a great many 
volumes for the use of young persons, most of them in a 
familiar and attractive style, and generally ornamented 
with very beautiful engravings by Raphael Sadler and 
others, which made them be bought up by collectors with 
avidity. Some of them have been also translated into 
several languages, and one of them, his "Considerations on 
nity," ha- ' .-n often reprinted in this country from a 
translation i. uie by S. Dunster in 1710. The whole of 
Drexelius's works were collected in 2 vols. folio, Antwerp, 
164 Lyons, 1658. Many of his pieces have very 

whimsical titles, and are upon whimsical subjects. In one 
of them, entitled "Orbis Phaeton, hoc est, de universis 
vitiis lingua-, 1 ' chapter XLI. in which he treats of those 
who employ their time on trifles, he enters upon a calcu- 
lation to resolve in how many ways six persons invited to 
dine may be placed at table, and after six pages of com- 
binations, he gives 720 as the result. 2 

DRIEDO (JOHN), in low Dutch Dridoens, was born at 
Turnhout in Brabant, studied at Louvain, and took there the 
degree of doctor of divinity in August 1512. Hadrian 
Florent, who was afterwards pope Hadrian VI. performed 
the ceremony of promoting him to that degree ; and hav- 
ing observed that his scholar had applied himself too much 
to human learning, he put him in mind of the distinction 
which ought to be made between the mistress-science, and 
those which are her hand-maids. After this advice Driedo 
directed his chief application to the study of divinity. He 
became professor of that science in the university of Lou- 
vain, and was also curate of St. James, and canon of St. 

1 Diff. Hi?t. 3 Alegambe. Niceron, vol. XXII. 

D R I E D O. 329 

Peter in that city. He opposed Lutlieranism with great 
vigour j but if we judge of him by a letter of Erasmus, his 
zeal was moderate. He died at Louvain in 1535, though 
those who have published his epitaph, have represented it 
as affirming that he died August 4, 1555. His works were 
published in 4 vols. ito and folio, by Gravius, at Louvain. 
They relate to the disputes between the Roman catholics 
and protestants ; and the principal titles are, " De gratia & 
libero arbitrio ;" " De concordia liberi arbitrii & proedesti- 
nationis ;" "De captivitate &. redemptione generis hu- 
mani ;" " De Jibertate Christiana;" " De Scripturis &. 
dogmatibus Ecclesiasticis." 1 

DRINKER (EDWARD), was born on the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1680, in a small cabin near the present corner of 
Walnut and Second Streets in the city of Philadelphia. 
His parents came from a place called Beverly, in Massa- 
chusetts Bay. The banks of the Delaware, on which the 
city of Philadelphia now stands, were inhabited, at the 
time of his birth, by Indians, and a few Swedes and Hol- 
landers. He often talked to his companions of picking 
wortleberries, and catching rabbits, on spots now the most 
populous and improved of the city. He recollected the 
second time William Penn came to Pennsylvania, and used 
to point to the place where the cabin stood, in which he 
and his friends that accompanied him were accommodated 
upon their arrival. At twelve years of age he went to 
Boston, where he served an apprenticeship to a cabinet- 
maker. In the year 1745 he returned to Philadelphia 
with his family, where he lived till the time of his death. 
He was four times married, and had eighteen children, all 
of whom were by his first wife. At one time of his life he 
sat down at his own table with fourteen children. Not 
long before his death he heard of the birth of a grand-child 
to one of his grand-children, the fifth in succession from 
JI:T.. ! f. 

fie retained all his faculties till the last years of his life ; 
even his memory, so early and so generally diminished by 
age, was but little impaired. He not only remembered 
th > incidents of his childhood or youth, but the events of 
lau r and so faithful was his memory to him, that 
his son has often said, that he never heard him tell the 

1 Gent. Diet. Moreri. Foppen Bibl. Belg. Dupin. Jortin's Erasmus. 
Fieheii Theatiuin. 


same story twice, but to different persons, and in different 
companies. His eye-sight failed him many years before 
his death, but his hearing was uniformly perfect and un- 
impaired. His appetite was good till within a few weeks 
before his death. He generally ate a hfarty breakfast of a 
pint of tea or coffee, as soon as he got out of his bed, with 
bread and butter in proportion. He ate likewise at eleven 
o'clock, and never failed to eat plentifully at dinner of the 
grossest solid food. He drank tea in the evening, but 
never ate any supper. He had lost all his teeth thirty 
years before his death (his son says, by drawing excessive 
hot smoke of tobacco into his mouth) ; but the want of 
suitable mastication of his food did not prevent its speedy 
digestion, nor impair his health. Whether the gums, 
hardened by age, supplied the place of his teeth in a cer- 
tain degree, or whether the juices of the mouth and sto- 
mach became so much more acrid by time, as to perform 
the office of dissolving the food more speedily and more 
perfectly, may not be so easily ascertained ; but it is ob- 
servable, that old people are more subject to excessive 
eating than young ones, and that they suffer fewer incon- 
veniences from it. He was inquisitive after news in the 
last years of his life ; his education did not lead him to 
increase the stock of his ideas in any other way. But it is 
a fact well worth attending to, that old age, instead of 
diminishing, always increases the desire of knowledge. It 
must afford some consolation to those who expect to be 
old, to discover, that the infirmities to which the decays 
of nature expose the human body, are rendered more 
tolerable by the enjoyments that are to be derived from the 
appetite for sensual and intellectual food. 

The subject of this article was remarkably sober and 
temperate. Neither hard labour, nor company, nor the 
usual afflictions of human life, nor the wastes of nature, 
ever led him to an improper or excessive use of strong 
drink. For the last twenty-five years of his life he drank 
twice every day a draught of toddy, made with two table- 
spoons-full of spirit, in half a pint of water. His son, a 
man of fifty-nine years of age, said he had never seen him 
intoxicated. The time and manner in which he used 
spirituous liquors, perhaps, contributed to lighten the 
weight of his years, and probably to prolong his life. He 
enjoyed an uncommon share of health, insomuch that in 
the course of his long life he was never confined more 


than three days to his bed. He often declared that he had 
no idea of that most distressing- pain called the head-ach. 
His sleep was interrupted a little in the last years of his 
life with a defluxion in his breast, which produced what is 
commonly called the old man's cough. 

The character of this aged citizen was not summed up 
in his negative quality of temperance : he was a man of a 
most amiable temper ; he was uniformly cheerful and kind 
to every body; his religious principles were as steady as 
his morals were pure; he attended public worship above 
thirty years in the rev. Dr. Sproat's church, and died in a 
full assurance of a happy immortality. The life of this 
man is marked with several circumstances which perhaps 
have seldom occurred in the life of an individual ; he saw 
and heard more of those events which are measured by 
time, than have ever been seen or heard by any man since 
the age of the patriarchs ; he saw the same spot of earth in 
the course of his life covered with wood and bushes, and 
the receptacle of beasts and birds of prey, afterwards be- 
come the seat of a city, not only the first in wealth .and 
arts in the new, but rivalling in both many of the first cities 
in the old world. He saw regular streets where he once 
pursued a hare ; he saw churches rising upon morasses 
where he had often heard the croaking of frogs ; he saw 
wharfs and warehouses where he had often seen Indian 
savages draw fish from the river for their daily subsistence ; 
and he saw ships of every size and use in those streams 
where he had been used to see nothing but Indian canoes ; 
he saw a stately edifice filled with legislators on the same 
spot probably where he had seen an Indian council fire ; 
he saw the first treaty ratified between the newly-confe- 
derated powers of America and the ancient monarchy of 
France, with all the formalities of parchment and seals, on 
the same spot probably where he once saw William Penn 
ratify his first and last treaty with the Indians without the 
formalities of pen, ink, or paper; he saw all the inter- 
mediate stages through which a people pass from the most 
simple to the most complicated degrees of civilization ; he 
saw the beginning and end of the empire of Great Britain 
in Pennsylvania. 

He had been the subject of seven crowned heads, and 
afterwaH.s died a citizen of the newly-created republic of 
America ; but the number of his sovereigns, and his long 
habits of submission to them, did not extinguish the love 

332 D R U M M O N D. 

of republican liberty. He died Nov. 17, 1782, aged one 
h';iuireii and three. ' 

DRUMMOND (GEORGE), an eminently patriotic and 
public-spirited magistrate of Edinburgh, vas born June 
27, 1687, and educated in that city, principally with a 
view to active life, in which he very soon maue a distin- 
guished figure. On the accession of queen Anne, when 
he was of course very young, he assisted the committee 
appointed by the parliament ot Scotland to settle the pub- 
lic accounts of the kingdom. Tn 1707 he was appointed 
accountant-general of the excise, and assisted, with in- 
defatigable diligence, in putting the accounts of that im- 
portant branch of the revenue into the same form and 
method with those in England. In 1710, the then total 
change of the ministry alarmed the friends of the house of 
Hanover, and these alarms increasing, in 1713, at a meet- 
ing of gentlemen who had formed a society for guarding 
the country against the designs of the pretender, Mr. 
Drummond proposed a plan, which was unanimously ap- 
proved and carried into execution, by which a corre- 
spondence was established with every county in the king- 
dom, and arms imported from Holland, and put into the 
hands of the friends of liberty every where. In 1715, he 
gave the first notice to the ministry of the arrival of 
the earl of Mar, was honoured with the command of a 
company of volunteers that was raised by the friends of 
government on that occasion, and was attendant on the 
duke of Argyle, during his residence in Scotland till the 
rebellion was extinguished. He assisted at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir, and dispatched to the magistrates of Edinburgh 
the earliest notice of Argyle's victory, in a letter which he 
dated from the field on horseback. In 1717 he was elected 
a member of the corporation of Edinburgh, and discharged 
all the intermediate offices of magistracy until 1725, when 
he was elected lord provost, an office which he filled with 
the highest reputation and true dignity. To his indefa- 
tigable industry and perseverance it was chiefly owing, 
that the several professorships in the university were filled 
with men of the first abilities, and several new ones were 
founded, as that of chemistry, the theory and practice of 
physic, midwifery, the belles lettres, and rhetoric, by 

1 From the last editin of this Dictionary. We have been unwilling to dis- 
miss it, although its claims are net great. It may serve as a companion to the 
article of Cornaro. 

D R U M M O N D. 333 

which means Edinburgh arrived at the rank of one of the 
first schools in the kingdom, particularly for medicine. 

In October 17 '7 he was promoted to be one of the 
commissioners of the excise, an office which he retained 
during the remainder of his lite. In July 1727 he had 
been named one of the commissioners and trustees for im- 
proving fisheries and manufactures in Scotland, and, as 
connected with the city of Edinhurgh, he now became the 
principal agent in the patriotic institution of a public in- 
firmary. By his exertions, accordingly, a charter was pro- 
cured in August 1736, and the foundation-stone of the 
present building was laid on Aug. 2, '738, and the edifice 
completed at the expence of 13,000/. a great part of which 
was subscribed by opulent individuals in consequence of 
his active solicitation. 

In 1 745, on the breaking out of the second rebellion, 
he exerted himself with his usual spirit and loyalty, in 
raising several companies of volunteers ; and in endeavour- 
ing, though without success, to keep the rebels out of the 
city ; and when that could not be accomplished, he joined 
sir John Cope at Dunbar, and was present at the unfortu- 
nate battle of Preston-pans, in which the king's troops 
were defeated. After this action, he attended sir John 
Cope to Berwick, and remained with him during his stay 
there, procuring from time to time, from Edinburgh, in- 
telligence of the motions of the rebels, which was commu- 
nicated to the secretaries of state. The city was in pos- 
session of the rebels at the usual time of their annual elec- 
tion of magistrates this year. But when his majesty issued 
his royal warrant for a post election, Mr. Drummond was 
again chosen lord provost, which office he discharged so 
much to the satisfaction of his fellow-citizens, that he was 
afterwards four times re-elected, which is as often as the 
constitution of the city permits. Peace being restored, he 
began his farther improvements, by laying the foundation- 
stone of the Exchange in 1753; and in October 1763, 
during his sixth provostship, he laid the first stone of the 
north bridge, which connects the new town of Edinburgh 
with the old. Mr Driunmond, after a life thus spent in 
eminent public services, died Nov. 4, 1766. * 

DRUMMOND (ROBERT HAY), an English prelate, was 
the second son of George Henry, seventh earl of Kinnoul, 

1 Gent. Mag. vol. XXXVI. Start's Diog. Scotica. 

334 D R U M M O N D. 

and Abigail, youngest daughter of Robert Harley, earl of 
Oxford and Mortimer, lord high treasurer of Great Bri- 
tain. He was born in London, Nov. 10, 1711, and after 
being educated at Westminster school, was admitted stu- 
dent of Christ church, Oxford, where he prosecuted bis 
studies with great diligence and credit. When he had 
taken his first degree in arts, he accompanied his cousin- 
german, Thomas duke of Leeds, on a tour to the conti- 
nent. From that he returned in 1735 to college, to pursue 
the study of divinity ; the same year, June 13, he was ad- 
mitted M. A. and soon after entered into holy orders, and 
was presented by the Oxford family to the rectory of 
Bothall in Northumberland; and in 1737, by the recom- 
mendation of queen Caroline, was appointed chaplain in 
ordinary to his majesty. In 1739 he assumed the name 
and arms of Drummond, as heir in entail of his great 
grandfather William, first viscount of Strathallan. In 1743, 
he attended the king abroad, and on his return was installed 
prebendary of Westminster, and in 1745 was admitted 
B. D. and D. D. In 1748 he was promoted to the see of 
St. Asaph ; a diocese where his name will ever be revered, 
and which he constantly mentioned with peculiar affection 
and delight, as having enjoyed there for thirteen years, a 
situation most congenial to his feelings, and an extent of 
patronage most gratifying to his benevolent heart. 

In 1753 when a severe attack w 7 as made on the political 
character of his two intimate friends Mr. Stone and Mr. 
Murray, afterwards the great earl of Mansfield, the bishop 
vindicated his old school-fellows before a committee of the 
privy council, directed to inquire into the charge, with 
that persuasive energy of truth, which made the king ex- 
claim on reading the examination, " That is indeed a man 
to make a friend of." In May 1761 he was translated to 
the see of Salisbury, and when archbishop of York elect, 
in which dignity he was enthroned in the November fol- 
lowing, he preached the coronation sermon of their pre- 
sent majesties, and soon after became lord high almoner, 
and a member of the privy council. In the former office 
he rectified many abuses, and rendered it more extensively 
beneficial, by preventing the royal bounty from being con- 
sidered as a fund to which persons of high n;nk and opu- 
lence could transfer any just claims on their own private 
generosity. On one occasion, when applied to by a very 
rich peer in behalf of two of his cousins, he replied, " that 

D R U M M O N D. 335 

he was sorry to say that the very reason which would in- 
duce himself to assist them, prevented his considering them 
as objects of his majesty's charity their near relationship 
to his lordship." His conduct in the metropolitan see of 
York is described with great spirit and truth by Mr. llastal, 
the topographer of Southwell, who styles him " peculiarly 
virtuous as a statesman, attentive to his duties as a church- 
man, magnificent as an archbishop, and amiable as a man." 
This character appears to be confirmed by all who knew 
him. As a statesman he acted upon manly and indepen- 
dent principles, retiring from parliament in 1762, when 
new men and measures were promoted, averse, in his opi- 
nion, to that system of government under which the country 
had so long flourished. When, however, any question was 
introduced, in which the interference of a churchman was 
proper, he was sedulous in his attendance, and prompt in 
delivering his sentiments. His munificence in his see de- 
serves to be recorded. When he was translated to York, 
he found the archiepiscopal palace, small, mean, and in- 
commodious ; and the parish church in a state of absolute 
decay. To the former he made many splendid additions, 
particularly in the private chapel. The latter he rebuilt 
from its foundation, with the assistance of a small contri- 
bution from the clergyman of the parish, and two or three 
neighbouring gentlemen. He died at his palace at Bishops- 
thorpe, Dec. 10, 1776, in the 66th year of his age, and 
was buried by his own desire, in a very private manner, 
under the altar of the church. Although his literary at- 
tainments were very considerable, he published only six 
occasional sermons, which were much admired, and oi 
which his son, rev. George Hay Drummond, M. A. pre- 
bendary of York, published a correct edition in 1803 : to 
this edition are prefixed " Memoirs of the Archbishop's 
Life," and it also contains " A Letter on Theological 
Study," addressed to the son of an intimate friend, then a 
candidate for holy orders, which evinces an intimate ac- 
quaintance with many of the best writers on theological 
subjects. His own principles appear to have been rather 
more remote from those contained in the articles and ho- 
milies than could have been wished, because they are 
thereby not so consistent with some of the writers whom 
he recommends ; and he speaks with unusual freedom of 
certain doctrines which have been held sacred by some of 
the wisest and best divines of the established church. Of 

336 D R U M M O N D. 

the " Memoirs" prefixed to this new edition of his Ser- 
mons, we have availed ourselves in this brief record of a 
prelate whose memory certainly deserves to be rescued 
from oblivion. His Sermons are composed in an elegant 
and classical style, and contain many admirable passages, 
and much excellent advice on points of moral and religious 
practice. 1 

DRUMMOND (WILLIAM), an elegant and ingenious 
poet, a descendant of the ancient family of the Drummonds 
of Carnock, and the son of sir John Drummond of llaw- 
thornden, was born, probably at Hawthornden, his father's 
seat in Scotland, on the 13th of December, 1585. He re- 
ceived his school education at Edinburgh, and afterwards 
studied at the university of that city, where he took the 
degree of master of arts. At the age of twenty-one he 
went to France, in compliance with his father's views, and 
attended lectures on the civil law, a subject on which he 
left sufficient documents to prove that his judgment and 
proficiency were uncommon. The president Lockhart, to 
whom these manuscripts were communicated, declared, 
that if Mr. Drummond had followed the practice of the 
law, " he might have made the best figure of any lawyer 
in his time." After a residence abroad of nearly four 
years, he returned to Scotland in 1610, in which year his 
father died. Instead, however, of prosecuting the study 
of the law as was expected, he thought himself sufficiently 
rich in the possession of his paternal estate, and devoted 
his time to the perusal of the ancient classics, and the cul- 
tivation of his poetical genius. Whether he had composed 
or communicated any pieces to his friends before this pe- 
riod, is uncertain. It was after a recovery from a dan- 
gerous illness that he wrote a prose rhapsody, entitled 
*' Cypress Grove," and about the same time his " Flowers 
of Zion, or Spiritual Poems," which, with the " Cypress 
Grove," were printed at Edinburgh in 162S, 4to. A part 
of his Sonnets, it is said, were published as early as 1616. 
During his residence at Hawthornden, he courted a 
young lady of the name of Cunningham, with whom he 
was about to have been united, when she was snatched 
from him by a violent fever. To dissipate his grief, which 

1 Memoirs as above. See nlso sriine excellent letters in Forhcs's Life of 
Beattie, and Butler's Life of Bishop Hitdesley. His son, the editor of his Ser- 
mons, was unfortunately drowned by shipwreck, in passing from Bideford t 
Greenock in December l'fc07. 

D R U M M O N D, 337 

every object and every thought in this retirement contri- 
buted to revive, he travelled on the continent for about 
eight years, visiting Germany, France, and Italy, which 
at that time comprized all that was interesting in polished 
society and study to a man of curiosity and taste. During 
this tour he enriched his memory and imagination, by 
studying the various models of original poetry, and col- 
lected a valuable set of Greek and Latin authors, with 
some of which he enriched the college library of Edin- 
burgh, and others were reposited at Hawthornden. The 
books and manuscripts which he gave to Edinburgh were 
arranged in a catalogue printed in 1627, and introduced by 
a Latin preface from his pen, on the advantage and ho- 
nour of libraries, which at that time were considered ra- 
ther as accidental collections than necessary institutions. 

On his return to Scotland he found the nation distracted 
by political and religious disputes, which combined with 
the same causes in England to bring on a civil war. But 
why these should oblige him, immediately on his return, to 
quit his paternal seat, we know not. The author of his 
Life, prefixed to the folio edition of his works, in 1711, 
merely informs us, that having found his native country in 
a state of anarchy and confusion, he retired to the seat of 
his brother-in-law, sir John Scot of Scotstarvet, a' man of 
letters, and probably of congenial sentiments on public 
affairs. During his stay with this gentleman he wrote his 
" History of the Five James's," kings of Scotland, a work 
so inconsistent with liberal notions of civil policy as to have 
added very little to his reputation, although when first 
published, a few years after his death, and when political 
opinions ran in extremes, it was probably not without its 
admirers. It is uncertain at what time he was enabled to 
enjoy his retirement at Hawthornden, but it appears that 
he was there in his forty fifth year when he married Eliza- 
beth Logan, (grand-daughter of sir Robert Logan, of the 
house of Restelrig), in whom he fancied a resemblance to 
his first mistress. About two years before this event, he 
repaired his house, and placed the following inscription on 
it : " Divino muncrt Gitlitlmus Drummondus ab Hawthorn- 
den, Joannis Equitis aurati filius, ut honesto otio quiescerct, 
sibi Hf successoribtu instauravit, 1638." 

During the civil war, his attachment to the king and 
church induced him to write many pieces in support of the 
establishment, which involved him with the revolutionary 


,338 D R U M M O N D. 

party, who not only called him to a severe account, but 
compelled him to furnish his quota of men and arms to 
fight against the cause which he espoused. It is said that 
" his estate lying in three different counties, he had not 
occasion to send one whole man, but halves and quarters, 
and such-like fractions ; upon which he wrote extempore 
the following verses to his majesty : 

" Of all these forces raised against the king, 

'Tis my strange hap not one whole man to bring, 
From divers parishes, yet clivers men, 
But all in halts and quarters ; great king, then, 
In halfs and quarters if they come 'gainst thee, 
In halfs and quarters send them back to me. 


In legs and arms, send thou them back to me'." 
His grief for the murder of his royal master is said 
to have been so great as to shorten his days. He died 
on the 4th of December 1649, in the sixty-fourth year 
of his age, and was interred in his own aile, in the church 
of Lesswade, near to his house of Hawthornden. He left 
two sons and a daughter, William, who was knighted in 
Charles II. 's reign, Robert, and Elizabeth, who was mar- 
ried to Dr. Henderson, a physician of Edinburgh. 

His character has descended to us without blemish. Un- 
ambitious of riches or honours, he appears to have pro- 
jected the life of a retired scholar, from which he was di- 
verted only by the commotions that robbed his country of 
its tranquillity. He was highly accomplished in ancient 
and modern languages, and in the amusements which be- 
came a man of his rank. Among his intimate friends and 
learned contemporaries, he seems to have been mostly 
connected with the earl of Stirling, and the celebrated 
English poets Drayton and Ben Jonson. The latter paid 
him a visit at Hawthornden, and communicated to him 
without reserve, many particulars of his life and opinions, 
which Drummond committed to writing, with a sketch of 
Jonson's character and habits, which has not been thought 
very liberal. This charge of illiberality, however, is con- 
siderably lessened when we reflect that Drummond appears 
to have had no intention of publishing what he had col- 
lected from Jonson, and that the manuscript did not appear 
until many years after Jonson was beyond all censure or 
praise. An edition of Drummond's poems was printed 
at London, 1656, Svo, with a preface by Philips. The 

D R U M M O N D. 339 

Edinburgh edition in folio, 1711, includes the whole of 
his works, both in verse and prose, his political papers, 
familiar letters, and the history of the James's ; with an 
account of his life, which, however unsatisfactory, is all 
that can now be relied on *. A recent edition of his poems 
was printed at London in 1791, but somewhat differently 
arranged from that of 1656. A more correct arrangement 
is still wanting, if his numerous admirers shall succeed in 
procuring that attention of which he has been hitherto 

As a poet he ranks among the first reformers of versifi- 
cation, and in elegance, harmony, and delicacy of feeling, 
is so superior to his contemporaries, that the neglect with 
which he has been treated would appear unaccountable if 
we did not consider that it is but of late the public atten- 
tion has been drawn to the more ancient English poets. 
Mr. Headly, however, Mr. Neve the ingenious author of 
" Cursory Remarks on some of the ancient English Poets," 
Dr. Warton, Mr. Pinkerton, Mr. Park, and other critics of 
unquestionable taste, have lately expatiated on his merit 
with so much zeal and ability, that he is no longer in 
danger of being overlooked, unless by those superficial 
readers who are content with what is new and fashionable, 
and profess to be amateurs of an art of which they know 
neither the history nor the principles. 

" He inherited," says his last encomiast, " a native 
poetic genius, but vitiated by the false taste which pre- 
vailed in his age, a fondness for the conceits of the Italian 
poets, Petrarch and Marino, and their imitators among 
the French, Ronsard, Bellai, and Du Bartas. Yet many 
of his sonnets contain simple and natural thoughts clothed 
in great beauty of expression. His poem entitled " Forth 
Feasting," which attracted the envy as well as the praise 
of Ben Jonson, is superior, in harmony of numbers, to 
any of the compositions of the contemporary poets of Eng- 
land; and is, in its subject, one of the most elegant pa- 
negyrics that ever were addressed by a poet to a prince. 
In prose writing, the merits of Drummond are as unequal 
as they are in poetry. When an imitator, he is harsh, tur- 
gid, affected, and unnatural ; as in his " History of the 
Five James's," which, though judicious in the arrange- 

* Mr. G. Chalmers is of opinion that the learned Ruddiinan assisted in 
preparing this edition. Chalmers's Life of Ruddijnan, p. 53. 

2 2 

340 D R U M M O N D. 

ment of the matter, and abounding in excellent poli- 
tical and moral sentiments, is barbarous and uncouth in 
its style, from an affectation of imitating partly the manner 
of Livy, and partly that of Tacitus. Thus, there is a per- 
petual departure from ordinary construction, and- fre- 
quently a violation of the English idiom. In others of his 
prose compositions, where he followed his own taste, as in 
the " Irene," and " Cypress-Grove," and particularly in 
the former, there is a remarkable purity and ease of ex- 
pression, and often a very high tone of eloquence. The 
" Irene," written in 1638, is a persuasive to civil union, 
and the accommodation of those fatal differences between 
the king and the people, then verging to a crisis. It is a 
model of a popular address ; and allowing for its pushing 
too far the doctrine of passive obedience, bears equal evi- 
dence of the political sagacity, copious historical informa- 
tion, and great moral worth and benevolence of its author." 
As the neglect of one age is sometimes repaid by the 
extravagant commendations of another, perhaps this tem- 
perate, judicious, and elegant character of Drummond, 
copied from lord Woodhouselee's Life of Kames, will be 
found more consistent with the spirit of true criticism than 
some of those impassioned sketches in which judgment 
has less share. 

There is one poem added to the edition of his works in 
the " English Poets" of a very different kind. It is en- 
titled " Polemo-Middinia," or the battle of the dunghill, 
a rare example of burlesque, and the first macaronic 
poem by a native of Great Britain. A copy of it was pub- 
lished by bishop Gibson, when a young man, at Oxford in 
1691, 4 to, with Latin notes*, but the text, probably from 
Mr. Gibson's being unacquainted with the Scotch language, 
is less correct than that of any copy that has fallen in the 
way of his late editor, who has therefore preferred the 
elegant edition printed by Messrs. Foulis of Glasgow in 
1768. The humour of this piece is so remote from the 
characteristics of his polished mind and serious muse, that 
it may be regarded as a very singular curiosity. It appears 
to be the fragment of a larger poem which the author 
wrote for the amusement of his friends, but was not anxious 
to preserve. Mr. Gilchrist conjectures that it was written 

* See a furious paper on this edition, by Mr. Gilchrist, in the Censura Li- 
Uraria, vol. III. p. 359. 

DRUM M O N D. 341 

when Drummond was on a visit to his brother-in-law at 
Scotstarvet, and that it alludes to some rustic flispute well 
known at the time. l 

DRURY (ROBERT), an English mariner, and a native 
of Leicestershire, merits some notice as the author of the 
most authentic account ever given of Madagascar, which 
was first published in 1729, reprinted in 1743, and more 
recently, in 1808. Drury was shipwrecked in the De- 
grave East Indiaman, on the south side of that island, 
in 1702, being then a boy, and lived there as a slave fif- 
teen years. After his return to England, he had among 
those who knew him, the character of a plain honest man, 
without any appearance of fraud or imposture. The truth 
of his narrative, as far as it goes, was confirmed by its 
exact agreement with the journal kept by Mr. John Ben- 
bow (eldest son of the brave but unfortunate admiral), 
who, being second-mate of the Degrave, was also ship- 
wrecked, and narrowly escaped being massacred by the 
natives, with the captain and the rest of the crew, Drury 
and three other boys only excepted. Mr. Benbow's jour- 
nal was accidentally burnt in 1714, in a fire near Aldgate; 
but several of his friends who had seen it, recollected the 
particulars, and its correspondence with Dairy's. (See 
BENBOVV). Indeed the authenticity of Drury's narrative 
seems to be amply confirmed, and his facts have been ac- 
cordingly adopted by the compilers of geography. There 
is all that simplicity and verbiage which may be expected 
in the narratives of the illiterate, but none of the artifices 
of fiction. After his return from his captivity, he went to 
Loughborough, to his sister and other relations. It is said 
that he had the place of a porter at the India-house, and 
that his father left him 200/. and the reversion of a house 
at Stoke Newington. A friend of the late Mr. Duncombe, 
who was living in 1769, knew him well, and used fre- 
quently to call upon him at his house in Lincoln's-inn 
fields, which were not then inclosed, and had often seen 
Drury throw a javelin there, and hit a small mark at a 
surprizing distance; but other particulars of his life are 
not known. 9 

1 Biog. Brit. Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810. Chalmers's 
Life of KudUiman, p. 53. Tytler's Life of lord Kames. Centura Lileraria, 
vol. III. 

i Hughes's Letters by Duncombe, vol. II. 253. Gent. Mag. LX. 1189; 
LXI. 530. 

342 D R U R Y. 

DRURYJ WILLIAM), an English gentleman of consider- 
able learning and genius, of the seventeenth century, was 
^C teacher of poetry and rhetoric in the English college at 
Dovvay, in 16 IS. He was invited thither by Dr. Kellison, 
the president, who was then providing professors to teach 
such young men as had been drawn from the protestant re- 
ligion in England, and had hitherto been educated in the 
schools of the Jesuits. Drury was for some time a prisoner 
in England, on account of his religion, but about 1616 was 
released at the intercession of count Gondemar, the Spanish 
ambassador in England, to whom he dedicated his Latin 
plays. These plays, three in number, entitled " Aluredus 
sive Alfretius," a tragi-comedy ; " Mors," a comedy; 
and " Reparatus sive depositum," a tragi-comedy, were 
printed together at Doway, in 1628, 12mo, and often re- 
printed. There is a copy of his " Aluredus" in the British 
Museum, printed separately, of the date 1620, 16mo. 
These plays, Dodd informs us, were exhibited with great 
applause, first privately, in the refectory of the college of 
Doway, and afterwards in the open court or quadrangle in 
the presence of the principal persons of the town and uni- 
versity. * 

DRUSIUS, or DRIECHE (JoiiN), a learned protestant 
and eminent critic, was born at Oudenard, in Elandcrs, 
June 28, 1550. He was designed for the study of di- 
vinity, and sent very early to Ghent, to learn the languages 
there, and afterwards to Louvain, to pass through a course 
of philosophy ; but his father having been outlawed for 
his religion in 1567, and deprived of his estate, retired to 
England, and Drusius soon followed him, though his mo- 
ther, who continued a bigoted catholic, endeavoured to 
prevent him. Masters were provided to superintend his 
studies; and he had soon an opportunity of learning He- 
brew under Anthony Cevellier, or rather Chevalier, who 
was come over to England, and taught that language pub- 
licly in the university of Cambridge. Drusius lodged at 
his house, and had a great share in his friendship. He 
did not return to London till 1571 ; and, while he was 
preparing to go to France, the news of the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew made him change his resolution. Soon r.fu-r 
this, he was invited to Cambridge by Cartwright, the pro- 
fessor of divinity ; and also to Oxford, by Dr. Lawrence 
Humphrey, whither he went, and became professor of the 

Dodd's Church History, vol. IL 

D R U S I U S. 343 

oriental languages there at the age of twenty-two. He 
taught at Oxford four years with great success* ; after 
which, being desirous of returning to his own country, he 
went to Louvain, where he studied the civil law. The 
troubles on account of religion obliged him to come back 
to his father at London ; but, upon the pacification of 
Ghent, in 1576, they both returned to their own country. 
The son tried his fortune in Holland, and was appointed 
professor of the oriental tongues there, in 1577. While 
he continued in this station at Leyden, he married in 1580 a 
young gentlewoman of Ghent, who was more than half a con- 
vert, and became a thorough protestant after her marriage. 
The stipend allowed to Drusins, in Holland, not being suf- 
ficient to support himself and family, he gave intimations 
that if better terms should be offered him elsewhere, he would 
accept of them. The prince of Orange wrote to the ma- 
gistrates of Leyden, to take care not to lose a man of his 
merit; yet they suffered him to remove to Friesland, whi- 
ther he had been invited to be professor of Hebrew in the 
university of Franeker. He was admitted into that profes- 
sorship in 1585, and discharged the functions of it with 
great honour till his death, which happened in 1616. 

He was the author of several works, which shew him to 
have been well skilled in Hebrew, and to have gained a 
considerable knowledge in the Jewish antiquities, and the 
text of the Old Testament. He was a man of great mo- 
desty, and uncommonly free from prejudices; which making 
him more reserved than many others in condemning and 
applauding, occasioned him to be decried as a lukewarm 
protestant, and created him many anemies. 

* His progress and liberal reception rence Humphrey, president thereof,} 

at Oxford, is thus related by Wood : either Hebrew, Chaldee, or Syriac lec- 

" Turning his course to Oxon, in the tures. In 1573, he was, as a member 

beginning of the year 1.572, he was of the said house of Merlon, licensed 

entertained by the society of Merton- to proceed in arts, anil in the year 

college, admitted to the degree of B. A. following was recommended by the 

as a member of thai house, in July chancellor of the university to the 

the same year; and in the beginning members of the convocation, that he 

of August following, had a chamber set might publicly read the Syriac lau- 

apart for him by the society, who then guage in one of the public schools, 

also decreed that he should have forty and that for his pains he receive a 

shillings yearly allowed to him, so competent stipend. Soon after, upon 

long as he read a Hebrew lecture in consideration of the matter, they al- 

their common refectory. For four lowed him twenty marks, to be equally 

years, at least, he lived in the said gathered from among them, and or- 

house, and constantly read (as he did dered that the same respect be given 

sometimes to the scholars of Magdalen to him, as to any of the lecturers. He 

college, upon the desire of Dr. Law- left Oxford in 1576." 

344 D R U S I U S. 

His works are very numerous, and many of them still held 
in great esteem. Niceron has given a catalogue of forty, 
but as the most valuable part of them consist of bihlical 
criticisms, and have been incorporated in the " Critici 
Sacri," it is unnecessary here to specify the titles of them 
when published separately. Drusius carried on so exten- 
sive a correspondence with the literati of Europe, that after 
his death there were found among his papers 2300 Latin 
letters, besides many in Hebrew, Greek, French, English, 
and Dutch. 

His wife is supposed to have died in 1599. He had 
three children by her ; a daughter born at Leyden in 1582, 
and married in 1604 to Abel Curiander, who wrote the life 
of his father-in-law, from which this account is taken. He 
had another daughter, born at Franeker in 1587, who 
died at Ghent, whither she had taken a journey about bu- 
siness. A priest, knowing her to be dangerously ill, went 
to confess her, and to give her extreme unction; but she 
immediately sent him away, and her husband (for she was 
married) threatened to resent his offer. It was with great 
cxpence and danger that her body was removed into Zea- 
land, for at Ghent it would have been denied burial. He had 
also a son, JOHN, who, if he had lived longer, would have 
been a prodigy of learning. He was born at Franeker in 
3588, and began at five years old to learn the Latin and 
Hebrew tongues ; at seven he explained the Hebrew psalter 
with great exactness ; at nine he could read the Hebrew 
without points, and add the points where they were wanting, 
according to the rules of grammar. He spoke Latin as 
readily as his mother-tongue; and could make himself 
understood in English. At twelve he wrote extempore, in 
verse and prose, after the manner of the Jews. At seven- 
teen he made a speech in Latin to our James I. in the 
midst of his court, and was admired by all that were pre- 
sent. He had a lively genius, a solid judgment, a strong 
memory, and an indefatigable ardour for study. He was 
likewise of an agreeable temper, which made him greatly 
beloved, and had a singular turn for piety. He died in 
1609, of the stone, in England, at the house of Dr. Wil- 
liam Thomas, dean of Chichester, who allowed him a very 
considerable salary. He left several works ; a great many 
letters in Hebrew, verses in the same language, and notes 
on the Proverbs of Solomon. He had begun to translate 
into Latin the Itinerary of Benjamin Tudelensisj and the 

D R U S I U S. 345 

Chronicle of the second Temple; and digested into an 
alphabetical order the Nomenclature of Elias Levita ; to 
which he added the Greek words which were not in the first 
edition. 1 

DRUTHMAR (CHRISTIAN), a celebrated monk in the 
abbey of Corby, in the ninth century, was born in Aqui- 
taine, and afterwards taught in the monasteries of Stavelo 
and Malmedy, in the diocese of Leige. He was very 
learned for the age he lived in, and left a commentary on 
St. Matthew, Strasburg, 1514; or Haguenau, 1530, fol. ; 
and in the library of the fathers, which contained some 
opinions respecting transubstantiation that were favourable 
to the protestant faith. The second edition is scarce, 
but the first much more so. At the end of each is part of 
a Commentary on St. Luke and St. John, which he did not 
finish. The scarcity of his work may be accounted for 
from its being suppressed, in consequence of his opinions 
on transubstantiation. Dupin says that his commentaries 
are short, historical, easy, and without allegories or tropes ; 
and adds, that Druthmar was called the Grammarian, on 
account of his skill in the languages, particularly Greek 
and Latin, which he always interpreted literally. 2 

DRYANDER (JOHN), whose real name was Eich- 
mens, was born at Wetterau, in Hesse, but received his 
education in France, and took his degree of doctor at 
Mentz. He went thence to Marpurg, where he was en- 
gaged in teaching anatomy for twenty-four years ; viz. 
from 1536 to 1560, when he died. He was of the pro- 
testant religion. His works are, " Anatomise pars prior, 
in qua membra ad caput spectantia, recensentur, et de- 
lineantur," Marpurg, 1537, 4to. He first observed se- 
veral distinctions, before unnoticed, between the medullary 
and cortical part of the brain, and he saw the olfactory 
nerves, which he miscalls the optic nerves. In 1541 he 
published " Anatomia Mundini ad vetustissimorum aliquot 
manuscriptorum codicum fidern collata," 4to, with notes, 
in which he frequently corrects the errors of his author, 
and for which he is deservedly placed by Haller among the 
restorers and improvers of anatomy. He is also mentioned 
with honour in the Bib. Anat. of Douglas. 3 

' Life by Coriander. Niceron, vol. XXII. Gen. Diet. Freheri Theatrum. 
Foppen Bibl. Bclg. Blount's Cfinsura. Saxii Onomast. 

* Moreri. Dupin. Clement Bibl. Ciineuse. Cave, vol. II. Fabric. BibJ. 
Lat. Med. 3 Moreri.-~-Freleri Theatrum. -Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

346 D R Y D E N. 

DRYDEN (JOHN), an illustrious English poet, was son 
of Erasmus Dryden, of Tichmersh, in Northamptonshire, 
third son of Erasmus Dryden, of Cannons-Ashbv, in the 
same county, baronet; and born at Aldwincle, near Oundle, 
in that county, according to the general opinion, August 
9, 1631, although Mr. Malone seems inclined to remove 
his birth to a prior year. He was educated in grammar- 
learning at Westminster-school, being king's scholar there, 
under Dr. Busby; and was thence elected, May II, 1650, 
a scholar of Trinity-college, Cambridge. During his stay 
at school, he translated the third satire of Persius for a 
Thursday night's exercise, as he tells us himself, in an 
advertisement at the head of that satire ; and the year before 
he left it, wrote a poem on the death of the lord Hastings ; 
which however \vas but an indifferent performance, and par- 
ticularly defective in point of harmony. He had before this, 
in 1649, wrote some verses, which have been preserved. In 
1652 he was slightly punished for disobedience and contu- 
macy. In January 1654, he took his degree of B. A. but 
not that of M. A. until June 17, 1668, and then by a dis- 
pensation from the archbishop of Canterbury, in conse- 
quence of a letter from Charles H. By the death of his 
father in 1654, he inherited a small estate in Northamp- 
tonshire, and after residing seven years at Cambridge, re- 
moved to London in 1657. In consequence of his kins- 
man, sir Gilbert Pickering, being a favourite of Oliver and 
Richard Cromwell, Dryden in 1658 published "Heroic 
Stanzas on the late lord Protector," written after his fu- 
neral : arid in 1660, " Astraea Redux," a poem on the 
happy restoration and return of his sacred majesty Charles 
the Second. A remarkable distich in this piece exposed 
our poet to the ridicule of the wits : 

" An horrid stillness first invades the ear, 
And in that silence we the tempest fear." 

In 1661 he produced his first play, " The Duke of 
Guise," which was followed the next year by the " Wild 
Gallant." In the same year, 1662, he addressed a poem 
to the lord chancellor Hyde, presented on new-year's-day ; 
and, the same year also, published a satire on the 
Dutch*. His next production was " Annus Mirabilis," 

* In this year he was elected a fellow of the royal society, a circumstance 
which appears to have escaped the notice of most of his biographers. Dr. Birch 
mentions it in his History of the Royal Society. 

D R Y D E N. 347 

the year of wonders, 1666 ; an historical poem : printed in 
1667. His reputation as a poet was now so well established, 
that this, together with his attachment to the court, pro- 
cured him the place of poet-laureat, and historiographer 
to Charles II. of which accordingly he took possession, 
upon the death of sir William Davenant, in 1668, but his 
patent was not signed till 1670. The pension of the two 
offices was 200/. a year. In 1667 he published " An Es- 
say on Dramatic Poesy," dedicated to Charles earl of 
Dorset and Middlesex. In the preface we are told that 
the purpose of this discourse was to vindicate the honour 
of our English writers from the censure of those who un- 
justly prefer the French. The essay is drawn up in the 
form of a dialogue. It was animadverted upon by sir Ro- 
bert Howard, in the preface to his " Great Favourite, or 
Duke of Lerma," to which Dryden replied in a piece pre- 
fixed to the second edition of his " Indian Emperor." 
Although his first plays had not been very successful, he 
went on, and in the space of twenty-five years pro- 
duced twenty- seven plays, besides his other numerous 
poetical writings. Of the stage, says Dr. Johnson, when 
he had once invaded it, he kept possession ; not indeed, 
without the competition of rivals, who sometimes pre- 
vailed, or the censure of critics, which was often poignant, 
and often just ; but with such a degree of reputation, as 
made him at least secure of being heard, whatever might 
be the final determination of the public. These plays were 
collected, and published in 6 vols. 12mo, in 1725; to 
which is prefixed the essay on dramatic poetry, and a de- 
dication to the duke of Newcastle by Congreve, in which 
the author is placed in a very equivocal light. 

In 1671 he was publicly ridiculed on the stage under 
the character of Bays, in the duke of Buckingham's famous 
comedy called the " Rehearsal." The character of Bays, 
as we are told ia the key printed with that satirical per- 
formance in 17 '55, was originally intended for sir Robert 
Howard, under the name of Bilboa : but a stop being put 
to the representation by the breaking out of the plague in 
1665, it was laid by for several years, and not exhibited on 
the stage till Dec. 7, 1671. During this interval, Dryden 
being advanced to the laurel, the noble author changed 
the name of his poet from Bilboa to Bays; and made great 
alterations in his play, in order to ridicule several dramatic 
performances, which had appeared since the first writing of 

343 D R Y D E N. 

it, and particularly some of Dry den's. lie affected to de- 
spise the satire, as appears from his dedication of the 
translation of Juvenal and Persius ; where, speaking of the 
many lampoons and libels that had been written against 
him, he says : " I answered not the Rehearsal, because I 
knew the author sat to himself, when he drew the picture, 
and was the very Bayes of his own farce; because also I 
knew, that my betters were more concerned, than I was, 
in that satire ; and lastly, because Mr. Smith and Mr. John- 
son, the main pillars of it, were two such languishing gen- 
tlemen in their conversation, that I could liken them to 
nothing but their own relations, those noble characters of 
men of wit and pleasure about town." Insensible, however, 
as he affected to be, he did not fail to take a full revenge 
on its author, under the character of Zimri, in his " Ab- 
salom and Achitophel." 

In 1673, his tragi-comedies, entitled the " Conquest of 
Granada" by the Spaniards, in two parts, were attacked 
by Richard Leigh, a player belonging to the duke of York's 
theatre, in a pamphlet called " A Censure of the Rota," 
&c. which occasioned several other pamphlets to be writ- 
ten. Elkanah Settle likewise criticised these plays ; and 
it is remarkable that Settle, though in reality a mean and 
inconsiderable poet, was the mighty rival of Dryden, and for 
many years bore his reputation above him*. To the first 
part of the " Conquest of Granada," Dryden prefixed an 
essay on Heroic Plays, and subjoined to the second a De- 
fence of the Epilogue ; or, an essay on the dramatic poetry 
of the last age. In 1679 was published an " Essay on Sa- 
tire," written jointly by the earl of Mulgrave and Dryden. 
This piece, which was handed about in MS. contained 

* Dr. Johnson has taken particular some solace to the consciousness of 
notice of Dryden's controversy with weakness, and some mortification to 
Settle. As Dryden's pamphlet has the pride of wisdom. But let it be re- 
liever been thought worihy of repub- membered, that minds are not levelled 
lii'ilion, and is not easily to he found, in their powers but when they are first 
the doctor has endeavoured to gratify levelled in their desires. Dryden and 
the curiosity of his readers, by giving Settle had both placed tlieir hapt 
large extracts from it ; larger, perhaps, in the claps of multitudes." Klkanah 
than the performance merited, but his Settle's tragedy, entitled "The i. in- 
concluding remark is admirable : press of .Morocco,'' which v. 
" Such was the criticism to which the in rhyme, and for a while was mucli 
enius of Dryden could be reduced be- applauded, is said to have been the 
tween rage and terror; rage with little first play embellished with sculpture*, 
provocation, and terror with little dan- Even this circumstance stem- '<> 
ger. To see the highest minds thus given poor Dryden great disturbs 
levelled with the meanest may produce 

D R Y D E N. 349 

severe reflections on the duchess of Portsmouth and the 
earl of Rochester ; and they, suspecting Dryden to be the 
author of it, hired three men to cudgel him ; who, as Wood 
relates, effected their business as he was returning from 
Will's coffee-house through Rose-street, Covent-gardeu, 
to his own house in Gerrard-street, Soho, at eight o'clock 
at night, on the 16th of December, 1679. In 1680 came 
out an English translation in verse of Ovid's epistles by 
several hands : two of which, viz. Canace to Macareus, 
and Dido to ^Eneas, were translated by Dryden, who also 
wrote the general preface ; and the epistle of Helen to 
Paris by Dryden and the earl of Mulgrave. 

In 16S1 he published his Absalom and Achitophel. This 
celebrated poem, yvhich was at first printed without the 
author's name, is a severe satire on the contrivers and 
abettors of the rebellion against Charles II. under the duke 
of Monmouth ; and, under the characters of Absalom, 
Achitophel, David and Zimri, are represented the duke 
of Monmouth, the earl of Shaftesbury, king Charles, and 
the duke of Buckingham. There are two translations of 
this poem into Latin ; one by Dr. Coward, a physician of 
Merton college in Oxford ; another by Mr. Atterbury, 
afterwards bishop of Rochester, both published in 1682, 
4to*. Dryden left the story unfinished; and the reason 
he gives for so doing was, because he could not prevail 
with himself to shew Absalom unfortunate. " Were I the 
inventor," says he, "who am only the historian, I should 
certainly conclude the piece with the reconcilement of 
Absalom to David. And who knows, but this may come 
to pass ? Things were not brought to extremity, where I 
left the story : there seems yet to be room left for a com- 
posure : hereafter, there may be only for pity. I have 
not so much as an uncharitable wish against Achitophel ; 
but am content to be accused of a good-natured error, and 
to hope with Origen, that the devil himself may at last be 
saved. For which reason, in this poem, he is neither 
brought to set his house in order, nor to dispose of his 
person afterwards." A second part of Absalom and Achi- 
tophel was undertaken and written by Tate, at the request 

* That of Coward, however, though had occasion to mention those versions, 

infinitely inferior, was ^mistaken for till the publication of the l>i- 

Atterbury's by Stackhouse, and after epistolary correspondence by Mr, 

kkn by every subsequent writer wh Nichols in 1733. 

350 D R Y D E N. 

and under the direction of Dryden, who wrote near 200 
lines of it himself. 

The same year, 168 I j he published his Medal, a satire 
against sedition. This poem was occasioned by the 
striking of a medal, on account of the indictment against 
the earl of Shaftesbury for high-treason being found igno- 
ramus by the grand jury at the Old Bailey, November 
1611, for which the whig-party made great rejoicings by 
ringing of bells, bonfires, &c. in all parts of London. The 
whole poem is a severe invective against the earl of 
Shaftesbury and the whigs ; to whom the author addresses 
himself, in .a satirical epistle prefixed to it, thus : " I have 
one favour to desire of you at parting, that, when you 
think of answering this poem, you would employ the same 
pens against it, who have combated with so much success 
against Absalom and Achitophel ; for then you may assure 
yourselves of a clear victory without the least reply. Rail 
at me abundantly ; and, not to break a custom, do it with- 
out wit. If God has not blessed you with the talent of 
rhyming, make use of my poor stock and welcome : let 
your verses run upon my feet j and for the utmost refuge 
of notorious blockheads, reduced to the last extremity of 
sense, turn my own lines upon me, and, in utter despair 
of your own satire, make me satirize myself." Settle 
wrote an answer to this poem, entitled " The Medal re- 
versed;" and is erroneously said to have written a poem 
called " Azariah and Hushal," against " Absalom and 
Achitophel." This last was the production of one Pordage, 
a dramatic writer. In 1682, Dryden published a poem, 
called "Religio Laici ; or, the Layman's Faith." This 
piece is intended as a defence of revealed religion, and of 
the excellency and authority of the scriptures, as the only- 
rule of faith and manners, against deists, papists, and pres- 
byterians. The author tells us in the preface, that it was 
written for an ingenious young gentleman, his friend, upon 
his translation of father Simon's " Critical History of the 
Old Testament." In October of this year, he also pub- 
lished his Mac Flecnoe, an exquisite satire against the poet 
Shad well. 

His tragedy of the " Duke of Guise," much altered, 
with the assistance of Lee, appeared again in 168S, dedi- 
cated to Lawrence earl of Rochester, and gave great offence 
to the whigs. It was attacked in a pamphlet, entitled " A 

D R Y D E N. 351 

Defence of the charter and municipal rights of the city of 
London, and the rights of other municipal cities and towns 
of England. Directed to the citizens of London. By 
Thomas Hunt." In this piece, Dryden is charged with 
condemning the charter of the city of London, and exe- 
cuting its magistrates in effigy, in his " Duke of Guise ;'* 
frequently acted and applauded, says Hunt, and intended 
most certainly to provoke the rahhle into tumults and dis- 
orders. Hunt then makes several remarks upon the de- 
sign of the play, and asserts, that our poet's purpose was 
to corrupt the manners of the nation, and lay waste their 
morals ; to extinguish the little remains of virtue among us 
by bold impieties, to confound virtue and vice, good and 
evil, and to leave us without consciences. About the same 
time were printed also " Some Reflections upon the pre- 
tended Parallel in the play called The Duke of Guise ;" 
the author of which pamphlet tells ns, that he was wearied 
with the dulness of this play, and extremely incensed at 
the wicked and barbarous design it was intended for ; that 
the fiercest tories were ashamed of it ; and, in short, that 
he never saw any thing that could be called a play, more 
deficient in wit, good character, and entertainment, than 
this. In answer to this and Hunt's pamphlet, Dryden 
published " The Vindication : or, The Parallel of the 
French holy league and the English league and covenant, 
turned into a seditious libel against the king and his royal 
highness, by Thomas Hunt and the author of the Reflec- 
tions, &c." In this Vindication, which is printed at the 
end of the play, he tells us that in the year of the restora- 
tion, the first play he undertook was the " Duke of Guise," 
as the fairest way which the act of indemnity had then left 
of setting forth the rise of the late rebellion ; that at first 
it was thrown aside by the advice of some friends, who 
thought it not perfect enough to be published ; but that, 
at the earnest request of Mr. Lee, it was afterwards pro- 
duced between them; and that only the first scene, the 
whole fourth act, and somewhat more than half the fifth, 
belonged to him, all the rest being Mr. Lee's. He ac- 
quaints us also occasionally, that Mr. Thomas Shadwell, 
the poet, made the rough draught of this pamphlet against 
him, and that Mr. Hunt finished it. 

In 1G34 he published a translation of " Maimbonrg's 
History of the League ;" in which he was employed by 
Charles II. on account of the pla'ui parallel between the 

352 D R Y D E N. 

troubles of France and those of Great Britain. Upon the 
death of this monarch, lie wrote his "Threnodia Augus- 
talis :" a poem sacred to the happy memory of that prince. 
Soon after the accession of James II. he turned Roman 
catholic ; upon which occasion, Mr. Thomas Browne wrote 
" The reasons of Mr. Bayes's changing his religion consi- 
dered, in a dialogue between Crites Eugenius and Mr. 
Bayes, 1688," 4to ; and also, "The late converts exposed : 
or, the reasons of Mr. Bayes's changing his religion con- 
sidered, in a dialogue; part the second ; 1690," 4to. In 
1686 he wrote "A defence of the papers written by the 
late king of blessed memory, and found in his strong box." 
This was written in opposition to Stillingfleet's " Answer 
to some papers lately printed, concerning the authority of 
the catholic church in matters of faith, and the reformation 
of the church of England, 1686," 4to. He vindicates the 
authority of the catholic church, in decreeing matters of 
faith upon this principle, that " The church is more visible 
than the scripture, because the scripture is seen by the 
church ;" and, to abuse the reformation in England, he 
affirms, that " it was erected on the foundation of lust, 
sacrilege, and usurpation, and that no paint is capable of 
making lively the hideous face of it." He affirms likewise, 
that " the pillars of the church established by law, are to 
be found but broken staffs by their own concessions : for, 
after all their undertakings to heal a wounded conscience, 
they leave their proselytes finally to the scripture ; as our 
physicians, when they have emptied the pockets of their 
patients, without curing them, send them at last to Tun- 
bridge waters, or the air of Montpelier; that we are re- 
formed from the virtues of good living, from the devotions, 
mortifications, austerities, humility and charity, which are 
practised in catholic countries, by the example and pre- 
cept of that lean, mortified, apostle, St. Martin Luther, 
&c." Stillingrleet hereupon published " A vindication of 
the Answer to some late papers," in 1687, 4to ; in which 
he treats Dryden with some severity ; " If I thought," 
says he, " there was no such thing as true religion in the 
world, and that the priests of all religions are alike, I might 
have been as nimble a convert, and as early a defender of 
the royal papers, as any one of these champions. For why 
should not one, who believes no religion, declare for any?" 
In 1687 he published his " Hind and Panther; a poem." 
It is divided into three parts, and is a direct defence of 

D R Y D E N. 853 

the Romish church, chiefly by way of dialogue between a 
hind, who represents the church of Rome, and a panther, 
who sustains the character of the church of England. 
These two beasts very learnedly discuss the several points 
controverted between the two churches; as transubstan- 
tiation, church-authority, infallibility, &c. In the pre- 
face he tells us, that this poem " was neither imposed on 
him, nor so much as the subject given han by any man. 
It was written," says he, " durin;- the last winter and the 
beginning of this spring, though with long interruptions of 
ill health and other hindrances. About a fortnight before 
I had finished it. his majesty's declaration for liberty of 
conscience came abroad ; which it 1 had so soon expected, 
I might have spared myself the labour of writing many 
things, which are contained in the third part of it. But 
I was always in some hope the church of England might 
have been persuaded to have taken off the penal laws and 
the test, which was one design of the poem when I pro- 
posed to myself the writing of it." This poem was im- 
mediately attacked by the wits, particularly by Montague 
(afterwards earl of Halifax,) and Prior ; who joined in 
writing ' The Hind and Panther transversed to the story 
of the Country Mouse and the City Mouse." In 1688 he 
published " Britannia Rediviva;" a poem on the birth of 
the prince. 

He was supposed, some time before this, to have been 
engaged in translating Varillas's History of Heresies, but 
to have dropped that work before it was finished. This 
we learn from a passage in Burnet's " Defence of the 
Reflections on the ninth book of the first volume" of that 
history : " I have been informed from England," says the 
doctor, " that a gentleman, who is famous both for poetry 
and several other things, has spent three months in trans- 
lating Mr. Varillas's history ; but that, as soon as my * Re- 
flections' appeared, he discontinued his labour, finding 
the credit of his author was gone. Now, if he thinks it is 
recovered by his answer, he will perhaps go on with his 
translation ; and this may be, for aught I know, as good an 
entertainment for him as the conversation he has set on 
foot between the hinds and panthers, and all the rest of 
the animals, for whom Mr. Varillas may serve well enough, 
as an author : and this history and that poem are sucb> 
extraordinary things of their kind, that it will be but 
suitable to the author of the worst poem to become lik- 


334 D R Y D E N. 

wise the translator of the worst history that the age has 
produced. If his grace and his wit improve both propor- 
tional)] y, we shall hardly find that he has gained much by 
the change he has made, from having no religion to choose 
one of the worst. It is true, he had somewhat to sink 
from in matter of wit; but as for his morals, it is scarce 
possible for him to grow a worse man than he was. He 
bas lately wreaked his malice on me for spoiling his three 
months labour; but in it he has done me all the honour 
that any man can receive from him, which is, to be railed 
at by him. If I had ill nature enough to prompt me to 
wish- a very bad wish for him, it should be, that he would 
go on and finish his translation. By that it will appear, 
whether the English nation, which is the most competent 
judge in this matter, has, upon the seeing our debate, 
pronounced in Mr. Varilias's favour or mine. It is true, 
Mr. Dryden will suffer a little by it ; but at least it will 
serve to keep him in from other extravagances ; and if he 
gains little honour by this work, yet he cannot lose so, 
much by it as he has done by his last employment." This 
passage, besides the information which it affords, shews 
the opinion, whether just or not, which Burnet entertained 
of Dryden and his morals. 

At the revolution in 1688, being disqualified by having 
turned papist, he was dismissed from the offices of poet- 
laureat and historiographer, which were given to his an- 
tagonist Shadwell. The earl of Dorset, however, though 
obliged, as lord-chamberlain, to withdraw his pension, was 
so generous a friend and patron to him, that he allowed 
him an equivalent out of his own estate. This Prior tells 
us, in the dedication of his poems to lord Dorset, his 
descendant. In 1688 also he published the " Life of St. 
Francis Xavier," translated from the French of father Do- 
minic Bouhours. In 1690 he produced his play of " Don 
Sebastian." In 1693 came out, in folio, a translation of 
" Juvenal and Persius," in which the first, third, sixth, 
tenth, and sixteenth satires of Juvenal, and Persius entire, 
were done by Dryden, who prefixed a long and beautiful 
discourse, by way of dedication to the earl of Dorset. 

In 1695, while employed on his translation of Virgil, 
begun in 1694, he published a translation, in prose, of 
I)u Fresnoy's " Art of Painting;" the second edition of 
which, corrected and enlarged, was afterwards published 
LH 1716. It is dedicated to the earl of Burlington by 

DRYDEN. 355 

Richard Graham, esq. who observes in the dedication, that 
some liberties have been taken with this excellent transla- 
tion, of which he gives the following account : " The mis- 
fortune that attended Mr. Dryden in that undertaking was, 
that, for want of a competent knowledge in painting, he suf- 
fered himself to be misled by an unskilful guide. Mon- 
sieur de Piles told him, that his French version was made 
at the request of the author himself; and altered by him, 
till it was wholly to his mind. This Mr. Dryden taking 
upon content, thought there was nothing more incumbent 
upon him than to put it into the best English he could, and 
accordingly performed his part here, as in every thing 
else, wilh accuracy. But it being manifest that the French 
translator has frequently mistaken the sense of his author, 
and very often also not set it in the most advantageous 
light; to do justice to M. du Fresnoy, Mr. Jervas, a very 
good critic in the language, as well as in the subject of the 
poem, has been prevailed upon to correct what he found 
amiss ; and his amendments are every-where distinguished 
uith proper marks." Dryden tells us, in the preface to 
the " Art of Painting," that, when he undertook this work, 
he was already engaged in the translation of Virgil, " from 
whom," says he, " I only borrowed two months." This 
translation was published in 1697, and has passed through 
numerous editions in various forms. The pastorals are 
dedicated to lord Clifford ; and Dryden tells his lordship, 
that " what he now offers him, is the wretched remainder 
of a sickly age, worn out with study, and oppressed with 
fortune, without other support than the constancy and pa- 
tience of a Christian ;" and he adds, " that he began this 
work in his great climacteric." The Life of Virgil, which 
follows this dedication, the two prefaces to the Pastorals 
and Georgics, and all the arguments in prose to the whole 
translation, were given him by friends ; the preface to the 
Georgics, in particular, by Addison. The translation of 
the Georgics is dedicated to the earl of Chesterfield ; and 
that of the ^neis to the earl of Mulgrave. This latter 
dedication contains the author's thoughts on epic poetry, 
particularly that of Virgil. It is generally allowed that 
nis translation of Virgil is excellent. Pope, speaking of 
Dryden's translation of some parts of Homer, says, " Had 
he translated the whole work, I would no more have at- 
tempted Homer after him, than Virgil ; his version of whom, 
notwithstanding some human errors, is the most noble and 

AA 2 

356 D R Y D E N. 

spirited translation I know in any language.'* In the same 
year he published his celebrated ode of " Alexander's 
Feast," which is commonly said to have been finished in 
one night ; but, according to Mr. Malone, occupied him 
for some weeks. 

In 1699 he entered into a contract with Tonson, the 
bookseller, to supply him with 10,000 verses, which pro- 
duced in 1700 his " Fables, ancient and modern ;" trans- 
lated into verse from Homer, Ovid, Boccace, and Chaucer. 
He tells us in the preface to this his last work, that " he 
thinks himself as vigorous as ever in the faculties of his 
soul, excepting only his memory, which," he says, " is 
not impaired to any great degree ;" and he was then sixty- 
eight years of age. For this labour he was to get only 
30GJ. out of which 250 guineas were paid down, and he 
was to receive the remainder on the appearance of a second 
edition, which did not happen till thirteen years after his 
death. Besides the original pieces and translations hitherto 
mentioned, he wrote many other things, which have been 
several times published in the " Six volumes of Miscel- 
lanies" under his name, and in other collections. They 
consist of translations from the Greek and Latin poets ; 
epistles to several .persons ; prologues and epilogues to 
various plays ; elegies, epitaphs, and songs. In 1743 came 
out in two volumes 12mo, a new collection of our author's 
poetical works, under the title of " Original Poems and 
Translations, by John Dry den, esq. now first collected and 
published together ;" that is, collected from the " Six 
volumes of Miscellanies" just mentioned. The editor ob- 
serves, in his preface, that " it was but justice to the pro- 
ductions of so excellent a poet, to set them free at last from 
so disadvantageous, if not unnatural, an union ; an union, 
which, like the cruelty of Mezentius in Virgil, was no less 
than a junction of living and dead bodies together." " It is 
now high time," says he, " that the partnership should be 
dissolved, and Mr. Dryden left to stand upon his own 
bottom. His credit as a poet is out of all danger, though 
the withdrawing his stock may probably expose many of 
of his copartners to the hazard of a poetical bankruptcy." 
There is a collection of our author's original poems and 
translations, published in a thin folio, 1701 ; but, as it 
does not contain much above half the pieces, so it does 
not at all answer the design of this collection ; which, 
with his plays, fables, and translations of Virgil, JuvenaJ, 

D R Y D E N. 357 

and Persius, was intended to complete his works in twelves. 
As to his performances in prose, besides essays and pre- 
faces, some of which have been mentioned, he wrote the 
lives of Plutarch anci Lucian, prefixed to the transla- 
tions of those authors by several hands ; " The Life of Po- 
lybius," before the translation of that historian by sir 
Henry Sheer ; and the preface to the " Dialogue con- 
cerning Women," by William Walsh, esq. 

He had for some years been harassed by the gravel and 
the gout; and in December, 1699, was afflicted with an 
erysipelas in one of his legs. Having recovered, however, 
from that disorder, he was sufficiently free from any com- 
plaint to apply again to his studies; but he was confined 
to his house by the gout during the greater part of March 
and April ; and near the end of that month, in conse- 
quence of neglecting an inflammation in one of his feet, a 
mortification ensued, of which he died, after a very short 
illness, at three o'clock on Wednesday morning, May the 
1st, 1700. 

His leg having become mortified, his surgeon recom- 
mended an amputation of the limb, with a view to stop the 
further progress of the disorder; but he would not undergo 
the operation, saying, that as by the course of nature he 
had not many years to live, he would not attempt to pro- 
long an uncomfortable existence by a painful and uncertain 
experiment, but patiently submit to death. This account, 
which was given by a contemporary writer, not long after- 
wards, is strongly corroborated by the unquestionable tes- 
timony of Mrs. Elizabeth Creed, his kinswoman ; who in- 
forms us, that he received the notice of his approaching 
dissolution with perfect resignation and submission to the 
Divine Will ; and that in his last illness he took the most 
tender and affectionate farewell of his afflicted friends, "of 
which sorrowful number she herself was one." Twenty- 
two years afterwards this very respectable lady, who was 
then in her eightieth year, erected a monument at Tich- 
marsh, in honour of our poet and his parents, on which 
these circumstances so much to his honour are recorded. 
(See CREED, vol. X.) 

Dr. Johnson conceived, that no description of Dryden's 
person had been transmitted to us ; but, on the contrary, 
there are few English poets, ot whose external appearance 
more particulars have been recorded. We have not in- 
deed any original whole-length portrait of him, such as 

355 D R Y D E N. 

that very curious delineation of Pope, with which we have 
been lately gratified, whence a more perfect notion of that 
poet's external appearance may be obtained than from all 
the friendly drawings ot Richardson ; yet from various de- 
scriptions of Dryden's person that have come down to us, 
a very adequate idea of it may be formed. He was cer- 
tainly a short, fat, florid man, " corpore quadrato," as 
lord Hailes some years ago observed to Mr. Malone, " a 
description which ^neas Sylvius applied to James the 
First of Scotland " The same gentleman remarked, that 
that at one time he wore his hair in large quantity, and 
that it inclined to gray, even before his misfortunes; a 
circumstance which, he said, he had learned from a por- 
trait of Dry den, painted by Kneller, formerly in the pos- 
session of the late Mr. James West. But perhaps his lord- 
ship here is not quite accurate. By " before his misfor- 
tunes" was meant before the Revolution ; but the por- 
trait in question was probably painted at a later period. 
From other documents, however, it appears that he be- 
came gray before he was deprived of the laurel. In 
Riley's portrait, painted in 1683, he wears a very large 
wig : so also in that by Closterman, done at a late period. 
By Tom Brown he is always called " little Bayes," and 
by Rochester, when he quarrelled with, and wished to de- 
preciate him, he was nick-named " poet Squab." The 
earliest portrait of Dryden hitherto discovered is that in 
the picture gallery, Oxford, but the painter is not known. 
It is engraved in Mr. Malone's Life. 

He married the lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the 
earl of Berkshire, who died in June or July 1714, after 
having been for some years insane. By her he had three 
sons, Charles, John, and Erasmus- Henry, of ail whom we 
shall take some notice hereafter. There are some circum- 
stances, relating to Dryden's funeral, recorded in Wil- 
son's memoirs of the life of Mr. Congreve, which have 
been generally credited. It is said that the day after his 
death, Sprat, bishop of Rochester and dean of Westmin- 
ster, sent word to lady Elizabeth Howard, his widow, that 
he would make a present of the ground, and all the other 
abbey fees. Lord Haliikx likewise sent to lady Elizabeth, 
and to Mr. Charles Dryden her son, offering to defray the 
expences of our poet's funeral, and afterwards to bestow 
300l. on a monument in the abbey ; which generous offer 
from both was accepted. Accordingly, on the Sunday 

D R Y D E N. 359 

following, the company being assembled, the corpse was 
put into a velvet hearse, attended by 1 8 mourning coaches, 
When they were just ready to move, lord Jefferu-s, son of 
the chancellor Jefferies, with some of his rakish com- 
panions, coining by, asked whose funeral it was ; and, 
being told it was Mr. Dry den's, he protested, tnat ho 
should not be buried in that private manner ; that lie would 
himself, with lady Elizabeth's leave, have the honour of 
his interment, and would bestow 1000/. on a monument in 
the abbey for him. This put a stop to the procession ; 
and Jefferies, with several of the gentlemen who had 
alighted from the coaches, went up stairs to the lady , 
Elizabeth, who was sick in bed. Jefferies repeated the 
purport of what he had said below ; but lady Elizabeth ab- 
solutely refusing her consent, he fell on his knees, vowii.g 
never to rise till his request was granted. The, under 
a sudden surprise, fainted away ; and lord Jefferies, pre- 
tending to have gained her consent, ordered the body to 
be carried to Mr. RussePs, an undertaker in Cheapside, 
and to be left there till further orders. In the mean time, 
the abbey was lighted up, the ground opened, the choir 
attending, and the bishop waiting some hours to no pur- 
pose for the corpse. The next day, Mr. Charles Dryden 
waited upon lord Halifax and the bishop, and endeavoured 
to excuse his mother, by relating the truth ; but they 
would not hear of any excuse. Three days after, the un- 
dertaker, receiving no orders, waited on lord Jetieries, 
who turned it off in a jest, pretending, that those who paid 
any regard to a drunken frolic deserved no better ; that he 
remembered nothing at all of the matter ; and that they 
might do what they pleased with the corpse. Upon this, 
the undertaker waited on the lady Elizabeth, who desired 
a day to consider what must be done. Mr. Charles Dry- 
den immediately wrote to lord Jefferies, who returned for 
answer, that he knew nothing of the matter, and would ba 
troubled no more about it. Mr. Dryden applied again to 
lord Halifax and the bishop of Rochester, who absolutely 
refused to do any thing in the affair. In this distress, Dr. 
Garth sent for the corpse to the college of physic; i'is, and 
proposed a funeral by subscription ; which succeeding, 
about three weeks after Dryden's decease, Garth pronoun- 
ced a Latin oration over his body, which was conveyed 
from the college, attended by a numerous train of coaches, 
to Westminster-abbey. After the funeral, Mr. Charles 

360 D R Y D E N. 

Dryden sent lord Jefteries a challenge, which was not ac- 
cepted ; and, Mr. Dryden publicly declaring he would 
watch every opportunity to fight him, his lordship thought 
fit to leave the town upon it, and Mr. Dryden never could 
meet him after. Mr. Malone, however, has very clearly 
proved that the greater part of all this was a fiction by 
Mrs. Thomas. The fact is, that, on May 1, a magnificent 
funeral was projected by several persons of quality, and 
the body was in consequence conveyed to the College of 
Physicians, whence, after Dr. Garth had pronounced a 
Latin oration in his praise, it was, on the 13th of May, 
conveyed to Westminster-abbey, attended by above one 
hundred coaches. 

As to Dryden's character, it has been treated in ex- 
tremes, some setting it too high, others too low ; for he 
was too deeply engaged in party, to have strict justice 
done him either way. As to his dramatic works, to say 
nothing more of the Rehearsal, we 6nd, that the critics, 
his contemporaries, made very free with them ; and, it 
must be confessed, they are not the least exceptionable of 
his compositions. In tragedy, it has been observed, that 
he seldom touches the passions, but deals rather in pompous 
language, poetical flights, and descriptions ; and that this 
was his real taste, appears not only from the tragedies 
themselves, but from two instances mentioned by Mr. 
Gildon. The first is, that when a translation of Euripides 
was recommended to him instead of Homer, he replied, 
that he had no relish for that poet, who was a master of 
tragic simplicity : the other is, that he generally expressed 
a very mean, if not a contemptible, opinion of Otway, 
who is universally allowed to have succeeded in affecting the 
passions; though, in the preface to his translation of M. 
Fresnoy, he speaks more favourably of that poet. Gildon 
ascribes this taste in Dryden to his intimacy with French 
romances. As to comedy, he acknowledges his want of 
gem us for it, in his defence of the " Essay on Dramatic 
Poetry," prefixed to his Indian Emperor: " I know," says 
he, " I am not fitted by nature to write comedy ; I want 
that gaiety of humour which is required in it. My con- 
versation is slow and dull; my humour saturnine and re- 
served. In short, 1 am none of those who endeavour to 
break jests in company, or to make repartees. So that 
those who decry my comedies, do me no injury, except 
it be in point of profit : reputation in them is the last 

D R Y D E N. 361 

thing to which I shall pretend." But perhaps he would 
have wrote better in both kinds of the drama, had not 
the necessity of his circumstances obliged him to con- 
form to the popular taste ; and, indeed, he insinuates as 
much in the epistle dedicatory to the Spanish Friar : " I 
remember some verses of my own Maximin and Almanzor, 
which cry vengeance on me for their extravagance. All I 
can say for those passages, which are, I hope, not many, 
is, that I knew they were bad enough to please, even when 
I writ them. But I repent of them among my sins ; and 
if any of their fellows intrude by chance in my present 
writings, I draw a stroke over all those Dalilahs of the 
theatre, and am resolved I will settle myself no reputation 
by the applause of fools. It is not that I am mortified to 
all ambition ; but I scorn as much to take it from half-witted 
judges, as I should to raise an estate by cheatingfof bubbles. 
Neither do I discommend the lofty style in tragedy, which 
is naturally pompous and magnificent ; but nothing is truly 
sublime, that is not just and proper." He tells us, in his 
preface to Fresnoy, that his " Spanish Friar was given to 
the people ; and that he never wrote any thing in the dra- 
matic way to please himself, but his Anthony and Cleo- 

His translations of Virgil, Juvenal, and Persius, and his 
Fables, were more successful, as we have observed already. 
But his poetical reputation is built chiefly upon his ori- 
ginal poems, among which his Ode on Saint Caecilia's 
Day is justly esteemed one of the most perfect pieces in 
any language. It has been set to music more than once, 
particularly in the winter of 1735, by Handel; and was 
publicly performed with the utmost applause, on the theatre 
in Covent-garden. Congreve, in the dedication of our 
author's dramatic works to the duke of Newcastle, has 
drawn his character to great advantage. He represented 
him, in regard to his moral character, in every respect not 
only blameless, but amiable; and, " as to his writings," 
says he, " no man hath written in our language so much 
and so various matter, and in so various manners, so well. 
Another thing I may say was very peculiar to him ; which 
is, that his parts did not decline with his years, but that 
he was an improving writer to the last, even to near se* 
venty years of age ; improving even in fire and imagina- 
tion, as well as in judgment; witness his Ode on St. Cae- 
cilia's Day, and his Fables, his latest performances. He 

362 D R Y D E N. 

was equally excellent in verse and in prose. His prose 
had all the clearness imaginable, together with all the 
nobleness of expression ; all the graces and ornaments 
proper and peculiar to it, without deviating into the lan- 
guage or diction of poetry. I have heard him frequently 
own with pleasure, that if he had any talent for English 
prose, it was owing to his having often read the writings 
of the great archbishop Tillotson. His versification and 
his numbers he could learn of nobody ; for he first pos- 
sessed those talents in perfection in our tongue. In his 
poems, his diction is, wherever his subject requires it, so 
sublimely and so truly poetical, that its essence, like that 
of pure gold, cannot be destroyed. What he has done in 
any one species or distinct kind of writing, would have 
been sufficient to have acquired him a great name. If he 
had written nothing but his prefaces, or nothing but his 
songs or his prologues, each of them would have entitled 
him to the preference and distinction of excelling in his 
kind." It may be proper to observe, that Congreve, in 
drawing this character of Dryden, discharged an obliga- 
tion laid on him by our poet, in these lines : 

" Be kind to my remains : and, O ! defend, 
Against your judgment, your departed friend; 
Let not th 1 insulting foe my fame pursue, 
But shade those laurels which descend to you." 

Pope had a high opinion of Dryden. His verses upon 
his Ode on St. Caecilia's Day are too well known to need 
transcribing. In a letter to Wycherley, he says, " It was 
certainly a great satisfaction to me, to see and converse 
with a man, whom in his writings I had so long known 
with pleasure ; but it was a very high addition to it, to hear 
you at our very first meeting doing justice to your dead 
friend Mr. Dryden. I was not so happy as to know him : 
Frrgtlium tantum vidi. Had I been born early enough, 
I must have known and loved him ; for I have been as- 
sured, not only by yourself, but by Mr. Congreve and 
sir William Trumball, that his personal qualities were as 
amiable as his poetical, notwithstanding the many libel- 
lous misrepresentations of them ; against which, the for- 
mer of these gentlemen has told me he will one day vin- 
dicate him." But what Congreve and Pope have said of 
Dryden, is rather in the way of panegym 1 . than an exact 
character of him. Others have spoken of him more mo- 
derately, and yet have probably done him no injustice. 

D R Y D E N. 36$ 

Thus Felton observes, th^.t " he at once gave the best 
rules, and broke them in spite of his own knowledge, and 
the Rehearsal. His prefaces are many of them admirable 
upon dramatic writings : he had some peculiar notions, which 
he maintains with great address ; but his judgment in dis- 
puted points is of less weight and value, because the incon- 
stancy of his temper did run into his thoughts, and mixed 
with the conduct of his writings, as well as his life." Voltaire 
styles him " a writer whose genius was too exuberant, and 
not accompanied with judgment enough ; and tells us, that 
if he had writ only a tenth part of the works he left be- 
hind him, his character would have been conspicuous in 
every part ; but his groat fault is, his having endeavoured 
to be universal." Dryden has made no scruple to dispa- 
rage himself, where he thought he had not excelled. 
Thus, in his dedication of his Aurengzebe to the earl of 
Mulgrave, speaking of his writing for the stage, " I never 
thought myself," says he, " very fit for an employment 
where many of my predecessors have excelled me in all 
kinds ; and some of my contemporaries, even in my own 
partial judgment, have outdone me in comedy. Some 
little hopes I have yet remaining (and those too, consider- 
ing my abilities, may be vain), that I may make the world 
some part of amends for many ill plays, by an heroic 
poem,'* of which, however, he did not execute any part. 
Upon the whole, Mr. Malone appears to have examined 
and delineated his character as a man, with most truth and 
precision ; and as a poet it is impossible to refer to any 
thing equal to that masterly criticism given by Dr. Johnson 
in his life of our poet. 

It is said, that he had once a design of taking orders, 
but was refused*; and that he solicited for the provost- 

* The malignity which Dryden often not have admitted, and such as may 
expressed against the clergy is ira- vitiate light and unprincipled minds, 
puted by Langhaiue to a repulse which But there is no reason for supposing 
he suffered when he solicited ordina- that he disbelieved the religion which 
tion ; but he " denied that he ever de- he disobeyed. He forgot his duty ra- 
signed to enter into the church ; and ther than disowned it. His tendency 
such a denial," observes Dr. Johnson, to profaneness is the effect of levity, 
" he would not have hazarded, if he negligence, and loose conversation, 
could have been convicted of falsehood, with a desire of accommodating him- 
Malevolence to the Clergy," adds the self to the corruption of the times, by- 
doctor, " is seldom at a great distance venturing to be wicked as far as he 
from irreverence of religion, and Dry- durst. When he professed himself a 
den affords no exception to this ob- convert to Popery, he did not pretend 
f^rvatiou. His writings exhibit many to have received any new conviction 
passages, which, with all the allow- of the fundamental doctrines of Curis- 
ance that can be made for characters tianity." 
and occasions, are such as piety would 

364 D R Y D E N. 

ship of Eton-college, but failed also in this. This we have 
upon the authority of Thomas Brown, who, in " The late 
Converts exposed, or the reason of Mr. Bayes's changing 
his religion," of which he was supposed to be the author, 
has the following passage in the preface : " But, prythee, 
why so severe always upon the priesthood, Mr. Bayes ? 
You, I find, still continue your old humour, which we are 
to date from the year of Hegira, the loss of Eton, or since 
orders were refused you." Langbaine likewise, speaking 
of our author's Spanish Friar, tells us, that " ever since a 
certain worthy bishop refused orders to a certain poet, Mr. 
Dryden has declared open defiance against the whole 
clergy ; and since the church began the war, he has thought 
it but justice to make reprisals on the church." 

Of recent editions of his works, we may refer principally 
to the Prose Works, by Malone, 1800, 4 vols. : his poeti- 
cal works, with notes by Warton, and edited by Mr. Totld, 
1812, 4 vols. 8vo ; and the whole works, by Mr. Walter 
Scott, 1808, 18 vols. 8vo. 

Of Dryden's sons, CHARLES, the eldest, was born at 
Charlton, Wiltshire, and educated at Westminster-schoolj 
and King's-college, Cambridge, of which he was admitted a 
member,' in June 1683. In the following year he wrdte 
some Latin verses addressed to lord Roscommon, which 
were prefixed to that nobleman's " Essay on Translated 
Verse:" and in 1685 contributed a Latin poem to the 
Cambridge Collection of Verses published on the death 
of Charles II. In Dryden's " Second MisceUany" pub- 
lished in the same year, we find another Latin poem by 
him, descriptive of lord Arlington's gardens. He also 
translated the seventh satire in his father's Juvenal. About 
1692 he went to Italy, and was so well recommended to 
pope Innocent XII. that he was appointed chamberlain to 
his household. While at Rome, he wrote a poem in 
English, " On the happiness of a retired life," published 
in 1694, in his father's " Fourth Miscellany." He is sup- 
posed to have returned to England about 1698, and after 
the death of his father, administered to his effects, which 
probably did little more than pay his debts. In the fol- 
lowing year Mr. George Granville having altered Shak- 
speare's " Merchant of Venice" to a drama, which he en- 
titled " The Jew of Venice," he gave the profits of that 
piece to Charles Dryden ; and two representations of it 
were performed for his benefit, a proof that his circum- 

D R Y D E N. 365 

Stances were far from good. A few years afterwards, un- 
fortunately attempting to swim across the Thames, near 
Datchet, he was drowned, and was buried at Windsor, 
August 20, 1704. 

JOHN DRYDEN, our author's second son, was born pro- 
bably in 1G67 or 1663, and educated at Westminster- 
school, from which he was elected to Oxford, but instead 
of being matriculated of Christ-church, was placed by his 
father, now become a Roman catholic, under the private 
tuition of Obadiah Walker, master of University college, 
a concealed papist. It is supposed that he went to Rome 
about the end of 1692, and obtained some office under his 
brother in the pope's household. Previously to his leaving 
England, he translated the fourteentb satire for his father's 
Juvenal, and while at Rome, wrote a comedy, " The Hus- 
band his own Cuckold," which was acted in London, and 
published with a preface by his father. He made a tour 
in Sicily and Malta, of which his account, after remaining 
many years in manuscript, was published in 1776, in an 
3vo pamphlet. Soon after his return to Rome from this 
excursion, in 1701, he is said to have died there of a 

ERASMUS HENRY, Dryden's third son, was born May 2, 
1669, and educated at the Charter-house, and, like his 
brothers, went to Rome, where he became a captain of 
the pope's guards. He succeeded to the title of baronet, 
by the death of sir John Dryden, and died on the 4th of 
December, 1710. 1 

DRYSDALE (JOHN, D. D.) a distinguished clergyman 
of the established church of Scotland, the third son of the 
rev. John Drysdale, minister of Kirkaldy, was born April 
29, 1718, and educated there in classical learning. In 
1732, he was sent to finish his studies at the university of 
Edinburgh; and in 1740, was licensed to preach by the 
presbytery of Kirkaldy, was several years assistant minister 
of the collegiate church in Edinburgh, and in 1748 was 
presented to the church of Kirkliston. After residing 
there for fifteen years, he was presented to lady Yester's 
church, by the town-council of Edinburgh. This being 
the first instance in which the magistrates of that city had 
exercised their right of presentation, which was thought 

1 Biog. Brit. Life by Dr. Johnson ; and by Malone. To refer to notices 
a.nd criticisms on Dryden, would be to refer to every thins that has been vrritte* 
vu Eiiijli.i, poetry, of which he tvis so illuttri'ius an ornament. 

D R Y S D A L E. 

to reside in the parishioners, and Mr. Drysdale being sus- 
pected of favouring in his discourses the Arminian tenets, 
a very common objection to the modern church of Scot- 
land, a formidable opposition was made to his institution ; 
but the magistrates proving victorious, he obtained a settle- 
ment in lady Yester's church. The sermons he preached 
there, says professor Dalzel, although his mode of delivery 
was by no means correct, always attracted a great con- 
course of hearers, whom he never failed to delight and in- 
struct by an eloquence of the most nervous and interesting 
kind. His natural diffidence for some prevented his ap- 
pearing as a speaker in the ecclesiastical judicatures ; but he 
was at length induced to co-operate with Dr. Robertson, in 
defence of what was termed the moderate party in the church 
of Scotland. In 1765, the university of Aberdeen, unsolicited, 
conferred upon him the degree of D, D. by diploma, and 
on the death of Dr. Jardine, he was preferred to the church 
of Tron, and appointed a king's chaplain, with the allow- 
ance of one-third the emoluments arising from the deanery 
of the chapel royal. In 1773, having obtained the cha- 
racter of an able and impartial divine, he was unanimously 
elected moderator of the general assembly of the Scottish 
kirk ; " the greatest mark of respect," observes his bio- 
grapher, " which an ecclesiastical commonwealth can be- 
stow." In 1784 lie was re-elected, by a great majority, to 
the same dignity. In May, 17s8, he appeared at the 
general assembly, and the first day acted as principal clerk, 
but was taken ill, and died on the 16th of June following, 
aged seventy years. His general character was that of be- 
tievolence and inflexible integrity. His candour obtained 
him matij friends ; and even such as were of different 
sentiments in church affairs, and held different religious 
tenets, esteemed the man, and with these he kept up a 
friendly intercourse. " Indeed," adds the professor, " ne- 
ver any man more successfully illustrated what he taught 
by his own conduct and manners." His reputation as a 
preacher was very great ; and on an occasional visit he 
made to London, Mr. Strahan, the late printer, endea- 
voured to persuade him to publish a volume of sermons. 
On his return to Scotland he began a selection for the pur- 
pose, but his modesty hindered his proceeding, and in- 
duced him, finally, to relinquish the plan. After his death, 
his son-in-law, the late professor Dalzel, who h;,d the in- 
spection of his manuscripts, rnadi^ a selection of Lis *er- 

D R Y S D A L E. 367 

mons, and published them in two 8vo volumes, with bio- 
graphical anecdotes of his life, which were published also 
in the " Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 1 

DUAIiKN (FRANCIS), professor of civil law at Bourges, 
was born at St. Brien, a city of Bretagne, in France, 1509. 
He was the son of John Duaren, who exercised a place of 
judicature in Bretagne ; in which place he succeeded his 
father, and performed the functions of it for some time. 
He read lectures on the Pandects, at Paris, in 1536; and, 
among other scholars, had three sons of the learned Bu- 
daeus. He was sent for to Bourges in 1538, to teach civil 
law, three years after Alciat had retired, but quitted his 
place in 1548, and went to Paris, being very desirous to 
join the practice to the theory of the law. He accordingly 
attended the bar of the parliament of Paris, but conceived 
an unconquerable aversion to the chicanery of the court, 
and fortunately at this time advantageous offers were made 
him by the duchess of Berri, sister of Henry II. which gave 
him a favourable opportunity to retire from the bar, and to 
resume with honour the employment he had at Bourges. 
He returned to his professorship of civil law there, in 1551 ; 
and no professor, except Alciat, had ever so large a sti- 
pend in the university as himself, nor more reputation, 
being accounted the first of the French civilians who 
cleared the civil-law-chair from the barbarism of the glos- 
sators, in order to introduce the pure sources of the ancient 
jurisprudence. It \vas however his failing to be unwilling 
to share this honour with any person ; and he therefore 
viewed with an envious eye his colleague Eguinard Baron, 
who blended likewise polite literature with the study of 
the law. This jealousy prompted him to write a book, in 
which he endeavoured to lessen the esteem the world had 
for his colleague, yet, as if ashamed of his weakness, after 
the death of Baron, he shewed himself one of the most 
zealous to immortalize his memory 7 , and erected a monu- 
ment to him at his own expence. He had other colleagues, 
who revived his uneasiness ; and Duaren may serve as an 
example to prove that some of the chief miseries of human 
life, which we lament so much, and are so apt to charge 
on the nature and constitution of things, arise merely from 
ur own ill-regulated passions. 

} i- raious and Transactions a.* above, vol. III. 

368 D U A R E N. 

He died at Bourses in 1559, without having ever mar- 
ried. He had great learning and judgment, but so bad a 
memory, that lie was obliged always to read his lectures 
from his notes. Although a protestant, lie never had the 
courage to separate from the church of Home. His treatise 
of benefices, published in 15 JO, rendered him suspected 
of heresy, and Baudouin, with whom he had a controversy, 
accused him of being a prevaricator and dissembler, which, 
however, appears to have bev:n unjust. 

A collection of his won.s was made in his life-time, and 
printed at Lyons in 1554 ; but after his death, another 
edition, more complete, was published in 1579, under the 
inspection of Nicholas Cisner, who had been his scholar, and 
was afterwards professor of civil law at Heidelberg. Whe- 
ther this, or the edition afterwards printed in 1592, con- 
tains the same number of pieces, we have not an oppor- 
tunity of examining. His principal works are: 1. " Com- 
mentaria in varies titulos digesti &. codicis." 2. " Dispu- 
tation um anniversariarum libri dno." 3. " De jure 
accrescendi libri duo." 4. " De ratione docendi discen- 
dique juris." 5. " De jurisdictione & imperio." 6. " Apo- 
logia adversus Eguinarium Baronem." 7. " De plagiariis." 
This Bayle calls " a curious treatise, but too short for so 
copious a subject." 8. " In consuetudines feudorum com- 
mentarius." 9. " De sacris ecclesiae ministeriis ac bene- 
ficiis." 10. " Pro libertate ecclesiae Gallicanrc adversus 
artes Romanas defensio." This piece prejudiced the court 
of Rome against him, and procured it a place in the Index 
Expurgatorius. 11. " Epistola ad Sebast. Albespinam, 
regis Galliee oratorem." 12. " Epistola de Francisco Bal- 
duino." 13. " Defensio adversus Balduini sycophante 
maledicta." * 

DUBOIS (CHARLES FRANCIS), a French ecclesiastic of 
considerable fame, was born Sept. 1661, at the chateau 
Dubos, near the town of Blesle, in Auvergne, descended 
from a family allied to many considerable personages in 
that province. After having studied with much reputation 
and rapid progress in the classics, philosophy, and divinity, 
he took his degrees at the college of Sorbonne, and was 
appointed by the bishop of Lucon, principal archdeacon, 
and confidential grand vicar of that see. After the death 
of this patron, he was elected dean, which office he filled 

1 G^n. Diot. Moreri. rreberi Tlieatnim. Blfmat's Cens\ira. 

D U B O I S. 369 

with great credit until his death, Oct. 3, 1724, which was 
much lamented by his friends and by the poor. His chief 
publications form the continuation of the " Conferences 
de Luon" of which the abbe Louis had published 5 vols. 
12mo, in 1685. To those Dubois added seventeen more, 
on baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, &c, and left ma- 
terials for still farther additions. He also wrote the life of 
his patron, Barillon, bishop of Lugonj which was published 
in 1700, 12IB0. 1 

DUBOS (JOHN BAPTIST), an eminent French writer and 
critic, secretary, and one of the forty members of the 
French academy, censor-royal, &c. was born at Beauvais, 
in December, 1670. After some elementary education at 
home, he came to Paris in 1686, and pursuing his studies, 
took his bachelor's degree in divinity in 1691. One of his 
uncles, a canon of the cathedral of Beauvais, being at- 
tacked by a dangerous illness, resigned his canonry to him 
in 1695, but on his recovery chose to revoke his resigna- 
tion. The nephew appears to have felt this and other dis- 
appointments in his view of promotion so keenly, as to 
determine to change his profession. He accordingly left 
Beauvais in the last-mentioned year, returned to Paris, 
and soon was distinguished as a man of abilities. The 
same year he acquired a situation in the office for foreign 
affairs, and became patronized by M. de Torcy, by whose 
means he accompanied the French plenipotentiaries to 
Ryswick, in 1696, where peace was concluded. After 
his return to France, he was sent to Italy in 1699, although 
without an ostensible character, to negociafce some affairs 
of importance in the Italian courts, which occupied him 
until 1702. Some time after, he went to England, as 
charge d'affaires, and while the war occasioned by the con- 
test about the crown of Spain was at its height, and had 
involved all Europe, he was the only minister France had 
at the court of St. James's, where he resided without rank 
or character. He then went to the Hague, and to Brussels, 
and at this latter place wrote the manifesto of the elector 
of Bavaria, which did him so much In 1707 we 
find him at Neufchatel, and in 1710 at Gertruydenburgh, 
and he appears to have had a considerable hand in the 
treaties of peace concluded at Utrecht, Baden, and Ras- 

1 Moreri. Diet. Hist, in Bos. 


D U B O S. 

tadt. All these services were recompensed in 1705, by 
the priory of Veneroles, and in 1714 by a canoiiry of the 
church of Beauvais. Having been employed in other state 
affairs by the regent and by cardinal Dubois, he was re- 
warded in 1716 by a pension of 2000 livres, and in 1723 
was promoted to the abbey of Notre-Dame de Ressons, 
near Beauvais. As it was now his intention to execute 
the duties of these preferments, he received in 1724 the 
orders of subdeacon and deacon^ and was about to have 
taken possession of his canonry, when he was seized with 
a disorder at Paris, which proved fatal March 23, 1742. 
In 1720 he was elected into the French academy, and in 
1723 was appointed their secretary. 

His works, which procured him a very high reputation 
in France, were published inxhe following order : 1. " His- 
toire des quatre Gordiens, prouvee et illustree par les 
medailles," Paris, 1695, 12mo, in which he proves, con- 
trary to the common opinion, that there was a fourth Gor- 
dianus, the son of the younger Gordianus of Africa ; but 
this produced two answers, in which his opinion was at- 
tacked. 2. " Animadversiones ad Nicolai Bergerii librog 
de publicis et militaribus imperii Romani viis," Utrecht 
and Leyden, 1699. 3. " Les interets de PAngleterre, mal 
entendiis dans la guerre presente," Amst. 1704, of which 
there have been several editions, but it appears to have 
been better relished in France than in England ; it con- 
sists of many melancholy prophecies respecting England, 
one of which only, the separation of the American colonies 
from the mother country, which he hints at, has been ful- 
filled. 4. " Histoire de la ligue de Cambrai, faite Tan 
1508, centre la republique de Venise," Paris, 1709, 2 vols. 
12mo, and reprinted in 1728. 5. " Reflections critiques 
sur la Poesie et la Peinture," Paris, 1719, 2 vols. 12mo, 
and often reprinted in 3 vols. and translated into English. 
This work, on which the abbe" Dubos's reputation now 
principally rests, contains many useful remarks, in a style 
peculiarly agreeable, but his taste has been frequently at- 
tacked, and his enthusiasm for the arts doubted. Voltaire 
gave him the praise of having seen, heard, and reflected 
upon the fine arts, and he must be allowed to be upon 
some topics an elegant writer, and an ingenious reasoner ; 
but, with regard to the subject of music, both his preju- 
dices and his ignorance are visible. He not only deter- 
mines, says Dr. Burney, that the French and Fleming* 

D U B O S. 37i 

cultivated music before the Italians ; but, wholly unac- 
quainted with the compositions of other parts of Europe, 
asserted that there was no music equal to that of Lulli, only 
known and admired in France. And where, adds the doc- 
tor, will he be believed, except in that kingdom, when he 
says that foreigners allow his countrymen to understand 
time and measure better than the Italians ? He never loses 
an opportunity of availing himself of the favourable opi- 
nions of foreigners in behalf of French music, against that 
of other parts of Europe. Not only Guicciardini, but Ad- 
dison, Gravina, and Vossius, all equally unacquainted with 
the theory, practice, or history of the art, and alike de- 
prived of candour by the support of some favourite opi- 
nion or hypothesis, are pressed into the service of his 
country. If when D'Alembert wrote his Eulogy, he could 
say that Dubos was one of those men of letters who had 
more merit than fame, the converse of the proposition is 
now nearer the truth, and yet the merit of having produced 
a very agreeable book may be allowed him ; and a book, a 
great deal of which will contribute to form a just taste on 
those subjects with which he is really acquainted. 6. 
" Histoire critique de 1'etablissment de la monarchic Fran- 
oise dans les Gaules," Paris, 1734, 3 vols. 4to. Profiting 
by some criticisms on this work from the pen of M. Hoff- 
man, professor of history at Wittemberg, he left for pub- 
lication a corrected edition, which appeared in 1743, 2 
vols. 4to. Besides these, he published a translation in 
French prose, of part of Addison's Cato, and some dis- 
courses held in the French academy. 1 

DU BOURG (ANNE or ANNAS), one of the martyrs to 
the cause of the protestant religion in France, in the six- 
teenth century, was a native of Auvergne, sou to Stephen 
du Bourg, comptroller general of the customs in Langue- 
doc, and brother to Anthony du Bourg, president of the 
parliament of Paris, and afterwards chancellor of France. 
He was born in 1521, designed for the church, and or- 
dained priest ; but embracing the protestant religion, was 
honoured with the crown of martyrdom. He was a man of 
great learning, especially in the law, which he taught at 
Orleans with much reputation, and was appointed coun- 
sellor-clerk to the parliament of Paris in October 1557. 
In this high station, he declared himself the protector of 

1 Moreri. Eulogy by D'Alembert. Diet. Hist. Barney's History f Mu- 
sic, vol. I!. 

B B 2 


the protestants, and endeavoured either to prevent or 
soften the punishments inflicted upon them. This alarmed 
some of Henry II. 's counsellors, who advised that monarch 
to get rid of the protestants, and told him that he should 
begin by punishing those judges who secretly favoured 
them, or others who employed their credit and recom- 
mendations to screen them from punishment. They like- 
wise suggested that the king should make his appearance 
unexpectedly in the parliament which was to be assembled 
on the subject of the Mercurials, or Checks, a kind of board 
of censure against the magistrates instituted by Charles 
VIII. and called Mercurials from the day on which they 
were to be held (Wednesday). The king accordingly came 
to parliament in June 1559, when Du Bourg spoke with 
great freedom in his defence, and went so far as to attack 
the licentious manners of the court ; on which the king 
ordered him to be arrested. On the 19th he was tried, 
and declared a heretic by the bishop of Paris, ordered to 
be degraded from the character of priest, and to be deli- 
vered into the hand of the secular power ; but the king'* 
death, in July, delayed the execution until December, 
*vhen he was again condemned by the bishop of Paris, and 
cue archbishop of Lyons, his appeals being rejected by the 
parliament. Frederick, elector Palatine, and other pro- 
testant princes of Germany, solicited his pardon, and pro- 
bably might have succeeded, had it not been for the as- 
sassination, at this time, of the president M in art, whom 
Du Bourg had challenged on his trial ; and it was not 
therefore difficult, however unjust, to persuade his perse- 
cutors that he had a hand in this assassination. He was 
accordingly hanged, and his body burnt Dec. 2O, 1559; 
leaving behind him the character of a pious and learned 
man, an upright magistrate, and a steady friend. At his 
execution he avowed his principles with great spirit ; and 
the popish biographers are forced to allow that the firm- 
ness and constancy shown by him and others, about the 
same time, tended only to " make new heretics, instead of 
intimidating the old." 1 

of Olmutz in Moravia, in the sixteenth century, was bora 
at Piltzen in Bohemia, and died Sept. 6, 1553, with the 
reputation of a pious and enlightened prelate. The func- 

1 Moreri and Diet. Hist, in Bourg. 

D U B R A W. 373 

lions of the episcopate did not prevent him from being 
ambassador in Silesia, afterwards in Bohemia, and presi- 
dent of the chamber instituted for trying the insurgents 
who had been concerned in the troubles of Smalkalde. 
Dubraw is the author of several works : the principal of 
which is a History of Bohemia in 33 books ; executed with 
fidelity and accuracy. The best editions are those of 1575, 
with chronological tables; and that of 1688, at Francfort, 
augmented with the history of Bohemia by ./Eneas Sylvius. 
The first edition of 1552 is uncommonly rare, as a small 
number only were printed for distribution among the 
author's friends. l 

JDUBY (PETER ANCHER TOBIESEN), an eminent anti- 
quary and medailist, was born in 1721 at Housseau, in the 
canton of Soleure in Switzerland, whence, at nine years of 
age, he was sent to Denmark, and entered soon after as a 
student in the university of Copenhagen. Having com- 
pleted his stud'es in that seminary, he repaired to France, 
which he considered from that moment as his adopted 
country, and entered into a Swiss regiment, in the service 
of it. In his military capacity his conduct was such as to 
merit and receive the esteem of his superior officers. At 
the battle of Fontenoy, he received two musket-shots, but 
still remained in his station, and could not be prevailed 
upon to leave the field of action, until his leg and part of 
his thigh had been carried off by a cannon-ball. Being 
thus rendered unfit for service, he was obliged to take 
refuge in the hospital for invalids, where he first resolved 
to extend his knowledge by cultivating foreign languages. 
After an obstinate pursuit of his object, which occupied all 
his thoughts, and occasioned several journies among the 
northern nations, expressly for the purpose of acquiring 
proficiency in this favourite study, he arrived at such a 
degree of eminence, as justly to merit the office of inter- 
preter to the royal library for the English, Dutch, German, 
and Flemish, as well as the Swedish, Danish, and Russian 
languages. He fulfilled the duties of this important sta- 
tion with so much probity and exactness, that the council 
of the admiralty appointed him to occupy the same func- 
tions in the maritime department; and, during the thirty- 
two years in which he filled this office, he gave repeated 
proofs of his integrity and disinterestedness. 

1 Baron Bora's Effigies Viror. erud. Bohemia). Moreri. Clement Bibl. Cu- 

$74 D U B Y. 

Possessing a mind equally unclouded by ambition and 
the love of pleasure, he employed all his leisure hours in 
the study of coins and medals, in which he acquired great 
proficiency. He began with considering and collecting 
such as had been struck during sieges, and in times of 
necessity ; a pursuit analogous to his taste, and to the pro- 
fession to which his early life had been devoted. Having 
completed this task, he undertook to form and to publish 
a more complete collection of the different species of 
money struck by the barons of France, than any that had 
hitherto appeared. In this, which may be called a na- 
tional work, not content with consulting all the authors 
who had treated on the subject, he also searched a num- 
ber of different cabinets, on purpose to verify the original 
pieces, and to satisfy himself as to their existence and 
authenticity. But while occupied in drawing up an ac- 
count of the coins of the first, second, and third race of 
the kings of France, he was snatched from his favourite 
avocations by the hand of death, Nov. 19, 1782, when his 
family were left to mourn the loss of a good husband and 
father, society to regret an estimable and a modest man, 
and the sciences to lament an able and an indefatigable 
investigator. In 1790, the works he had finished were 
published in a splendid form in 3 vols. imperial 4to, with 
many plates, at Paris, under the title, " The Works of 
the late Mr. P. A. T. Duby, &c." containing in vol. I. a 
general collection of pieces struck during sieges, or in 
times of necessity ; and in vols. II. and III. a treatise on 
the money coined by the peers, bishops, abbots, &c. of 
France. The coins in these volumes are admirably exe- 
cuted, and the whole is a strong proof of the author's skill 
in antiquities and general knowledge of every branch con- 
nected with his subject. l 

DUC ^NICHOLAS LE), a French ecclesiastic of the eigh- 
teenth century, was a priest of the diocese of Rouen, and 
vicar of St. Lawrence in that city, where his talents and 
religious conduct being conspicuous, notwithstanding his 
modesty, he was appointed to the curacy of Trouville in 
Caux, which he would have declined, had not the lord of 
that parish, and the curate of St. Lawrence, represented to 
bun the great need there was of a diligent and well-in-? 

1 Works as above. -Anal. Rev. vol. XI, 

D U C. 375 

formed ecclesiastic in that situation, not only to recover 
the inhabitants from their extreme ignorance of religion, 
but to inspire the neighbouring curates with a disposition 
for employing their time to the advantage of their flocks. 
M. le Due succeeded in these respects beyond expectation ; 
but, after having done all the good he could in his cure, 
which he called his mission, left it to the great regret of 
his parishioners, and went to Paris, where he was obliged 
to accept the vicarship of St. Paul, out of respect to M. 
Gueret, who succeeded M. Bourret, and had drawn him 
to that parish. In this situation he laboured with good 
success during fifteen years, but being interdicted by M. 
de Vintimelle, 1731, on account of his opposition to some 
of the decrees of the church, he retired to the parish of 
St. Severin, and there died, May 3, 1744. An abridg- 
ment of his life appeared in 1745, at Paris, 12mo, in which 
the following works are attributed to him : " L'Anne'e Ec- 
clesiastique," 15 vols. 12mo; an "Imitation, with Re- 
flexions, Exercises, and Prayers," 12mo; a translation of 
cardinal Bona's " Way to Heaven, and shortest Way to go 
to God," 12mo; the translation of several hymns in the 
Paris Breviary ; and part of the translation of M. de Thou, 
1 6 vols. 4to. ! 


DUCAREL (ANDREW COLTEE), an eminent English 
civilian and antiquary, was born in 1713 in Normandy; 
whence his father, who was descended from an ancient 
family at Caen in that province, came to England, soon 
after the birth of his second son James, and resided at 
Greenwich. The early rudiments of instruction he pro- 
bably received in his own country. In 1729, being at that 
time a scholar at Eton, he was three months under the 
care of sir Hans Sloaue, on account of an accident which 
deprived him of the sight of one eye. In 1731, he was 
admitted a gentleman-commoner of St. John's college, Ox- 
ford; proceeded LL. B. June 1, 1738, and LL. D. Oct. 
21, 1742; became a member of the college of Doctors 
Commons in November, 1743; and married, in 1749, 
Susanna , a worthy woman, who had been his ser- 
vant; and who survived him till Oct. 6, 1791, when she 
died in an advanced age. 

Though disappointed in his wishes of entering into holy 

1 L'Avocat's Diet Hist. 

D U C A R Z L. 

orders, he became intimately connected with the church 
He was elected commissary or official of the peculiar and 
exempt jurisdiction of the collegiate church or free chapel 
of St. Katharine, near the Tower of London, 1753; was 
appointed commissary and official of the city and diocese 
of Canterbury, by archbishop Herring, in December, 1758 ; 
and of the subdeanries of South Mailing, Pagham, and 
Terring, in Sussex, by archbishop Seeker, on the death 
of Dr. Dennis Clarke, in 1776. He was elected F. A. S. 
Sept. 22, 1737, and was one of the first fellows of the 
society nominated by the president and council on its in- 
corporation 1755. He was also elected Aug. 29, 1760, 
member of the Society of Antiquaries at Cortona; on 
which occasion he sent them a Latin letter drawn up by 
his friend the late rev. Philip Morant. He was admitted 
F. R. S. Feb. 18, 1762 ; became an honorary fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Cassel, by diploma, dated in 
November, 1778 ; and of that of Edinburgh in 1781. In 
1755, he solicited the place of sub-librarian at the Museum, 
in the room of Mr. Empsom ; but it was pre-engaged. 

The doctor's first publication, though without his name, 
was " A Tour through Normandy, described in a letter to 
a friend," 1754, 4to. This tour through part of his native 
country was undertaken, in company with Dr. Bever, in 
the summer of 1752 ; and his account of it, considerably 
enlarged, was re-published under the title of " Anglo-Nor- 
man Antiquities considered, in a Tour through part of 
Normandy, by Dr. Ducarel, illustrated with 27 copper- 
plates, 1767," fol. inscribed to Dr. Lyttelton, bishop of 
Carlisle, then president of the Society of Antiquaries. His 
lordship had first remarked, 1742, the difference between 
the mode of architectu